ABSTRACT: The estrogen receptor (ER) mediates most of the biological effects of estrogens at the level of gene regulation by interacting through its site-specific DNA and with other coregulatory proteins. In recent years, new information regarding the dynamic structural nature of ER has emerged. The physiological effects of estrogen are manifested through ER's two isoforms, ER(?) and ER(?). These two isoforms (ER(?) and ER(?)) display distinct regions of sequence homology. The three-dimensional structures of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD) have been solved, whereas no three-dimensional natively folded structure for the ER N-terminal domain (NTD) is available to date. However, insights about the structural and functional correlations regarding the ER NTD have recently emerged. In this paper, we discuss the knowledge about the structural characteristics of the ER in general and how the structural features of the two isoforms differ, and its subsequent role in gene regulation.
Project description:Recent studies have identified a series of estrogen receptor (ER)-interacting peptides that recognize sites that are distinct from the classic coregulator recruitment (AF2) region. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of an ERalpha-specific peptide that binds to the liganded receptor in an AF2-independent manner. The 2-A crystal structure of the ER/peptide complex reveals a binding site that is centered on a shallow depression on the beta-hairpin face of the ligand-binding domain. The peptide binds in an unusual extended conformation and makes multiple contacts with the ligand-binding domain. The location and architecture of the binding site provides an insight into the peptide's ER subtype specificity and ligand interaction preferences. In vivo, an engineered coactivator containing the peptide motif is able to strongly enhance the transcriptional activity of liganded ERalpha, particularly in the presence of 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Furthermore, disruption of this binding surface alters ER's response to the coregulator TIF2. Together, these results indicate that this previously unknown interaction site represents a bona fide control surface involved in regulating receptor activity.
Project description:Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ER?. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ER? was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ER? in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ER? and a potential target in breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Estrogen signaling through estrogen receptor alpha (ER) plays a major role in endometrial cancer risk and progression, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying ER's regulatory role in endometrial cancer are poorly understood. In breast cancer cells, ER genomic binding is enabled by FOXA1 and GATA3, but the transcription factors that control ER genomic binding in endometrial cancer cells remain unknown. We previously identified ETV4 as a candidate factor controlling ER genomic binding in endometrial cancer cells, and here we explore the functional importance of ETV4. Homozygous deletion of ETV4, using CRISPR/Cas9, led to greatly reduced ER binding at the majority of loci normally bound by ER. Consistent with the dramatic loss of ER binding, the gene expression response to estradiol was dampened for most genes. ETV4 contributes to estrogen signaling in two distinct ways. ETV4 loss affects chromatin accessibility at some ER bound loci and impairs ER nuclear translocation. The diminished estrogen signaling upon ETV4 deletion led to decreased growth, particularly in 3D culture, where hollow organoids were formed and in vivo in the context of estrogen-dependent growth. These results show that ETV4 plays an important role in estrogen signaling in endometrial cancer cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) is a key oncogene in endometrial cancer. This study uncovers ETV4 as an important factor in controlling the activity of ER and the growth of endometrial cancer cells. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/6/1234/F1.large.jpg.
Project description:Oestrogens exert their physiological effects through two receptor subtypes. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the oestrogen receptor beta isoform (ERbeta) ligand-binding domain (LBD) in the presence of the phyto-oestrogen genistein and the antagonist raloxifene. The overall structure of ERbeta-LBD is very similar to that previously reported for ERalpha. Each ligand interacts with a unique set of residues within the hormone-binding cavity and induces a distinct orientation in the AF-2 helix (H12). The bulky side chain of raloxifene protrudes from the cavity and physically prevents the alignment of H12 over the bound ligand. In contrast, genistein is completely buried within the hydrophobic core of the protein and binds in a manner similar to that observed for ER's endogenous hormone, 17beta-oestradiol. However, in the ERbeta-genistein complex, H12 does not adopt the distinctive 'agonist' position but, instead, lies in a similar orientation to that induced by ER antagonists. Such a sub-optimal alignment of the transactivation helix is consistent with genistein's partial agonist character in ERbeta and demonstrates how ER's transcriptional response to certain bound ligands is attenuated.
Project description:Molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the binding affinities between the hormone 17-estradiol (E2) and different estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Previous phylogenetic analysis indicates that a whole genome duplication prior to the divergence of ray-finned fish led to two distinct ER isoforms, ER and ER, and the recent whole genome duplication in the ancestral salmonid created two ER isoforms, ER and ER. The objective of our computational studies is to provide insight into the underlying evolutionary pressures on these isoforms. For the ER subtype our results show that E2 binds preferentially to ER over ER. Tests of lineage specific N/S ratios indicate that the ligand binding domain of the ER gene is evolving under relaxed selection relative to all other ER genes. Comparison with the highly conserved DNA binding domain suggests that ER may be undergoing neofunctionalization possibly by binding to another ligand. By contrast, both ER and ER bind similarly to E2 and the best fitting model of selection indicates that the ligand binding domain of all ER genes are evolving under the same level of purifying selection, comparable to ER.
Project description:There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a molecule largely released in the environment, has detrimental effects on ecosystems and on human health. It acts as an endocrine disruptor targeting steroid hormone receptors, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), estrogen-related receptor (ERR) and androgen receptor (AR). BPA-derived molecules have recently been shown to interact with the AR N-terminal domain (AR-NTD), which is known to be largely intrinsically disordered. This N-terminal domain contains an 11 residue conserved domain that forms amyloid fibers upon oxidative dimerisation through its strictly conserved Cys240 residue. We investigate here the interaction of BPA, and other potential endocrine disruptors, with AR-NTD amyloid fibers using the WaterLOGSY NMR experiment. We observed a selective binding of these compounds to the amyloid fibers formed by the AR-NTD conserved region and glutamine homopolymers. This observation suggests that the high potency of endocrine disruptors may result, in part, from their ability to bind amyloid forms of nuclear receptors in addition to their cognate binding sites. This property may be exploited to design future therapeutic strategies targeting AR related diseases such as the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy or prostate cancer. The ability of NMR WaterLOGSY experiments to detect weak interactions between small ligands and amyloid fibers may prove to be of particular interest for identifying promising hit molecules.
Project description:Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) drives 75% of breast cancers. Stimulation of the ER by estra-2-diol forms a transcriptionally-active chromatin-bound complex. Previous studies reported that ER binding follows a cyclical pattern. However, most studies have been limited to individual ER target genes and without replicates. Thus, the robustness and generality of ER cycling are not well understood. We present a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the ER after activation, based on 6 replicates at 10 time-points, using our method for precise quantification of binding, Parallel-Factor ChIP-seq. In contrast to previous studies, we identified a sustained increase in affinity, alongside a class of estra-2-diol independent binding sites. Our results are corroborated by quantitative re-analysis of multiple independent studies. Our new model reconciles the conflicting studies into the ER at the TFF1 promoter and provides a detailed understanding in the context of the ER's role as both the driver and therapeutic target of breast cancer.
Project description:Prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy almost invariably develop castration-resistant prostate cancer. Resistance can occur when mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) render anti-androgen drugs ineffective or through the expression of constitutively active splice variants lacking the androgen binding domain entirely (e.g., ARV7). In this study, we are reporting the discovery of a novel AR-NTD covalent inhibitor 1-chloro-3-[(5-([(2S)-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl]amino)naphthalen-1-yl)amino]propan-2-ol (VPC-220010) targeting the AR-N-terminal Domain (AR-NTD). VPC-220010 inhibits AR-mediated transcription of full length and truncated variant ARV7, downregulates AR response genes, and selectively reduces the growth of both full-length AR- and truncated AR-dependent prostate cancer cell lines. We show that VPC-220010 disrupts interactions between AR and known coactivators and coregulatory proteins, such as CHD4, FOXA1, ZMIZ1, and several SWI/SNF complex proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that VPC-220010 is a promising small molecule that can be further optimized into effective AR-NTD inhibitor for the treatment of CRPC.
Project description:The role of androgen receptor (AR) in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) is well established. Competitive inhibition of the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) has been the staple of antiandrogen therapies employed to combat the disease in recent years. However, their efficacy has often been limited by the emergence of resistance, mediated through point mutations, and receptor truncations. As a result, the prognosis for patients with malignant castrate resistant disease remains poor. The amino-terminal domain (NTD) of the AR has been shown to be critical for AR function. Its modular activation function (AF-1) is important for both gene regulation and participation in protein-protein interactions. However, due to the intrinsically disordered structure of the domain, its potential as a candidate for therapeutic intervention has been dismissed in the past. The recent emergence of the small molecule EPI-001 has provided evidence that AR-NTD can be targeted therapeutically, independent of the LBD. Targeting of AR-NTD has the potential to disrupt multiple intermolecular interactions between AR and its coregulatory binding partners, in addition to intramolecular cross-talk between the domains of the AR. Therapeutics targeting these protein-protein interactions or NTD directly should also have efficacy against emerging AR splice variants which may play a role in PCa progression. This review will discuss the role of intrinsic disorder in AR function and illustrate how emerging therapies might target NTD in PCa.
Project description:Estrogens are critical hormones involved in reproduction and need to bind to estrogen receptors in target organs for biological activity. Fishes have two distinct estrogen receptor subtypes, alpha (?) and beta (?), with variable combinations of additional isoforms of each subtype dependent on the history of genome duplication within a taxon. The comparative expression patterns of estrogen receptor isoforms during the female reproductive cycle will provide important insights into the unique function and importance of each. The purpose of this study was to measure the mRNAs for the four estrogen receptor isoforms (er?1, er?2, er?1, er?2) in the liver and ovary of adult, female rainbow trout over the course of an annual reproductive cycle. The expression of estrogen receptor mRNA isoforms was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Several reproductive indices (gonadosomatic index, maximum oocyte diameter, plasma estradiol-17?, plasma vitellogenin, and ovulation) were also quantified for comparison and used in a correlation analysis to examine any inter-relationships. Of the four isoforms, the expression of er?1 was highest in the liver, and had a significant positive correlation with liver er?1 expression. Liver expression of er?2 mRNA was the lowest, but showed a significant positive correlation with maximum oocyte diameter in the ovary. The pattern of the er? isoforms in liver was one of initially elevated mRNA expression followed by a gradual decrease as reproductive development proceeded. In the ovary the er?1 isoform had the highest mRNA expression of all estrogen receptor isoforms, at the beginning of the reproductive cycle, but then decreased afterward. Both ovarian er? isoforms had a significant positive correlation with one another. In contrast, er?2 mRNA expression showed a high maximum level in the ovary near the end of the cycle along with a significant positive correlation with plasma estradiol-17? levels; the highest gonadosomatic indices, maximum oocyte diameter, and vitellogenin levels occurred then too.