C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice that were double-knockout for Crry and either C3 or factor B did not show priming, demonstrating dependence on alternative pathway activation. Colocalization of C3b/iC3b and CR3 implicated the CR3/iC3b interaction in priming. Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge overactivated primed microglia with florid expression of proinflammatory molecules, which were blocked by complement inhibition. Relevance for neurodegenerative disease is exemplified by human multiple sclerosis (MS) and by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. In human MS, microglial priming was evident in perilesional white matter, in close proximity to C3b/iC3b deposits. EAE was accelerated and exacerbated in Crry-deficient mice, and was dependent on C activation. In summary, C3-dependent microglial priming confers susceptibility to other challenges. Our observations are relevant to progression in MS and other neurological diseases exacerbated by acute insults.
Project description:Immunological tolerance between fetal allograft and mother is crucial for pregnancy establishment and maintenance; however, these mechanisms particularly those during the latter part of pregnancy have not been definitively elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and potential function of innate immunity characteristic to the middle to late pregnancy. We first characterized up-regulated proteins in decidua from day 11 pregnant (P11) mice using 2D-PAGE, followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. These analyses identified increased complement component 3 (C3) and its derivatives in P11 decidua. We then found that in the decidual tissues, C3 mRNA increased on P15 and remained high on P19. C3 is converted to C3b and then iC3b by complement component factor I (Cfi) and complement receptor 1-like protein (Crry), both of which were present in P19 placentas. In addition, iC3b proteins and its receptor CR3 (Cd11b/Cd18) in decidual and placental tissues increased toward the latter phase of pregnancy. Moreover, CR3 subunit CD11b protein was predominantly localized to spongiotrophoblast layer in the P19 placenta. Because iC3b is known to induce anti-inflammatory cytokine production, the analysis was extended to examine changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, Il12, Il10, and Tgfb1. Il12 expression decreased in P15 and P19 placenta, while high mRNA expression of Il10 and Tgfb1 was found in P19 placental tissues. Furthermore, placental Il10 and Tgfb1 mRNAs were down-regulated when pregnant mice were treated with an anti-C3 antibody, detecting C3, C3b and iC3b. These results indicated that C3 derivatives, in particular, iC3b and its receptor CR3 were up-regulated at the fetal-maternal interface, and suggest that iC3b may regulate the placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL10 and TGFB1, during the latter phase of pregnancy.
Project description:Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.
Project description:Complement activation has been implicated as contributing to neurodegeneration in retinal and brain pathologies, but its role in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited and largely incurable photoreceptor degenerative disease, is unclear. We found that multiple complement components were markedly up-regulated in retinas with human RP and the rd10 mouse model, coinciding spatiotemporally with photoreceptor degeneration, with increased C3 expression and activation localizing to activated retinal microglia. Genetic ablation of C3 accelerated structural and functional photoreceptor degeneration and altered retinal inflammatory gene expression. These phenotypes were recapitulated by genetic deletion of CR3, a microglia-expressed receptor for the C3 activation product iC3b, implicating C3-CR3 signaling as a regulator of microglia-photoreceptor interactions. Deficiency of C3 or CR3 decreased microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic photoreceptors and increased microglial neurotoxicity to photoreceptors, demonstrating a novel adaptive role for complement-mediated microglial clearance of apoptotic photoreceptors in RP. These homeostatic neuroinflammatory mechanisms are relevant to the design and interpretation of immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches to retinal degenerative disease.
Project description:The synapses between immune cells and their targets are 150?Å wide. They regulate immune cell responses (IRs) to cognate antigens. Here, I outline a potential mechanism for self-nonself discrimination based on the C3d and iC3b proteolytic fragments of complement protein C3. The proposed C3 checkpoint works through complement receptor 3 (CR3), which binds both C3d and iC3b. The CR3 conformations involved differ; the bent, cis-acting CR3 engages C3d, activating the immune cell expressing CR3; the extended, transacting CR3 conformer binds iC3b on another cell, inhibiting IRs. The CR3 complexes formed with iC3b and C3d vary greatly in size. Only bound C3d is small enough to fit within the synapse. It stimulates IRs by countering the inhibitory signals that iC3b generates at the synapse edge. The competition between C3d and iC3b dynamically determines whether or not an immune cell activates. Host cells use regulators of complement activation (RCA) to coat themselves with iC3b, silencing IRs against self by preventing synapse formation. Tumors exploit this process by overexpressing C3 and RCA to masquerade as 'super-self', with iC3b masking neoantigens. Enhancing synapse formation by specifically labeling cancer cells as nonself with targeted C3d therapeutics offers a new strategy for boosting tumor-specific immunity.
Project description:C3 glomerulopathy is a complement-mediated renal disease that is frequently associated with abnormalities in regulation of the complement alternative pathway. Mice with deficiency of factor H (Cfh(-/-)), a negative alternative pathway regulator, are an established experimental model of C3 glomerulopathy in which complement C3 fragments including iC3b accumulate along the glomerular basement membrane. Here we show that deficiency of complement receptor 3 (CR3), the main receptor for iC3b, enhances the severity of spontaneous renal disease in Cfh(-/-) mice. This effect was found to be dependent on CR3 expression on bone marrow-derived cells. CR3 also mediated renal protection outside the setting of factor H deficiency, as shown by the development of enhanced renal injury in CR3-deficient mice during accelerated nephrotoxic nephritis. The iC3b-CR3 interaction downregulated the proinflammatory cytokine response of both murine and human macrophages to lipopolysaccharide stimulation in vitro, suggesting that the protective effect of CR3 on glomerular injury was mediated via modulation of macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, CR3 has a protective role in glomerulonephritis and suggests that pharmacologic potentiation of the macrophage CR3 interaction with iC3b could be therapeutically beneficial.
Project description:The interactions of properdin with both surface-bound and fluid-phase C3 (the third component of complement) and its activation products have been investigated by using a purified preparation of the 'native' form. At physiological ionic strength, a weak interaction with cell-bound C3b (the larger activation fragment of C3) could be demonstrated. In the presence of Factor B this interaction was enhanced, and further enhancement was seen when C3bBb sites were formed on the erythrocytes. The avidities of properdin for cell-bound iC3b (the initial product of Factors I and H action on C3b) and C3b were compared at low ionic strength, with that measured for iC3b being less than that for C3b. In contrast, the affinities of properdin for fluid-phase C3b, iC3b and C3c (the larger product of Factors I and H or CR1 (the C3b receptor) action on iC3b) were all very similar, and apparently much weaker than that for cell-bound C3b. No interaction with either native C3 or, more surprisingly, C3i (haemolytically inactive C3) could be detected. Properdin also inhibited Factor I binding to, and action upon, cell-bound C3b, but did not inhibit Factor I action on fluid-phase C3b. These data permit a more detailed description of the roles of properdin in the alternative pathway of complement activation, emphasizing its importance in concentrating activation at the activating surface.
Project description:The proteins from labelled human spleen membranes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes which bind to the iC3b fragment of complement component C3 were prepared by iC3b-Sepharose chromatography in the presence of bivalent cations. Complement receptor type 3(CR3) was eluted from iC3b-Sepharose by removal of bivalent cations. Complement receptors type 1 and 2 (present in spleen but not in polymorphonuclear leucocytes) were sequentially eluted by an NaCl gradient. An additional protein of Mr 135 000 was eluted from iC3b-Sepharose under the same conditions as those used to elute CR3. Preabsorption of the starting material on an anti-(CR3 beta-subunit) antibody column before iC3b-Sepharose chromatography removed the alpha- and beta-chains of CR3 and the 135 000-Mr protein. Preabsorption with iC3b-Sepharose before the anti-(CR3 beta-subunit) antibody column showed that iC3b binds CR3 and p150,95, the smallest member of the group of three homologous proteins that share the same beta-subunit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fabry disease is characterised by the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and related glycosphingolipids in vascular endothelial cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) clears this accumulation. We analysed plasma proteome profiles before and after ERT to characterise its molecular pathology. METHODS:Two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were done using plasma samples before and after ERT in eight patients with classical Fabry disease RESULTS: After short-term ERT (4-12 months), the levels of 15 plasma proteins involved in inflammation, oxidative and ischaemic injury, or complement activation were reduced significantly. Among them, ?-actin (ACTB), inactivated complement C3b (iC3b), and C4B were elevated significantly in pre-ERT Fabry disease plasma compared with control plasma. After longer-term ERT (46-96 months), iC3b levels gradually decreased, whereas the levels of other proteins varied. The gradual reduction of iC3b was comparable to that of Gb3 levels. In addition, iC3b increased significantly in pre-ERT Fabry disease mouse plasma, and C3 deposits were notable in renal tissues of pre-enzyme replacement therapy patients. CONCLUSION:These results indicated that C3-mediated complement activation might be altered in Fabry disease and ERT might promote its stabilisation.
Project description:The complement component C3 is at the heart of the complement cascade. It is a complex protein, which generates different functional activated fragments (C3a, C3b, iC3b, C3c, C3d). C3b is a constituent of the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), binds multiple regulators, and receptors, affecting thus the functioning of the immune system. The activated forms of C3 are a target for autoantibodies. This review focuses on the discovery, disease relevance, and functional consequences of the anti-C3b autoantibodies. They were discovered about 70 years ago and named immunoconglutinins. They were found after infections and considered convalescent factors. At the end of the twentieth century IgG against C3b were found in systemic lupus erythematosus and recently in lupus nephritis, correlating with the disease severity and flare. Cases of C3 glomerulopathy and immune complex glomerulonephritis were also reported. These antibodies recognize epitopes, shared between C3(H2O)/C3b/iC3b/C3c and have overt functional activity. They correlate with low plasmatic C3 levels in patients. In vitro, they increase the activity of the alternative pathway C3 convertase, without being C3 nephritic factors. They perturb the binding of the negative regulators Complement Receptor 1 and Factor H. The clear functional consequences and association with disease severity warrant further studies to establish the link between the anti-C3b autoantibodies and tissue injury. Comparative studies with such antibodies, found in patients with infections, may help to uncover their origin and epitopes specificity. Patients with complement overactivation due to presence of anti-C3b antibodies may benefit from therapeutic targeting of C3.
Project description:The rosetting of defined C3-fragment-coated sheep erythrocytes to B-cell-enriched tonsil lymphocytes was measured. The rosetting lymphocytes were homogeneous with respect to expression of C3b, iC3b and C3d receptors. Isolation of receptors for C3 fragments from surface-radioiodinated lymphocytes by affinity chromatography on immobilized C3u, iC3b and C3d,g produced two proteins with partially overlapping specificities. A protein of 240 000 Mr, recognized by the monoclonal antibody To5 and identified as CR1 (complement receptor type 1), had affinity for C3u and iC3b. A protein of 145 000 Mr, recognized by the monoclonal antibody B2, had affinity for all three C3 fragments. Inhibition of rosetting by antibodies to these proteins indicates that CR1 is responsible for C3b-mediated rosetting and that the 145000-Mr receptor (CR2) is responsible for C3d-mediated rosetting. Partial inhibition by both anti-CR1 and anti-CR2 antibodies of iC3b-mediated rosetting indicates that both receptors are involved in iC3b-mediated rosetting. No other protein appears to be involved in tonsil B-cell rosetting to C3-fragment-coated cells. A method for preparing CR2 from tonsil lymphocytes based on affinity chromatography on C3d,g-Sepharose has been developed. Forty tonsil pairs (2 X 10(10) B-cells) yield about 40 micrograms of pure protein equivalent to a purification of 6500-fold from a detergent extract.