Regulation of local expression of cell adhesion and motility-related mRNAs in breast cancer cells by IMP1/ZBP1.
ABSTRACT: Metastasis involves tumor cell detachment from the primary tumor, and acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities. These capabilities are mediated by multiple events, including loss of cell-cell contact, an increase in focal adhesion turnover and failure to maintain a normal cell polarity. We have previously reported that silencing of the expression of the zipcode-binding protein IMP1/ZBP1 in breast tumor patients is associated with metastasis. IMP1/ZBP1 selectively binds to a group of mRNAs that encode important mediators for cell adhesion and motility. Here, we show that in both T47D and MDA231 human breast carcinoma cells IMP1/ZBP1 functions to suppress cell invasion. Binding of ZBP1 to the mRNAs encoding E-cadherin, β-actin, α-actinin and the Arp2/3 complex facilitates localization of the mRNAs, which stabilizes cell-cell connections and focal adhesions. Our studies suggest a novel mechanism through which IMP1/ZBP1 simultaneously regulates the local expression of many cell-motility-related mRNAs to maintain cell adherence and polarity, decrease focal adhesion turnover and maintain a persistent and directional motility.
Project description:ZBP1/IMP1 is a RNA binding protein that post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of a handful mRNAs, implicated in maintaining cell polarity and adhesion. We have previously shown that ZBP1 was able to inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. To determine important LncRNA for breast tumor growth and metastasis in response to IMP1 expression, LncRNA expression data were obtained from, and compared between the breast cancer cell line MDA231-IMP1 and MDA231/GFP. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from IMP1-expression（MDA231-IMP）and IMP1-nonexpression MDA231 cells（MDA231-GFP）and used for hybridization on Agilent microarrays. LncRNA expression data from MDA231-IMP were collected and compared to LncRNA expression data from MDA231-GFP. The microarray experiments and data analysis were performed at the Shanghai Biotechnology Corporation in Shanghai, China.
Project description:ZBP1/IMP1 is an mRNA binding protein that post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of a handful mRNAs, implicated in maintaining cell polarity and adhesion. We have previously shown that ZBP1 was able to inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. In the current study, we utilized orthotopic breast fat pad xenografts to further investigate the ZBP1-mediated functions in breast tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. We used microarrays to identify important gene for breast tumor growth and metastasis in response to ZBP1 expression Total RNA was extracted from breast tumor generated from ZBP1-expression and ZBP1-nonexpression MDA231 cells and used for hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain gene expression profiles from the individual tumors and identify what genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in the presence of ZBP1. The microarray experiments and data analysis were performed in 'Gene Company Limited' in Senzheng, China. G-10 and G-13, Tumors generated from MDA231/GFP cells; I-5 and I-6, tumors generated from MDA231/ZBP1-GFP cells.
Project description:Local ?-actin synthesis in growth cones of developing axons plays an important role in growth cone steering; however, the mRNA binding proteins required for this process are unknown. Here we used Zbp1/Imp1(-/)(-) mice to test the hypothesis that zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1) is required for the regulation of ?-actin mRNA transport and local translation underlying growth cone guidance. To address the biological function of ZBP1, we developed a novel in vitro turning assay with primary cortical neuron balls having axons >1 mm in length and demonstrate that growth cones of mammalian neurons exhibit protein synthesis-dependent attraction to either netrin-1 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Interestingly, this attraction is lost in Zbp1-deficient neurons. Furthermore, BDNF-stimulated ?-actin mRNA localization was attenuated in Zbp1-deficient neurons, which impaired enrichment of ?-actin protein in the growth cone. Finally, using a photoconvertible translation reporter, we found that ZBP1 is necessary for netrin-1 stimulated local translation of ?-actin mRNA in axonal growth cones. Together, these results suggest that netrin-1- and BDNF-induced growth cone attraction required ZBP1-mediated local translation of ?-actin mRNA, and therefore ZBP1 regulates protein synthesis-dependent axon guidance. Thus, mRNA binding proteins regulating local translation can control spatiotemporal protein expression in response to guidance cues and directional cell motility.
Project description:The interaction of beta-actin mRNA with zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) is necessary for its localization to the lamellipod of fibroblasts and plays a crucial role in cell polarity and motility. Recently, we have shown that low ZBP1 levels correlate with tumor-cell invasion and metastasis. In order to establish a cause and effect relationship, we expressed ZBP1 in a metastatic rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line (MTLn3) that has low endogenous ZBP1 levels and delocalized beta-actin mRNA. This leads to localization of beta-actin mRNA, and eventually reduces the chemotactic potential of the cells as well as their ability to move and orient towards vessels in tumors. To determine how ZBP1 leads to these two apparently contradictory aspects of cell behavior--increased cell motility but decreased chemotaxis--we examined cell motility in detail, both in cell culture and in vivo in tumors. We found that ZBP1 expression resulted in tumor cells with a stable polarized phenotype, and reduced their ability to move in response to a gradient in culture. To connect these results on cultured cells to the reduced metastatic ability of these cells, we used multiphoton imaging in vivo to examine tumor cell behavior in primary tumors. We found that ZBP1 expression actually reduced tumor cell motility and chemotaxis, presumably mediating their decreased metastatic potential by reducing their ability to respond to signals necessary for invasion.
Project description:Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease specifically affecting spinal motor neurons. SMA is caused by the homozygous deletion or mutation of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The SMN protein plays an essential role in the assembly of spliceosomal ribonucleoproteins. However, it is still unclear how low levels of the ubiquitously expressed SMN protein lead to the selective degeneration of motor neurons. An additional role for SMN in the regulation of the axonal transport of mRNA-binding proteins (mRBPs) and their target mRNAs has been proposed. Indeed, several mRBPs have been shown to interact with SMN, and the axonal levels of few mRNAs, such as the ?-actin mRNA, are reduced in SMA motor neurons. In this study we have identified the ?-actin mRNA-binding protein IMP1/ZBP1 as a novel SMN-interacting protein. Using a combination of biochemical assays and quantitative imaging techniques in primary motor neurons, we show that IMP1 associates with SMN in individual granules that are actively transported in motor neuron axons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IMP1 axonal localization depends on SMN levels, and that SMN deficiency in SMA motor neurons leads to a dramatic reduction of IMP1 protein levels. In contrast, no difference in IMP1 protein levels was detected in whole brain lysates from SMA mice, further suggesting neuron specific roles of SMN in IMP1 expression and localization. Taken together, our data support a role for SMN in the regulation of mRNA localization and axonal transport through its interaction with mRBPs such as IMP1.
Project description:ZBP1 (zipcode-binding protein 1, also known as IMP-1) is an mRNA regulator, functioning in mRNA localization, stability and translational control. ZBP1 is actively expressed during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis, but its expression is repressed in metastatic breast-cancer cell lines and tumors. In this article, we show that downregulation of ZBP1 expression results from its promoter methylation, an epigenetic process that remodels the chromatin structure and frequently represses gene activity. Demethylation of the ZBP1 promoter in metastatic cells reactivated ZBP1 expression, owing to restoration of the interaction of the ZBP1 promoter with beta-catenin. Loss of ZBP1 function not only increased growth ability of metastatic cells, but also promoted cell migration. We identified a number of mRNAs that were selectively associated with ZBP1 in breast-cancer cells. Many of these are involved in cell motility and in cell-cycle regulation, and displayed altered expression patterns in the absence of ZBP1. These data suggest that repression of ZBP1 deregulates its associated mRNAs, leading to the phenotypic changes of breast cancers.
Project description:ZBP1 (zipcode-binding protein 1) was originally discovered as a trans-acting factor for the "zipcode" in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the beta-actin mRNA that is important for its localization and translational regulation. Subsequently, ZBP1 has been found to be a multifunctional regulator of RNA metabolism that controls aspects of localization, stability, and translation for many mRNAs. To reveal how ZBP1 recognizes its RNA targets, we biochemically characterized the interaction between ZBP1 and the beta-actin zipcode. The third and fourth KH (hnRNP K homology) domains of ZBP1 specifically recognize a bipartite RNA element located within the first 28 nucleotides of the zipcode. The spacing between the RNA sequences is consistent with the structure of IMP1 KH34, the human ortholog of ZBP1, that we solved by X-ray crystallography. The tandem KH domains are arranged in an intramolecular anti-parallel pseudodimer conformation with the canonical RNA-binding surfaces at opposite ends of the molecule. This orientation of the KH domains requires that the RNA backbone must undergo an approximately 180 degrees change in direction in order for both KH domains to contact the RNA simultaneously. The RNA looping induced by ZBP1 binding provides a mechanism for specific recognition and may facilitate the assembly of post-transcriptional regulatory complexes by remodeling the bound transcript.
Project description:Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) require precise control of post-transcriptional RNA networks to maintain proliferation and survival. Using enhanced UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (eCLIP), we identify RNA targets of the IMP/IGF2BP family of RNA-binding proteins in hPSCs. At the broad region and binding site levels, IMP1 and IMP2 show reproducible binding to a large and overlapping set of 3' UTR-enriched targets. RNA Bind-N-seq applied to recombinant full-length IMP1 and IMP2 reveals CA-rich motifs that are enriched in eCLIP-defined binding sites. We observe that IMP1 loss in hPSCs recapitulates IMP1 phenotypes, including a reduction in cell adhesion and increase in cell death. For cell adhesion, we find IMP1 maintains levels of integrin mRNA specifically regulating RNA stability of ITGB5 in hPSCs. Additionally, we show that IMP1 can be linked to hPSC survival via direct target BCL2. Thus, transcriptome-wide binding profiles identify hPSC targets modulating well-characterized IMP1 roles.
Project description:Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) associates with both integrins and growth factor receptors in the control of cell motility and survival. Loss of FAK during mouse development results in lethality at embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) and a block in cell proliferation. Because FAK serves as both a scaffold and signaling protein, gene knock-outs do not provide mechanistic insights in distinguishing between these modes of FAK function. To determine the role of FAK activity during development, a knock-in point mutation (lysine 454 to arginine (R454)) within the catalytic domain was introduced by homologous recombination. Homozygous FAK(R454/R454) mutation was lethal at E9.5 with defects in blood vessel formation as determined by lack of yolk sac primary capillary plexus formation and disorganized endothelial cell patterning in FAK(R454/R454) embryos. In contrast to the inability of embryonic FAK(-/-) cells to proliferate ex vivo, primary FAK(R454/R454) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were established from E8.5 embryos. R454 MEFs exhibited no difference in cell growth compared with normal MEFs, and R454 FAK localized to focal adhesions but was not phosphorylated at Tyr-397. In E8.5 embryos and primary MEFs, FAK R454 mutation resulted in decreased c-Src Tyr-416 phosphorylation. R454 MEFs exhibited enhanced focal adhesion formation, decreased migration, and defects in cell polarity. Within immortalized MEFs, FAK activity was required for fibronectin-stimulated FAK-p190RhoGAP association and p190RhoGAP tyrosine phosphorylation linked to decreased RhoA GTPase activity, focal adhesion turnover, and directional motility. Our results establish that intrinsic FAK activity is essential for developmental processes controlling blood vessel formation and cell motility-polarity but not cell proliferation. This work supports the use of FAK inhibitors to disrupt neovascularization.
Project description:The migration of keratinocytes in wound healing requires coordinated activities of the motility machinery of a cell, the cytoskeleton, and matrix adhesions. In this study, we assessed the role of alpha actinin-1 (ACTN1), one of the two alpha actinin isoforms expressed in keratinocytes, in skin cell migration via a small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown approach. Keratinocytes deficient in ACTN1 exhibit changes in their actin cytoskeleton organization, a loss in front-rear polarity, and impaired lamellipodial dynamics. They also display aberrant directed motility and move slower compared with their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, they have abnormally arranged matrix adhesion sites. Specifically, the focal adhesions in ACTN1 knockdown keratinocytes are not organized as distinct entities. Rather, focal adhesion proteins are arranged in a circle subjacent to cortical fibers of actin. In the same cells, hemidesmosome proteins arrange in cat paw patterns, more typical of confluent, stationary cells, and ?4 integrin dynamics are reduced in knockdown cells compared with control keratinocytes. In summary, our data suggest a mechanism by which ACTN1 determines the motility of keratinocytes by regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and hemidesmosome proteins complexes, thereby modulating cell speed, lamellipodial dynamics, and directed migration.