Skp1 prolyl 4-hydroxylase of dictyostelium mediates glycosylation-independent and -dependent responses to O2 without affecting Skp1 stability.
ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs) have a primary role in O(2) sensing in animals via modification of the transcriptional factor subunit HIF?, resulting in its polyubiquitination by the E3(VHL)ubiquitin (Ub) ligase and degradation in the 26 S proteasome. Previously thought to be restricted to animals, a homolog (P4H1) of HIF?-type PHDs is expressed in the social amoeba Dictyostelium where it also exhibits characteristics of an O(2) sensor for development. Dictyostelium lacks HIF?, and P4H1 modifies a different protein, Skp1, an adaptor of the SCF class of E3-Ub ligases related to the E3(VHL)Ub ligase that targets animal HIF?. Normally, the HO-Skp1 product of the P4H1 reaction is capped by a GlcNAc sugar that can be subsequently extended to a pentasaccharide by novel glycosyltransferases. To analyze the role of glycosylation, the Skp1 GlcNAc-transferase locus gnt1 was modified with a missense mutation to block catalysis or a stop codon to truncate the protein. Despite the accumulation of the hydroxylated form of Skp1, Skp1 was not destabilized based on metabolic labeling. However, hydroxylation alone allowed for partial correction of the high O(2) requirement of P4H1-null cells, therefore revealing both glycosylation-independent and glycosylation-dependent roles for hydroxylation. Genetic complementation of the latter function required an enzymatically active form of Gnt1. Because the effect of the gnt1 deficiency depended on P4H1, and Skp1 was the only protein labeled when the GlcNAc-transferase was restored to mutant extracts, Skp1 apparently mediates the cellular functions of both P4H1 and Gnt1. Although Skp1 stability itself is not affected by hydroxylation, its modification may affect the stability of targets of Skp1-dependent Ub ligases.
Project description:The social amoeba Dictyostelium expresses a hypoxia inducible factor-? (HIF?) type prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H1) and an ?-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Gnt1) that sequentially modify proline-143 of Skp1, a subunit of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein) class of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Prior genetic studies have implicated Skp1 and its modification by these enzymes in O(2) regulation of development, suggesting the existence of an ancient O(2)-sensing mechanism related to modification of the transcription factor HIF? by animal prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). To better understand the role of Skp1 in P4H1-dependent O(2) signaling, biochemical and biophysical studies were conducted to characterize the reaction product and the basis of Skp1 substrate selection by P4H1 and Gnt1. (1)H NMR demonstrated formation of 4(trans)-hydroxyproline as previously found for HIF?, and highly purified P4H1 was inhibited by Krebs cycle intermediates and other compounds that affect animal P4Hs. However, in contrast to hydroxylation of HIF? by PHDs, P4H1 depended on features of full-length Skp1, based on truncation, mutagenesis, and competitive inhibition studies. These features are conserved during animal evolution, as even mammalian Skp1, which lacks the target proline, became a good substrate upon its restoration. P4H1 recognition may depend on features conserved for SCF complex formation as heterodimerization with an F-box protein blocked Skp1 hydroxylation. The hydroxyproline-capping enzyme Gnt1 exhibited similar requirements for Skp1 as a substrate. These and other findings support a model in which the protist P4H1 conditionally hydroxylates Skp1 of E3(SCF)ubiquitin ligases to control half-lives of multiple targets, rather than the mechanism of animal PHDs where individual proteins are hydroxylated leading to ubiquitination by the evolutionarily related E3(VBC)ubiquitin ligases.
Project description:O(2) regulates multicellular development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium, suggesting it may serve as an important cue in its native soil environment. Dictyostelium expresses an HIF?-type prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H1) whose levels affect the O(2)-threshold for culmination implicating it as a direct O(2)-sensor, as in animals. But Dictyostelium lacks HIF?, a mediator of animal prolyl 4-hydroxylase signaling, and P4H1 can hydroxylate Pro143 of Skp1, a subunit of E3(SCF)ubiquitin-ligases. Skp1 hydroxyproline then becomes the target of five sequential glycosyltransferase reactions that modulate the O(2)-signal. Here we show that genetically induced changes in Skp1 levels also affect the O(2)-threshold, in opposite direction to that of the modification enzymes suggesting that the latter reduce Skp1 activity. Consistent with this, overexpressed Skp1 is poorly hydroxylated and Skp1 is the only P4H1 substrate detectable in extracts. Effects of Pro143 mutations, and of combinations of Skp1 and enzyme level perturbations, are consistent with pathway modulation of Skp1 activity. However, some effects were not mirrored by changes in modification of the bulk Skp1 pool, implicating a Skp1 subpopulation and possibly additional unknown factors. Altered Skp1 levels also affected other developmental transitions in a modification-dependent fashion. Whereas hydroxylation of animal HIF? results in its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, Dictyostelium Skp1 levels were little affected by its modification status. These data indicate that Skp1 and possibly E3(SCF)ubiquitin-ligase activity modulate O(2)-dependent culmination and other developmental processes, and at least partially mediate the action of the hydroxylation/glycosylation pathway in O(2)-sensing.
Project description:O(2) sensing in diverse protozoa depends on the prolyl 4 hydroxylation of Skp1 and modification of the resulting hydroxyproline with a series of five sugars. In yeast, plants, and animals, Skp1 is associated with F-box proteins. The Skp1-F-box protein heterodimer can, for many F-box proteins, dock onto cullin-1 en route to assembly of the Skp1-cullin-1-F-box protein-Rbx1 subcomplex of E3(SCF)Ub ligases. E3(SCF)Ub ligases conjugate Lys48-polyubiquitin chains onto targets bound to the substrate receptor domains of F-box proteins, preparing them for recognition by the 26S proteasome. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we found that O(2) availability was rate-limiting for the hydroxylation of newly synthesized Skp1. To investigate the effect of reduced hydroxylation, we analyzed knockout mutants of the Skp1 prolyl hydroxylase and each of the Skp1 glycosyltransferases. Proteomic analysis of co-immunoprecipitates showed that wild-type cells able to fully glycosylate Skp1 had a greater abundance of an SCF complex containing the cullin-1 homolog CulE and FbxD, a newly described WD40-type F-box protein, than the complexes that predominate in cells defective in Skp1 hydroxylation or glycosylation. Similarly, the previously described FbxA-Skp1CulA complex was also more abundant in glycosylation-competent cells. The CulE interactome also included higher levels of proteasomal regulatory particles when Skp1 was glycosylated, suggesting increased activity consistent with greater association with F-box proteins. Finally, the interactome of FLAG-FbxD was modified when it harbored an F-box mutation that compromised Skp1 binding, consistent with an effect on the abundance of potential substrate proteins. We propose that O(2)-dependent posttranslational glycosylation of Skp1 promotes association with F-box proteins and their engagement in functional E3(SCF)Ub ligases that regulate O(2)-dependent developmental progression.
Project description:The soil amoeba Dictyostelium is an obligate aerobe that monitors O(2) for informational purposes in addition to utilizing it for oxidative metabolism. Whereas low O(2) suffices for proliferation, a higher level is required for slugs to culminate into fruiting bodies, and O(2) influences slug polarity, slug migration, and cell-type proportioning. Dictyostelium expresses a cytoplasmic prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H1) known to mediate O(2)-sensing in animals, but lacks HIFalpha, a major hydroxylation target whose accumulation directly induces animal hypoxia-dependent transcriptional changes. The O(2)-requirement for culmination is increased by P4H1-gene disruption and reduced by P4H1 overexpression. A target of Dictyostelium P4H1 is Skp1, a subunit of the SCF-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases related to the VBC-class that mediates hydroxylation-dependent degradation of animal HIFalpha. Skp1 is a target of a novel cytoplasmic O-glycosylation pathway that modifies HyPro143 with a pentasaccharide, and glycosyltransferase mutants reveal that glycosylation intermediates have antagonistic effects toward P4H1 in O(2)-signaling. Current evidence indicates that Skp1 is the only glycosylation target in cells, based on metabolic labeling, biochemical complementation, and enzyme specificity studies. Bioinformatics studies suggest that the HyPro-modification pathway existed in the ancestral eukaryotic lineage and was retained in selected modern day unicellular organisms whose life cycles experience varying degrees of hypoxia. It is proposed that, in Dictyostelium and other protists including the agent for human toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii, prolyl hydroxylation and glycosylation mediate O(2)-signaling in hierarchical fashion via Skp1 to control the proteome, directly via degradation rather than indirectly via transcription as found in animals.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIF? prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts.
Project description:Skp1 is hydroxylated by an O2-dependent prolyl hydroxylase (PhyA) that contributes to O2-sensing in the social amoeba Dictyostelium and the mammalian pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. HO-Skp1 is subject to glycosylation and the resulting pentasaccharide affects Skp1 conformation in a way that influences association of Skp1 with F-box proteins, and potentially the assembly of E3(SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes that mediate the polyubiquitination of target proteins that are degraded in the 26S-proteasome. To investigate the conservation and specificity of these modifications, we analyzed proteins from the oomycete Pythium ultimum, an important crop plant pathogen. Putative coding sequences for Pythium's predicted PhyA and first glycosyltransferase in the predicted five-enzyme pathway, a GlcNAc-transferase (Gnt1), predict a bifunctional enzyme (Phgt) that, when expressed in Dictyostelium, rescued a knockout of phyA but not gnt1. Though recombinant Phgt was also unable to glycosylate Dictyostelium HO-Skp1, it could hydrolyze UDP-GlcNAc and modify a synthetic hydroxypeptide from Dictyostelium Skp1. Pythium encodes two highly similar Skp1 isoforms, but only Skp1A was efficiently hydroxylated and glycosylated in vitro. While kinetic analysis revealed no evidence for processive processing of Skp1, the physical linkage of the two activities implies dedication to Skp1 in vivo. These findings indicate a widespread occurrence of the Skp1 modification pathway across protist phylogeny, suggest that both Gnt1 and PhyA are specific for Skp1 and indicate that the second Skp1 provides a bypass mechanism for O2-regulation in Pythium and other protists that conserve this gene.
Project description:In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, a terminal step in development is regulated by environmental O(2). Prolyl 4-hydroxylase-1 (P4H1) was previously implicated in mediating the O(2) signal, and P4H1-null cells require elevated O(2) to culminate. The E3-ubiquitin ligase adaptor Skp1 is a P4H1 substrate, and here we investigate the function of PgtA, a dual function beta3-galactosyltransferase/alpha2-fucosyltransferase that contributes the 2nd and 3rd sugars of the pentasaccharide cap formed on Skp1 hydroxyproline. Although pgtA-null cells, whose Skp1 contains only a single sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or GlcNAc), show wild-type O(2) dependence of culmination, cells lacking AgtA, an alpha3-galactosyltransferase required to extend the trisaccharide, require elevated O(2) as for P4H1-null cells. Skp1 is the only detectable protein modified by purified PgtA added to pgtA-null extracts. The basis for specificity of PgtA was investigated using native Skp1 acceptor glycoforms and a novel synthetic peptide containing GlcNAcalpha1,4-hydroxy(trans)proline. Cysteine-alkylation of Skp1 strongly inhibited modification by the PgtA galactosyltransferase but not the fucosyltransferase. Furthermore, native and synthetic Skp1 glycopeptides were poorly galactosylated, not processively fucosylated, and negligibly inhibitory, whereas the fucosyltransferase was active toward small substrates. In addition, the galactosyltransferase exhibited an atypical concentration dependence on UDP-galactose. The results provide the first evidence that Skp1 is the functional target of P4H1 in O(2) regulation, indicate a gatekeeper function for the beta3-galactosyltransferase in the PgtA dual reaction, and identify an unexpected P4H1-dependent yet antagonistic function for PgtA that is reversed by AgtA.
Project description:In diverse types of organisms, cellular hypoxic responses are mediated by prolyl 4-hydroxylases that use O(2) and ?-ketoglutarate as substrates to hydroxylate conserved proline residues in target proteins. Whereas in metazoans these enzymes control the stability of the HIF? family of transcription factor subunits, the Dictyostelium enzyme (DdPhyA) contributes to O(2) regulation of development by a divergent mechanism involving hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation of DdSkp1, an adaptor subunit in E3(SCF) ubiquitin ligases. Sequences related to DdPhyA, DdSkp1, and the glycosyltransferases that cap Skp1 hydroxyproline occur also in the genomes of Toxoplasma and other protists, suggesting that this O(2) sensing mechanism may be widespread. Here we show by disruption of the TgphyA locus that this enzyme is required for Skp1 glycosylation in Toxoplasma and that disrupted parasites grow slowly at physiological O(2) levels. Conservation of cellular function was tested by expression of TgPhyA in DdphyA-null cells. Simple gene replacement did not rescue Skp1 glycosylation, whereas overexpression not only corrected Skp1 modification but also restored the O(2) requirement to a level comparable to that of overexpressed DdPhyA. Bacterially expressed TgPhyA protein can prolyl hydroxylate both Toxoplasma and Dictyostelium Skp1s. Kinetic analyses showed that TgPhyA has similar properties to DdPhyA, including a superimposable dependence on the concentration of its co-substrate ?-ketoglutarate. Remarkably, however, TgPhyA had a significantly higher apparent affinity for O(2). The findings suggest that Skp1 hydroxylation by PhyA is a conserved process among protists and that this biochemical pathway may indirectly sense O(2) by detecting the levels of O(2)-regulated metabolites such as ?-ketoglutarate.
Project description:In animals, the response to chronic hypoxia is mediated by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) that regulate the levels of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor α (HIFα). PHD homologues exist in other types of eukaryotes and prokaryotes where they act on non HIF substrates. To gain insight into the factors underlying different PHD substrates and properties, we carried out biochemical and biophysical studies on PHD homologues from the cellular slime mold, <i>Dictyostelium discoideum,</i> and the protozoan parasite, <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, both lacking HIF. The respective prolyl-hydroxylases (DdPhyA and TgPhyA) catalyze prolyl-hydroxylation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (Skp1), a reaction enabling adaptation to different dioxygen availability. Assays with full-length Skp1 substrates reveal substantial differences in the kinetic properties of DdPhyA and TgPhyA, both with respect to each other and compared with human PHD2; consistent with cellular studies, TgPhyA is more active at low dioxygen concentrations than DdPhyA. TgSkp1 is a DdPhyA substrate and DdSkp1 is a TgPhyA substrate. No cross-reactivity was detected between DdPhyA/TgPhyA substrates and human PHD2. The human Skp1 E147P variant is a DdPhyA and TgPhyA substrate, suggesting some retention of ancestral interactions. Crystallographic analysis of DdPhyA enables comparisons with homologues from humans, <i>Trichoplax adhaerens</i>, and prokaryotes, informing on differences in mobile elements involved in substrate binding and catalysis. In DdPhyA, two mobile loops that enclose substrates in the PHDs are conserved, but the C-terminal helix of the PHDs is strikingly absent. The combined results support the proposal that PHD homologues have evolved kinetic and structural features suited to their specific sensing roles.
Project description:Prolyl hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation of the E3(SCF) ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp1 affects its conformation and its interaction with F-box proteins and, ultimately, O2-sensing in the organism. Taking a reductionist approach to understand the molecular basis for these effects, a series of end-capped Thr-Pro dipeptides was synthesized, tracking the sequential post-translational modifications that occur in the protein. The conformation of the pyrrolidine ring in each compound was gauged via coupling constants ((3)JH?,H?) and the electronegativity of the C?-substituents by chemical shifts ((13)C). The equilibrium between the cis-trans conformations about the central prolyl peptide bond was investigated by integration of signals corresponding to the two species in the (1)H NMR spectra over a range of temperatures. These studies revealed an increasing preference for the trans-conformation in the order Pro < Hyp < [?-(1,4)GlcNAc]Hyp. Rates for the forward and reverse reactions, determined by magnetization transfer experiments, demonstrated a reduced rate for the trans-to-cis conversion and a significant increase in the cis-to-trans conversion upon hydroxylation of the proline residue in the dipeptide. NOE experiments suggest that the Thr side chain pushes the sugar away from the pyrrolidine ring. These effects, which depended on the presence of the N-terminal Thr residue, offer a mechanism to explain altered properties of the corresponding full-length proteins.