Mesenchymal stem cells and cardiovascular disease: a bench to bedside roadmap.
ABSTRACT: In recent years, the incredible boost in stem cell research has kindled the expectations of both patients and physicians. Mesenchymal progenitors, owing to their availability, ease of manipulation, and therapeutic potential, have become one of the most attractive options for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, from cartilage defects to cardiac disorders. Moreover, their immunomodulatory capacity has opened up their allogenic use, consequently broadening the possibilities for their application. In this review, we will focus on their use in the therapy of myocardial infarction, looking at their characteristics, in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, as well as clinical trials.
Project description:Motor neurons (MN) degeneration is a main feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurological disorder with a progressive course. The diagnosis of ALS is essentially a clinical one. Most common symptoms include a gradual neurological deterioration that reflect the impairment and subsequent loss of muscle functions. Up-to-date ALS has no therapy that would prevent or cure a disease. Modern therapeutic strategies comprise of neuroprotective treatment focused on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory molecules. Stem cells application and gene therapy has provided researchers with a powerful tool for discovery of new mechanisms and therapeutic agents, as well as opened new perspectives for patients and family members. Here, we review latest progress made in basic, translational and clinical stem cell research related to the ALS. We overviewed results of preclinical and clinical studies employing cell-based therapy to treat neurodegenerative disorders. A special focus has been made on the neuroprotective properties of adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) application into ALS patients. Finally, we overviewed latest progress in the field of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells used for the modeling and application during neurodegeneration in general and in ALS in particular.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Reconstruction of long segmental bone defects is demanding for patients and surgeons, and associated with long-term treatment periods and substantial complication rates in addition to high costs. While defects up to 4-5 cm length might be filled up with autologous bone graft, heterologous bone from cadavers, or artificial bone graft substitutes, current options to reconstruct bone defects greater than 5 cm consist of either vascularized free bone transfers, the Masquelet technique or the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Alternatively, autologous cell transplantation is an encouraging treatment option for large bone defects as it eliminates problems such as limited autologous bone availability, allogenic bone immunogenicity, and donor-site morbidity, and might be used for stabilizing loose alloplastic implants. METHODS:The authors show different cell therapies without expansion in culture, with ex vivo expansion and cell therapy in local bone defects, bone healing and osteonecrosis. Different kinds of cells and scaffolds investigated in our group as well as in vivo transfer studies and BMC used in clinical phase I and IIa clinical trials of our group are shown. RESULTS:Our research history demonstrated the great potential of various stem cell species to support bone defect healing. It was clearly shown that the combination of different cell types is superior to approaches using single cell types. We further demonstrate that it is feasible to translate preclinically developed protocols from in vitro to in vivo experiments and follow positive convincing results into a clinical setting to use autologous stem cells to support bone healing.
Project description:For almost four decades, my work has focused on one challenge: improving the delivery and efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Working on the hypothesis that the abnormal tumor microenvironment-characterized by hypoxia and high interstitial fluid pressure--fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance, we developed an array of sophisticated imaging technologies and animal models as well as mathematic models to unravel the complex biology of tumors. Using these tools, we demonstrated that the blood and lymphatic vasculature, fibroblasts, immune cells, and extracellular matrix associated with tumors are abnormal, which together create a hostile tumor microenvironment. We next hypothesized that agents that induce normalization of the microenvironment can improve treatment outcome. Indeed, we demonstrated that judicious use of antiangiogenic agents--originally designed to starve tumors--could transiently normalize tumor vasculature, alleviate hypoxia, increase delivery of drugs and antitumor immune cells, and improve the outcome of various therapies. Our trials of antiangiogenics in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma supported this concept. They revealed that patients whose tumor blood perfusion increased in response to cediranib survived 6 to 9 months longer than those whose blood perfusion did not increase. The normalization hypothesis also opened doors to treating various nonmalignant diseases characterized by abnormal vasculature, such as neurofibromatosis type 2. More recently, we discovered that antifibrosis drugs capable of normalizing the tumor microenvironment can improve the delivery and efficacy of nano- and molecular medicines. Our current efforts are directed at identifying predictive biomarkers and more-effective strategies to normalize the tumor microenvironment for enhancing anticancer therapies.
Project description:Leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection or tissue damage plays a crucial role for the innate immune response. Chemokine-dependent signaling in immune cells is a very important mechanism leading to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is a prominent chemokine receptor on neutrophils. During the last years, several studies were performed investigating the role of CXCR2 in different diseases. Until now, many CXCR2 inhibitors are tested in animal models and clinical trials and promising results were obtained. This review gives an overview of the structure of CXCR2 and the signaling pathways that are activated following CXCR2 stimulation. We discuss in detail the role of this chemokine receptor in different disease models including acute lung injury, COPD, sepsis, and ischemia-reperfusion-injury. Furthermore, this review summarizes the results of clinical trials which used CXCR2 inhibitors.
Project description:The nature of biomedical research affords a broad range of investigational topics at the preclinical stage, not all of which may be explored in subsequent clinical studies. To provide a comprehensive perspective on the physiologic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin, this review will discuss the results of both preclinical and clinical research, summarizing data describing outcomes associated with its use.Clinical studies demonstrate an overall favorable safety profile, low risk for hypoglycemia, weight neutrality, primarily nonrenal clearance, and efficacy for glycosylated hemoglobin reduction, typically ranging from 0.6% to 0.8% depending on baseline levels. In addition to these characteristics, preclinical research on linagliptin has yielded several interesting findings such as improved wound healing, reduced hepatic fat content, decreased infarct size following myocardial infarction or intracranial stroke, and improved vascular function with decreased oxidative stress. In accordance with its preclinical profile, linagliptin is unique among available dipeptidyl peptidase-4 compounds because it does not require dose adjustment when used in patients with renal dysfunction. Reduction of albuminuria with linagliptin on top of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in both preclinical and post hoc clinical analysis serves as the foundation for ongoing clinical trials.In addition to its efficacy for glycemic control, current literature points to other potential opportunities associated with linagliptin therapy. These results warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of translational study based on findings from preclinical research. Moving forward, we can expect that future research on linagliptin and other incretin-based therapies will continue to expand their applications beyond the maintenance of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:B7x is an immune checkpoint molecule which belongs to the B7 family of ligands which includes PD-L1, PD-L2, B7-H3 and HHLA2. B7x belongs to the Immunoglobulin superfamily and its protein structure is similar to other members with a N terminus peptide, IgV and IgC like extracellular domain with four cysteine residues. Its receptor is yet to be identified. B7x inhibits T cell proliferation and expansion by IL-2 dependent and non-IL-2 dependent pathways. Even though high levels of B7x mRNA can be detected in most tissues its protein expression is highly limited suggesting significant post translational control. In vivo data, show that B7x plays an important role in limiting autoimmunity in the peripheral tissues and fine-tuning autoimmune responses. B7x is highly expressed in various cancers and in prostate cancer its expression is corelated with poorer outcomes. Local production of IL-6 and IL-10 in various cancers promotes B7x expression and tumor immune evasion. B7x is especially expressed in PD-L1 negative tumors suggesting that this may be an important method of immune evasion in these tumors. Currently drug development, targeting B7x through various mechanisms including monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates are in development in cancers and increasing B7x expression with fusion proteins in autoimmune diseases is underway.
Project description:The combination of microbubbles and ultrasound has emerged as a promising method for local drug delivery. Microbubbles can be locally activated by a targeted ultrasound beam, which can result in several bio-effects. For drug delivery, microbubble-assisted ultrasound is used to increase vascular- and plasma membrane permeability for facilitating drug extravasation and the cellular uptake of drugs in the treated region, respectively. In the case of drug-loaded microbubbles, these two mechanisms can be combined with local release of the drug following destruction of the microbubble. The use of microbubble-assisted ultrasound to deliver chemotherapeutic agents is also referred to as sonochemotherapy. In this review, the basic principles of sonochemotherapy are discussed, including aspects such as the type of (drug-loaded) microbubbles used, the routes of administration used in vivo, ultrasound devices and parameters, treatment schedules and safety issues. Finally, the clinical translation of sonochemotherapy is discussed, including the first clinical study using sonochemotherapy.
Project description:Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension and is a subset of Group 1 pulmonary hypertension (PH). PoPH is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension with or without liver disease. Significant strides in elucidating the pathogenesis, effective screening algorithms, accurate diagnoses, and treatment options have been made in past 20 years. Survival of PoPH has remained poor compared to IPAH and other forms of PAH. Recently, the first randomized controlled trial was done in this patient population and showed promising results with PAH specific therapy. Despite positive effects on hemodynamics and functional outcomes, it is unclear whether PAH specific therapy has a beneficial effect on long term survival or transplant outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of PoPH. Additionally, this review will highlight the lacunae in our current management strategy, challenges faced and will provide direction to potentially useful futuristic management strategies.
Project description:The mir-34 family was originally cloned and characterized in 2007 as a p53 target gene. Almost immediately it became clear that its major role is as a master regulator of tumor suppression. Indeed, when overexpressed, it directly and indirectly represses several oncogenes, resulting in an increase of cancer cell death (including cancer stem cells), and in an inhibition of metastasis. Moreover, its expression is deregulated in several human cancers. In 2013, a miR-34 mimic has become the first microRNA to reach phase 1 clinical trials. Here we review the miR-34 family and their role in tumor biology, and discuss the potential therapeutic applications of miR-34a mimic.
Project description:Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of genetic disorders that affect protein and lipid glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol synthesis. More than 100 different disorders have been reported and the number is rapidly increasing. Since glycosylation is an essential post-translational process, patients present a large range of symptoms and variable phenotypes, from very mild to extremely severe. Only for few CDG, potentially curative therapies are being used, including dietary supplementation (e.g., galactose for PGM1-CDG, fucose for SLC35C1-CDG, Mn2+ for TMEM165-CDG or mannose for MPI-CDG) and organ transplantation (e.g., liver for MPI-CDG and heart for DOLK-CDG). However, for the majority of patients, only symptomatic and preventive treatments are in use. This constitutes a burden for patients, care-givers and ultimately the healthcare system. Innovative diagnostic approaches, in vitro and in vivo models and novel biomarkers have been developed that can lead to novel therapeutic avenues aiming to ameliorate the patients’ symptoms and lives. This review summarizes the advances in therapeutic approaches for CDG.