XL-184, a MET, VEGFR-2 and RET kinase inhibitor for the treatment of thyroid cancer, glioblastoma multiforme and NSCLC.
ABSTRACT: XL-184 (BMS-907351), under development by Exelixis Inc and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, is a pan-tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the potential oral treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, glioblastoma multiforme and NSCLC. The prinicipal targets of XL-184 are MET, VEGFR-2 and RET, but the drug is also reported to display inhibitory activity against KIT, FLT3 and TEK. Preclinical studies demonstrated that XL-184 potently inhibited multiple receptor tyrosine kinases in various cancer cell lines and animal xenograft models, and that the drug exhibited significant oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration. A phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid malignancies indicated that XL-184 accumulated dose-dependently in the plasma and had a long terminal half-life. A phase II trial in patients with progressive or recurrent glioblastoma revealed modest but promising median progression-free survival. Toxicity and side effects for the drug have generally been of low-to-moderate severity. At the time of publication, three additional trials of XL-184 were recruiting patients, including a phase I trial in combination with standard of care in patients with glioblastoma, a phase I/II trial in combination with erlotinib in patients with NSCLC, and a phase III trial in patients with medullary thyroid cancer.
Project description:Medullary thyroid cancer is uncommon and patients typically present with advanced disease. Treatment options for patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer had been limited until recently. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have garnered increasing interest in this subset of patients. The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved cabozantinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, after promising results were shown in a large Phase III clinical trial. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacology, clinical trials, and safety data for cabozantinib and concludes with a discussion of possible future directions for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer.
Project description:Importance:Clinical outcomes for glioblastoma remain poor. Treatment with immune checkpoint blockade has shown benefits in many cancer types. To our knowledge, data from a randomized phase 3 clinical trial evaluating a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy for glioblastoma have not been reported. Objective:To determine whether single-agent PD-1 blockade with nivolumab improves survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma compared with bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this open-label, randomized, phase 3 clinical trial, 439 patients with glioblastoma at first recurrence following standard radiation and temozolomide therapy were enrolled, and 369 were randomized. Patients were enrolled between September 2014 and May 2015. The median follow-up was 9.5 months at data cutoff of January 20, 2017. The study included 57 multicenter, multinational clinical sites. Interventions:Patients were randomized 1:1 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until confirmed disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or death. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results:A total of 369 patients were randomized to nivolumab (n?=?184) or bevacizumab (n?=?185). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 23.4% (43/184; nivolumab) and 22.7% (42/185; bevacizumab), unmethylated in 32.1% (59/184; nivolumab) and 36.2% (67/185; bevacizumab), and not reported in remaining patients. At median follow-up of 9.5 months, median OS (mOS) was comparable between groups: nivolumab, 9.8 months (95% CI, 8.2-11.8); bevacizumab, 10.0 months (95% CI, 9.0-11.8); HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.83-1.30); P?=?.76. The 12-month OS was 42% in both groups. The objective response rate was higher with bevacizumab (23.1%; 95% CI, 16.7%-30.5%) vs nivolumab (7.8%; 95% CI, 4.1%-13.3%). Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were similar between groups (nivolumab, 33/182 [18.1%]; bevacizumab, 25/165 [15.2%]), with no unexpected neurological TRAEs or deaths due to TRAEs. Conclusions and Relevance:Although the primary end point was not met in this randomized clinical trial, mOS was comparable between nivolumab and bevacizumab in the overall patient population with recurrent glioblastoma. The safety profile of nivolumab in patients with glioblastoma was consistent with that in other tumor types. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02017717.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avelumab, a human Ig-G1 monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1 and approved in the USA for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, has shown antitumour activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced solid tumours in a dose-escalation phase 1a trial. In this dose-expansion cohort of that trial, we assess avelumab treatment in a cohort of patients with advanced, platinum-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:In this dose-expansion cohort of a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 study, patients with progressive or platinum-resistant metastatic or recurrent NSCLC were enrolled at 58 cancer treatment centres and academic hospitals in the USA. Eligible patients had confirmed stage IIIB or IV NSCLC with squamous or non-squamous histology, measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1), tumour biopsy or archival sample for biomarker assessment, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, among other criteria. Patient selection was not based on PD-L1 expression or expression of other biomarkers, including EGFR or KRAS mutation or ALK translocation status. Patients received infusional avelumab monotherapy 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or toxicity. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01772004; enrolment in this cohort is closed and the trial is ongoing. FINDINGS:Between Sept 10, 2013, and June 24, 2014, 184 patients were enrolled and initiated treatment with avelumab. Median follow-up duration was 8·8 months (IQR 7·2-11·9). The most common treatment-related adverse events of any grade were fatigue (46 [25%] of 184 patients), infusion-related reaction (38 [21%]), and nausea (23 [13%]). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events occurred in 23 (13%) of 184 patients; the most common (occurring in more than two patients) were infusion-related reaction (four [2%] patients) and increased lipase level (three [2%]). 16 (9%) of 184 patients had a serious adverse event related to treatment with avelumab, with infusion-related reaction (in four [2%] patients) and dyspnoea (in two [1%]) occurring in more than one patient. Serious adverse events irrespective of cause occurred in 80 (44%) of 184 patients. Those occurring in more than five patients (?3%) were dyspnoea (ten patients [5%]), pneumonia (nine [5%]), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (six [3%]). Immune-related treatment-related events occurred in 22 patients (12%). Of 184 patients, 22 (12% [95% CI 8-18]) achieved a confirmed objective response, including one complete response and 21 partial responses. 70 (38%) had stable disease. Overall, 92 (50%) of 184 patients achieved disease control (they had a confirmed response or stable disease as their best overall response). One patient was initially thought to have died from grade 5 radiation pneumonitis during the study; however, this adverse event was subsequently regraded to grade 3 and the death was attributed to disease progression. INTERPRETATION:Avelumab showed an acceptable safety profile and antitumour activity in patients with progressive or treatment-resistant NSCLC, providing a rationale for further studies of avelumab in this disease setting. FUNDING:Merck KGaA and Pfizer.
Project description:Altered cyclin-dependent kinase activity is observed in many human malignancies. Cyclin-dependent kinases that promote cell cycle progression may be promising targets in the treatment of cancer. The therapeutic effects of roniciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor for medullary thyroid cancer were investigated in the present study. Roniciclib inhibited medullary thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Roniciclib induced caspase-3 activity and contributed to apoptosis. Cell cycle progression was arrested in the G2 phase. In vivo, roniciclib treatment retarded the growth of tumors of medullary thyroid cancer xenografts. In addition, roniciclib in combination with sorafenib was more effective than either single treatment in a xenograft model. No morbidity was observed in animals treated with single roniciclib therapy and combination treatment of roniciclib and sorafenib. These data provide a rationale for clinical assessment of using roniciclib in the treatment of patients with medullary thyroid cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with elevated TSH as a drug class effect. Prior studies of vandetanib in adults with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) described an increase in levothyroxine (LT) requirement. We studied TSH, free T4, and LT dosing in children and adolescents enrolled in the phase I/II trial of vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). METHODS:Data from 13 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) and MTC were analyzed [6 M, 7 F, median age 13.0 y (9.1-17.3)] Eleven patients (85%) had undergone prior thyroidectomy and all received single-drug therapy with vandetanib for?>?6 months. Confirmed compliance with vandetanib (67-150 mg/m(2)/day) and LT was a necessary inclusion criterion. RESULTS:While on vandetanib treatment, all 11 athyerotic patients exhibited significantly increased TSH levels. The baseline TSH level was 4.37 mclU/ml (0.08 - 23.30); in comparison, the first peak TSH concentration on vandetanib was 15.70 mclU/ml (12.50 - 137.00, p?=?0.0010). The median time to reach the initial peak of elevated TSH was 1.8 months (0.3 - 9.3). Free T4 levels remained within the normal reference range. An increase from a baseline LT dose of 91 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) to 116 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) was required in order to resume normative TSH levels (p?=?0.00005), equal to an increase of 36.6% (±16.56) in the dosage of LT in mcg/day. For the 2 patients with intact thyroid glands, free T4 and TSH remained normal over a combined 6 patient years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort of pediatric MTC patients, athyreotic patients with preexisting hypothyroidism developed increased TSH and reduced free T4 during the first few months of treatment with vandetanib, necessitating an increase in LT dosage. Additional patients with normal thyroid function before treatment and intact glands (n?=?2) maintained normal thyroid function tests during treatment. Elevated TSH in athyreotic patients may be due to an indirect effect of vandetanib on the metabolism of thyroid hormone, or to altered TSH sensitivity at the pituitary. Proper recognition and management of abnormal thyroid hormone levels is critical in growing children on TKIs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00514046.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Novel rearranged in transfection (RET)-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as selpercatinib (LOXO-292) have shown unprecedented efficacy in tumors positive for RET fusions or mutations, notably RET fusion-positive NSCLC and RET-mutated medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents have not yet been described. METHODS:Analysis was performed of circulating tumor DNA and tissue in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and RET-mutation positive MTC who developed disease progression after an initial response to selpercatinib. Acquired resistance was modeled preclinically using a CCDC6-RET fusion-positive NSCLC patient-derived xenograft. The inhibitory activity of anti-RET multikinase inhibitors and selective RET TKIs was evaluated in enzyme and cell-based assays. RESULTS:After a dramatic initial response to selpercatinib in a patient with KIF5B-RET NSCLC, analysis of circulating tumor DNA revealed emergence of RET G810R, G810S, and G810C mutations in the RET solvent front before the emergence of clinical resistance. Postmortem biopsy studies reported intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity with distinct disease subclones containing G810S, G810R, and G810C mutations in multiple disease sites indicative of convergent evolution on the G810 residue resulting in a common mechanism of resistance. Acquired mutations in RET G810 were identified in tumor tissue from a second patient with CCDC6-RET fusion-positive NSCLC and in plasma from patients with additional RET fusion-positive NSCLC and RET-mutant MTC progressing on an ongoing phase 1 and 2 trial of selpercatinib. Preclinical studies reported the presence of RET G810R mutations in a CCDC6-RET patient-derived xenograft (from a patient with NSCLC) model of acquired resistance to selpercatinib. Structural modeling predicted that these mutations sterically hinder the binding of selpercatinib, and in vitro assays confirmed loss of activity for both anti-RET multikinase inhibitors and selective RET TKIs. CONCLUSIONS:RET G810 solvent front mutations represent the first described recurrent mechanism of resistance to selective RET inhibition with selpercatinib. Development of potent inhibitor of these mutations and maintaining activity against RET gatekeeper mutations could be an effective strategy to target resistance to selective RET inhibitors.
Project description:Therapeutic options for advanced, unresectable radioiodine-resistant thyroid cancers have historically been limited. Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of the various subtypes of thyroid cancer has led to increased interest in the development of targeted therapies, with potential strategies including angiogenesis inhibition, inhibition of aberrant intracellular signaling in the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, radioimmunotherapy, and redifferentiation agents. On the basis of a recent positive phase III clinical trial, the RET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor vandetanib has received FDA approval as of April 2011 for use in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer. Several other recent phase II clinical trials in advanced thyroid cancer have demonstrated significant activity, and multiple other promising therapeutic strategies are in earlier phases of clinical development. The recent progress in targeted therapy is already revolutionizing management paradigms for advanced thyroid cancer, and will likely continue to dramatically expand treatment options in the coming years.
Project description:Over the last decade, our knowledge of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes MEN2A and MEN2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) has expanded greatly. In this manuscript, we summarize how recent discoveries have enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases and led to improvements in the diagnosis and management of affected patients.We reviewed the English literature through PubMed from 2000 to the present, using the search terms medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, RET proto-oncogene, and calcitonin.Over 70 RET mutations are known to cause MEN2A, MEN2B, or FMTC, and recent findings from studies of large kindreds with these syndromes have clouded the relationship between genotype and phenotype, primarily because of the varied clinical presentation of different families with the same RET mutation. This clinical variability has also confounded decisions about the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy for MTC, the dominant endocrinopathy associated with these syndromes. A distinct advance has been the demonstration through phase II and phase III clinical trials that molecular targeted therapeutics are effective in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC.The effective management of patients with MEN2A, MEN2A, and FMTC depends on an understanding of the variable behavior of disease expression in patients with a specific RET mutation. Information gained from molecular testing, biochemical analysis, and clinical evaluation is important in providing effective management of patients with either early or advanced-stage MTC.
Project description:Oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins are molecular drivers in multiple malignancies, including a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phylogenetic proximity of the ROS1 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) catalytic domains led to the clinical repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ALK inhibitor crizotinib as a ROS1 inhibitor. Despite the antitumor activity of crizotinib observed in both ROS1- and ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, resistance due to acquisition of ROS1 or ALK kinase domain mutations has been observed clinically, spurring the development of second-generation inhibitors. Here, we profile the sensitivity and selectivity of seven ROS1 and/or ALK inhibitors at various levels of clinical development. In contrast to crizotinib's dual ROS1/ALK activity, cabozantinib (XL-184) and its structural analog foretinib (XL-880) demonstrate a striking selectivity for ROS1 over ALK. Molecular dynamics simulation studies reveal structural features that distinguish the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains and contribute to differences in binding site and kinase selectivity of the inhibitors tested. Cell-based resistance profiling studies demonstrate that the ROS1-selective inhibitors retain efficacy against the recently reported CD74-ROS1(G2032R) mutant whereas the dual ROS1/ALK inhibitors are ineffective. Taken together, inhibitor profiling and stringent characterization of the structure-function differences between the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains will facilitate future rational drug design for ROS1- and ALK-driven NSCLC and other malignancies.
Project description:Background:Primary analysis of the double-blind, phase III Efficacy of XL184 (Cabozantinib) in Advanced Medullary Thyroid Cancer (EXAM) trial demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival with cabozantinib versus placebo in patients with progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Final analysis of overall survival (OS), a key secondary endpoint, was carried out after long-term follow-up. Patients and methods:EXAM compared cabozantinib with placebo in 330 patients with documented radiographic progression of metastatic MTC. Patients were randomized (2:1) to cabozantinib (140?mg/day) or placebo. Final OS and updated safety data are reported. Results:Minimum follow-up was 42?months. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a 5.5-month increase in median OS with cabozantinib versus placebo (26.6 versus 21.1?months) although the difference did not reach statistical significance [stratified hazard ratio (HR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.12; P?=?0.24]. In an exploratory assessment of OS, progression-free survival, and objective response rate, cabozantinib appeared to have a larger treatment effect in patients with RET M918T mutation-positive tumors compared with patients not harboring this mutation. For patients with RET M918T-positive disease, median OS was 44.3?months for cabozantinib versus 18.9?months for placebo [HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.94; P?=?0.03 (not adjusted for multiple subgroup analyses)], with corresponding values of 20.2 versus 21.5?months (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.70-1.82; P?=?0.63) in the RET M918T-negative subgroup. Median treatment duration was 10.8?months with cabozantinib and 3.4?months with placebo. The safety profile for cabozantinib remained consistent with that of the primary analysis. Conclusion:The secondary end point was not met in this final OS analysis from the trial of cabozantinib in patients with metastatic, radiographically progressive MTC. A statistically nonsignificant increase in OS was observed for cabozantinib compared with placebo. Exploratory analyses suggest that patients with RET M918T-positive tumors may experience a greater treatment benefit with cabozantinib. Trial Registration Number:NCT00704730.