Gene dose influences cellular and calcium channel dysregulation in heterozygous and homozygous T4826I-RYR1 malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscle.
ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is primarily conferred by mutations within ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1). Here we address how the MHS mutation T4826I within the S4-S5 linker influences excitation-contraction coupling and resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](rest)) in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and vastus lateralis prepared from heterozygous (Het) and homozygous (Hom) T4826I-RYR1 knock-in mice (Yuen, B. T., Boncompagni, S., Feng, W., Yang, T., Lopez, J. R., Matthaei, K. I., Goth, S. R., Protasi, F., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, P. D., and Pessah, I. N. (2011) FASEB J. doi:22131268). FDB responses to electrical stimuli and acute halothane (0.1%, v/v) exposure showed a rank order of Hom ? Het ? WT. Release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry contributed to halothane-triggered increases in [Ca(2+)](rest) in Hom FDBs and elicited pronounced Ca(2+) oscillations in ?30% of FDBs tested. Genotype contributed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) (Hom > Het > WT) measured in vivo using ion-selective microelectrodes. Het and Hom oxygen consumption rates measured in intact myotubes using the Seahorse Bioscience (Billerica, MA) flux analyzer and mitochondrial content measured with MitoTracker were lower than WT, whereas total cellular calpain activity was higher than WT. Muscle membranes did not differ in RYR1 expression nor in Ser(2844) phosphorylation among the genotypes. Single channel analysis showed highly divergent gating behavior with Hom and WT favoring open and closed states, respectively, whereas Het exhibited heterogeneous gating behaviors. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding analysis revealed a gene dose influence on binding density and regulation by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and temperature. Pronounced abnormalities inherent in T4826I-RYR1 channels confer MHS and promote basal disturbances of excitation-contraction coupling, [Ca(2+)](rest), and oxygen consumption rates. Considering that both Het and Hom T4826I-RYR1 mice are viable, the remarkable isolated single channel dysfunction mediated through this mutation in S4-S5 cytoplasmic linker must be highly regulated in vivo.
Project description:Mutation T4825I in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1(T4825I/+)) confers human malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). We report a knock-in mouse line that expresses the isogenetic mutation T4826I. Heterozygous RYR1(T4826I/+) (Het) or homozygous RYR1(T4826I/T4826I) (Hom) mice are fully viable under typical rearing conditions but exhibit genotype- and sex-dependent susceptibility to environmental conditions that trigger MH. Hom mice maintain higher core temperatures than WT in the home cage, have chronically elevated myoplasmic[Ca(2+)](rest), and present muscle damage in soleus with a strong sex bias. Mice subjected to heat stress in an enclosed 37°C chamber fail to trigger MH regardless of genotype, whereas heat stress at 41°C invariably triggers fulminant MH in Hom, but not Het, mice within 20 min. WT and Het female mice fail to maintain euthermic body temperature when placed atop a bed whose surface is 37°C during halothane anesthesia (1.75%) and have no hyperthermic response, whereas 100% Hom mice of either sex and 17% of the Het males develop fulminant MH. WT mice placed on a 41°C bed maintain body temperature while being administered halothane, and 40% of the Het females and 100% of the Het males develop fulminant MH within 40 min. Myopathic alterations in soleus were apparent by 12 mo, including abnormally distributed and enlarged mitochondria, deeply infolded sarcolemma, and frequent Z-line streaming regions, which were more severe in males. These data demonstrate that an MHS mutation within the S4-S5 cytoplasmic linker of RYR1 confers genotype- and sex-dependent susceptibility to pharmacological and environmental stressors that trigger fulminant MH and promote myopathy.
Project description:Mutations in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene (RYR1) that encodes the skeletal muscle-specific intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) release channel are a cause of malignant hyperthermia (MH). In this study, we examined RYR1 mutations in a large number of North American MH-susceptible (MHS) subjects without prior genetic diagnosis.RYR1 was examined in 120 unrelated MHS subjects from the United States in a tiered manner. The ?-1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor gene (CACNA1S) was screened for 4 variants in subjects in whom no abnormality was found in ? 100 exons of RYR1.Ten known causative MH mutations were found in 26 subjects. Variants of uncertain significance in RYR1 were found in 36 subjects, 16 of which are novel. Novel variants in both RYR1 and CACNA1S were found in the 1 subject who died of MH. Two RYR1 variants were found in 4 subjects. Variants of uncertain significance were found outside and inside the hotspots of RYR1. Maximal contractures in the caffeine-halothane contracture test were greater in those who had a known MH mutation or variant of uncertain significance in RYR1 than in those who did not.The identification of novel RYR1 variants and previously observed RYR1 variants of uncertain significance in independent MHS families is necessary for demonstrating the significance of these variants for MH susceptibility and supports the need for functional studies of these variants. Continued reporting of the clinical phenotypes of MH is necessary for interpretation of genetic findings, especially because the pathogenicity of most of these genetic variants associated with MHS remains to be elucidated.
Project description:In malignant hyperthermia (MH), mutations in RyR1 underlie direct activation of the channel by volatile anesthetics, leading to muscle contracture and a life-threatening increase in core body temperature. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the associated depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) triggers sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx via store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Samples of vastus medialis muscle were obtained from patients undergoing assessment for MH susceptibility using the in vitro contracture test. Single fibers were mechanically skinned, and confocal microscopy was used to detect changes in [Ca(2+)] either within the resealed t-system ([Ca(2+)](t-sys)) or within the cytosol. In normal fibers, halothane (0.5 mM) failed to initiate SR Ca(2+) release or Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion. However, in MH-susceptible (MHS) fibers, halothane induced both SR Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion, consistent with SOCE. In some MHS fibers, halothane-induced SR Ca(2+) release took the form of a propagated wave, which was temporally coupled to a wave of Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion. SOCE was potently inhibited by "extracellular" application of a STIM1 antibody trapped within the t-system but not when the antibody was denatured by heating. In conclusion, (i) in human MHS muscle, SR Ca(2+) depletion induced by a level of volatile anesthetic within the clinical range is sufficient to induce SOCE, which is tightly coupled to SR Ca(2+) release; (ii) sarcolemmal STIM1 has an important role in regulating SOCE; and (iii) sustained SOCE from an effectively infinite extracellular Ca(2+) pool may contribute to the maintained rise in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] that underlies MH.
Project description:We explored the potential of mutant allele-specific gene silencing (ASGS) in providing therapeutic benefit in two established mouse models of the autosomal dominantly-inherited muscle disorders, Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) and Central Core Disease (CCD). Candidate ASGS siRNAs were designed and validated for efficacy and specificity on ryanodine receptor (RyR1) cDNA mini-constructs expressed in HEK293 cells using RT-PCR- and confocal microscopy-based assays. In vivo delivery of the most efficacious identified siRNAs into flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was achieved by injection/electroporation of footpads of 4-6 month old heterozygous Ryr1(Y524S/+) (YS/+) and Ryr1(I4895T/+) (IT/+) knock-in mice, established mouse models of MH with cores and CCD, respectively. Treatment of IT/+ mice resulted in a modest rescue of deficits in the maximum rate (?38% rescue) and magnitude (?78%) of ligand-induced Ca(2+) release that occurred in the absence of a change in the magnitude of electrically-evoked Ca(2+) release. Compared to the difference between the caffeine sensitivity of Ca(2+) release in FDB fibers from YS/+ and WT mice treated with SCR siRNA (EC(50): 1.1 mM versus 4.4 mM, respectively), caffeine sensitivity was normalized in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice following 2 (EC(50): 2.8 mM) and 4 week (EC(50): 6.6 mM) treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. Moreover, the temperature-dependent increase in resting Ca(2+) observed in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice was normalized to WT levels after 2 weeks of treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. As determined by quantitative real time PCR, the degree of functional rescue in YS/+ and IT/+ mice correlated well with the relative increase in fractional WT allele expression.
Project description:Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility has been attributed to a leaky sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) caused by missense mutations in RYR1 or CACNA1S, and the MH crisis has been attributed solely to massive self-sustaining release of Ca(2+) from SR stores elicited by triggering agents. Here, we show in muscle cells from MH-RyR1(R163C) knock-in mice that increased passive SR Ca(2+) leak causes an enlarged basal influx of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) that results in chronically elevated myoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) at rest. We discovered that Gd(+3) and GsMTx-4 were more effective than BTP2 or expression of the dominant-negative Orai1(E190Q) in reducing both Ca(2+) entry and [Ca(2+)]i, implicating a non-STIM1/Orai1 SOCE pathway in resetting resting [Ca(2+)]i. Indeed, two nonselective cationic channels, TRPC3 and TRPC6, are overexpressed, and [Na]i is chronically elevated in MH-RyR1(R163C) muscle cells. [Ca(2+)]i and [Na(+)]i are persistently elevated in vivo and further increased by halothane in MH-RyR1(R163C/WT) muscle. These increases are markedly attenuated by local perfusion of Gd(+3) or GsMTx-4 and completely suppressed by dantrolene. These results contribute a new paradigm for understanding MH pathophysiology by demonstrating that nonselective sarcolemmal cation channel activity plays a critical role in causing myoplasmic Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload both at rest and during the MH crisis.-Eltit, J. M., Ding, X., Pessah, I. N., Allen, P. D., Lopez, J. R. Nonspecific sarcolemmal cation channels are critical for the pathogenesis of malignant hyperthermia.
Project description:Malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease are related skeletal muscle diseases often linked to mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene, encoding for the Ca(2+) release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In humans, the Y522S RYR1 mutation is associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) and the presence in skeletal muscle fibers of core regions that lack mitochondria. In heterozygous Y522S knock-in mice (RYR1(Y522S/WT)), the mutation causes SR Ca(2+) leak and MHS. Here, we identified mitochondrial-deficient core regions in skeletal muscle fibers from RYR1(Y522S/WT) knock-in mice and characterized the structural and temporal aspects involved in their formation. Mitochondrial swelling/disruption, the initial detectable structural change observed in young-adult RYR1(Y522S/WT) mice (2 months), does not occur randomly but rather is confined to discrete areas termed presumptive cores. This localized mitochondrial damage is followed by local disruption/loss of nearby SR and transverse tubules, resulting in early cores (2-4 months) and small contracture cores characterized by extreme sarcomere shortening and lack of mitochondria. At later stages (1 year), contracture cores are extended, frequent, and accompanied by areas in which contractile elements are also severely compromised (unstructured cores). Based on these observations, we propose a possible series of events leading to core formation in skeletal muscle fibers of RYR1(Y522S/WT) mice: Initial mitochondrial/SR disruption in confined areas causes significant loss of local Ca(2+) sequestration that eventually results in the formation of contractures and progressive degradation of the contractile elements.
Project description:Previously, we have shown that lack of expression of triadins in skeletal muscle cells results in significant increase of myoplasmic resting free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](rest)), suggesting a role for triadins in modulating global intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. To understand this mechanism, we study here how triadin alters [Ca(2+)](rest), Ca(2+) release, and Ca(2+) entry pathways using a combination of Ca(2+) microelectrodes, channels reconstituted in bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), Ca(2+), and Mn(2+) imaging analyses of myotubes and RyR1 channels obtained from triadin-null mice. Unlike WT cells, triadin-null myotubes had chronically elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) that was sensitive to inhibition with ryanodine, suggesting that triadin-null cells have increased basal RyR1 activity. Consistently, BLM studies indicate that, unlike WT-RyR1, triadin-null channels more frequently display atypical gating behavior with multiple and stable subconductance states. Accordingly, pulldown analysis and fluorescent FKBP12 binding studies in triadin-null muscles revealed a significant impairment of the FKBP12/RyR1 interaction. Mn(2+) quench rates under resting conditions indicate that triadin-null cells also have higher Ca(2+) entry rates and lower sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load than WT cells. Overexpression of FKBP12.6 reverted the null phenotype, reducing resting Ca(2+) entry, recovering sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content levels, and restoring near normal [Ca(2+)](rest). Exogenous FKBP12.6 also reduced the RyR1 channel P(o) but did not rescue subconductance behavior. In contrast, FKBP12 neither reduced P(o) nor recovered multiple subconductance gating. These data suggest that elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) in triadin-null myotubes is primarily driven by dysregulated RyR1 channel activity that results in part from impaired FKBP12/RyR1 functional interactions and a secondary increased Ca(2+) entry at rest.
Project description:The skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and ryanodine receptor (RyR1) are known to engage a form of conformation coupling essential for muscle contraction in response to depolarization, referred to as excitation-contraction coupling. Here we use WT and Ca(V)1.1 null (dysgenic) myotubes to provide evidence for an unexplored RyR1-DHPR interaction that regulates the transition of the RyR1 between gating and leak states. Using double-barreled Ca(2+)-selective microelectrodes, we demonstrate that the lack of Ca(V)1.1 expression was associated with an increased myoplasmic resting [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](rest)), increased resting sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry, and decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) loading. Pharmacological control of the RyR1 leak state, using bastadin 5, reverted the three parameters to WT levels. The fact that Ca(2+) sparks are not more frequent in dysgenic than in WT myotubes adds support to the hypothesis that the leak state is a conformation distinct from gating RyR1s. We conclude from these data that this orthograde DHPR-to-RyR1 signal inhibits the transition of gated RyR1s into the leak state. Further, it suggests that the DHPR-uncoupled RyR1 population in WT muscle has a higher propensity to be in the leak conformation. RyR1 leak functions are to keep [Ca(2+)](rest) and the SR Ca(2+) content in the physiological range and thus maintain normal intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.
Project description:To identify the genetic locus responsible for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) in an Italian family, we performed linkage analysis to recognized MHS loci. All MHS individuals showed cosegregation of informative markers close to the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)) ?(1S)-subunit gene (CACNA1S) with logarithm of odds (LOD)-score values that matched or approached the maximal possible value for this family. This is particularly interesting, because so far MHS was mapped to >178 different positions on the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene but only to two on CACNA1S. Sequence analysis of CACNA1S revealed a c.4060A>T transversion resulting in amino acid exchange T1354S in the IVS5-S6 extracellular pore-loop region of Ca(V)?(1S) in all MHS subjects of the family but not in 268 control subjects. To investigate the impact of mutation T1354S on the assembly and function of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus, we expressed GFP-tagged ?(1S)T1354S in dysgenic (?(1S)-null) myotubes. Whole cell patch-clamp analysis revealed that ?(1S)T1354S produced significantly faster activation of L-type Ca(2+) currents upon 200-ms depolarizing test pulses compared with wild-type GFP-?(1S) (?(1S)WT). In addition, ?(1S)T1354S-expressing myotubes showed a tendency to increased sensitivity for caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release and to larger action-potential-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients under low (? 2 mM) caffeine concentrations compared with ?(1S)WT. Thus our data suggest that an additional influx of Ca(2+) due to faster activation of the ?(1S)T1354S L-type Ca(2+) current, in concert with higher caffeine sensitivity of Ca(2+) release, leads to elevated muscle contraction under pharmacological trigger, which might be sufficient to explain the MHS phenotype.
Project description:Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of malignant-hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) muscle is hypersensitive to Ca2+ and caffeine. To determine if an abnormal calmodulin (CaM) regulation of the SR Ca(2+)-release-channel-ryanodine-receptor complex (RYR1) contributes to this hypersensitivity, we investigated the effect of CaM on high-affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to isolated SR vesicles from normal and MHS pig skeletal muscle. CaM modulated [3H]ryanodine binding in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In the presence of maximally activating Ca2+ concentrations, CaM inhibited [3H]ryanodine binding with no differences between normal and MHS vesicles. In the absence of Ca2+, however, CaM activated [3H]ryanodine binding with a 2-fold-higher potency in MHS vesicles. Significant differences between normal and MHS tissue were observed for CaM concentrations between 50 nM and 10 microM. A polyclonal antibody raised against the central region of RYR1 specifically inhibited this activating effect of CaM without affecting the inhibition by CaM. This indicates that the central region of RYR1 is a potential binding domain for CaM in the absence of Ca2+. It is suggested that in vivo an enhanced CaM sensitivity of RYR1 might contribute to the abnormal high release of Ca2+ from the SR of MHS muscle.