Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.
ABSTRACT: Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (? 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates.
Project description:Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. was discovered in soil from the floodplain of a small river in the Krueger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Furthermore, we supplemented the data on N. (N.) spectabilis by reinvestigating the preparations deposited in the British Museum of Natural History. Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea is a very conspicuous ciliate because it has an average size of 330 × 120 ?m and is golden yellow due to the orange-coloured cytoplasm and citrine cortical granules. Further main characteristics include the semirigid body; the urostylid cirral pattern with a distinct corona of frontal and pseudobuccal cirri both originating from the midventral rows; multiple anterior fragmentation of dorsal kineties 1-3; multiple posterior fragmentation of kinety 3, commencing with an unique whirl of kinetofragments; three caudal cirri; an oxytrichid/cyrtohymenid oral apparatus with polystichad paroral membrane and buccal depression; a single oral primordium developing along the transverse cirral row; and an oxytrichid 18S rDNA. These peculiarities are used to establish the new oxytrichid family Neokeronopsidae, the new subgenus Afrokeronopsis, and the new species N. (A.) aurea. Further, these features confirm the CEUU hypothesis, i.e., convergent evolution of a midventral cirral pattern in urostylid and oxytrichid hypotrichs; additionally, N. (A.) aurea is the first (semi)rigid hypotrich with cortical granules and the second one with midventral rows, breaking the granule and flexibility dogmas. These and other observations show that the phylogeny of the hypotrichs is full of convergences. Thus, only a combined effort of classical and molecular phylogeneticists will provide the data needed for a natural classification. Based on the CEUU hypothesis, the molecular data, and literature evidence, we suggest that midventral oxytrichids should be ranked as distinct families; accordingly, we establish a further new family, the Uroleptidae, which forms a distinct clade within the oxytrichid molecular trees. Neokeronopsis is possibly related to Pattersoniella because it has the same special mode of forming the buccal cirri and possesses a buccal depression found also in Steinia, a close relative of Pattersoniella. The large size and conspicuous colour make N. (A.) aurea a biogeographic flagship possibly confined to Africa or Gondwana, while Neokeronopsis (N.) spectabilis (Kahl, 1932) is an Eurasian flagship.
Project description:We investigated the morphology, phylogeny of the 18S rDNA, and pH response of Oxytricha acidotolerans sp. nov. and Urosomoida sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) isolated from two chemically similar acid mining lakes (pH~2.6) located at Langau, Austria, and in Lusatia, Germany. Oxytricha acidotolerans sp. nov. from Langau has 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri but a very indistinct kinety 3 fragmentation so that the assignment to Oxytricha is uncertain. The somewhat smaller species from Lusatia has a highly variable cirral pattern and the dorsal kineties arranged in the Urosomoida pattern and is, therefore, preliminary designated as Urosomoida sp. The pH response was measured as ciliate growth rates in laboratory experiments at pH ranging from 2.5 to 7.0. Our hypothesis was that the shape of the pH reaction norm would not differ between these closely related (3% difference in their SSU rDNA) species. Results revealed a broad pH niche for O. acidotolerans, with growth rates peaking at moderately acidic conditions (pH 5.2). Cyst formation was positively and linearly related to pH. Urosomoida sp. was more sensitive to pH and did not survive at circumneutral pH. Accordingly, we reject our hypothesis that similar habitats would harbour ciliate species with virtually identical pH reaction norm.
Project description:Morphology and divisional morphogenesis of the hypotrich ciliate Apoamphisiella vernalis are investigated based on two populations from Brazil. Typical specimens of A. vernalis replicates its ventral ciliature from six fronto-ventral-transverse (FVT) anlagen independently formed for proter and opisthe, plus one or more short anlagen located between IV and V, which form surplus transverse cirri. Dorsal morphogenesis occurs as in typical oxytrichid dorsomarginalians, viz., with formation of three anlagen and fragmentation of the rightmost one. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed near anterior end of right marginal cirral row anlagen. Various anomalous specimens exhibiting more than two long ventral rows were found, which are explained by increasing the number of FVT anlagen and/or the number of cirri produced by anlagen. Comparative ontogeny and phylogenetic analyses based on the 18S rDNA reveal that Apoamphisiella vernalis is closely affine to North American and European strains of the Paraurostyla weissei complex. Their reduced genetic distances and conspicuous morphological variability show that both genera can overlap, which implies the necessity of re-evaluating the contextual relevance of some morphological characters commonly used for genus-level separation within hypotrich taxa.
Project description:Pollution after oil spill represents extreme habitat for survival and is a major concern for loss of species diversity in the affected area. In this study, we investigated soil samples collected from a petrochemical industry, Ulsan, South Korea. The soil was in the phase of recovery from the contamination of crude oil spill. Detailed investigation, based on morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogenetic methods, resulted in discovery of a novel hypotrich ciliate, i.e., Metasterkiella koreana n. gen., n. sp., which is morphologically characterized by a semirigid body, undulating membranes in Oxytricha pattern, 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri with cirrus V/3 placed posteriorly, one right and one left row of marginal cirri, four dorsal kineties, two dorsomarginal rows, and caudal cirri at the end of dorsal kineties 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, during ontogenesis, formation of three common anlagen for the proter and the opisthe and involvement of cirrus V/3 in anlagen formation was observed. The dorsal ontogenesis was typical of oxytrichids, i.e., simple fragmentation of dorsal kinety 3 and formation of dorsomarginal rows close to the right marginal row. The new species was found to be similar with Sterkiella subtropica, except for some minor differences in morphometry, and at gene level with only one base pair difference. In phylogenetic analyses, based on SSU rRNA gene sequence, M. koreana cluster in a clade away from Sterkiella species, which could be explained by the differences in the morphogenetic pattern between these two genera. It is proposed that S. subtropica probably belongs to Metasterkiella; however, we do not perform changes and wait for the reinvestigation of its morphogenetic pattern.
Project description:Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the "core urostyloids" are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009.
Project description:Naoto Jimi, Danny Eibye-Jacobsen, and Sergio I. Salazar-Vallejo (2018) Elisesione imajimai sp. nov. is newly described based on specimens collected in Sagami Bay, Japan, at a depth of 150-250 m. This new species resembles E. problematica (Wesenberg-Lund, 1950) from Iceland, but differs because in E. imajimai sp. nov. the ventral cirri surpass the tips of the neurochaetal lobes, reaching to the medial part of the neurochaetal bundle; the palps are 1/2-4/5 as long as the antennae; the aciculae are pale brownish; and the dorsal integument shows 9-10 transverse wrinkles per segment, whereas in E. problematica the ventral cirri hardly reach the tips of the neurochaetal lobes; the palps are as long as the antennae; the aciculae are black; and there are 15 transverse wrinkles per segment. A morphological redescription of E. problematica based on its type material and a revised key to identify species in the genus are also provided. A phylogenetic analysis based upon four genes (COI, 16S, 18S, 28S) confirms its position within Hesionini.
Project description:Ciliates comprise a diverse and ecologically important phylum of unicellular protists. One of the most specious and best-defined genera is Euplotes, which constitutes more than 70 morphospecies, many of which have never been molecularly tested. The increasing number of described Euplotes taxa emphasizes the importance for detailed characterizations of new ones, requiring standardized morphological observations, sequencing of molecular markers and careful comparison with previous literature. Here we describe Euplotes curdsi sp. nov., distinguishable by the combination of the following features: 45-65 ?m length, oval or elongated shape with both ends rounded, narrow peristome with 25-34 adoral membranelles, conspicuous paroral membrane, double-eurystomus dorsal argyrome type, 6-7 dorsolateral kineties and 10 frontoventral cirri. Three populations of the novel species have been found in brackish and marine samples in the Mediterranean and the White Sea. We provide the SSU rRNA gene sequences of these populations, and an updated phylogeny of the genus Euplotes. Using the molecular phylogenetic tree, we inferred aspects of the biogeographical history of the genus and the evolution of its most important taxonomic characters in order to provide a frame for future descriptions. Ultimately, these data reveal recurrent trends of freshwater invasion and highlight the dynamic, yet convergent, morphological evolution of Euplotes.
Project description:A hypotrichous ciliate, Paracladotricha salina n. g., n. sp., was discovered in hypersaline waters (salinity about 80‰) from Qingdao, China. Its morphology and some major ontogenetic stages were studied and the phylogenetic position was estimated using standard methods. Paracladotricha salina is characterized by a flexible, more or less slender body (size 50-120 × 20-35 μm), a gonostomatid oral apparatus, one short and two long frontoventral rows, four macronuclear nodules, almost completely reduced dorsal kineties 1-3, and a loss of several parts of the ciliature, namely, the slightly shortened ciliary row of the adoral membranelles, the paroral, and the buccal, the postoral and pretransverse ventral, the transverse, and the caudal cirri. The ontogenesis is rather simple: anlage II of both filial products and anlage III of the opisthe originate de novo, while anlagen IV and V are formed within the parental rows. This combination of features requires the establishment of a new genus, Paracladotricha, which is, according to the morphological data, closely related to Schmidingerothrix and Cladotricha. The small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced, indicating that P. salina is, as also demonstrated by the oral apparatus, a member of the gonostomatids. We provide a first, vague hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships of the Gonostomatidae, Cladotrichidae, and Schmidingerotrichidae. However, since molecular data of the type species of these higher taxa are lacking, their validity and relationships remain obscure.
Project description:The phylogenetic position of Saccharomycodes sinensis has been debated by yeast taxonomists. In this study, a multigene phylogenetic analysis based on four regions, namely the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) and translation elongation factor 1-? gene (EF1-?), were performed to address the phylogenetic placement of S. sinensis. Our result indicated that S. sinensis belongs to Saccharomycetaceae instead of Saccharomycodaceae, and forms a single species lineage divergent from the other genera within Saccharomycetaceae. Yueomyces gen. nov. (MycoBank No. MB 811648) is proposed in the Saccharomycetaceae with Y. sinensis comb. nov. (MycoBank No. MB 811649, type strain CGMCC 2.01395T = IFO 10111T = CBS 7075T) as the type species.
Project description:Tintinnid ciliates have traditionally been described and classified exclusively based on their lorica features. Although information on the cell characters is urgently needed for a natural classification, more molecular than cytological data has been accumulated over recent years. Apparently, the tintinnids developed in the marine environment and entered freshwater several times independently. Typical freshwater tintinnids belong to the genera Tintinnidium and Membranicola. The species are comparatively well-known regarding their morphology and characterised by two unusual de novo originating ciliary rows, the ventral organelles. In contrast, the cell features in the marine/brackish Tintinnidium species, specifically their somatic ciliary patterns, are insufficiently known or not known at all. Therefore, the morphology of a common marine/brackish representative, Tintinnidium mucicola, is redescribed based on live observation and protargol-stained material. Furthermore, biogeographical and autecological data of the species are compiled from literature and own records. The phylogenetic relationships of T. mucicola are inferred and the diversity of the family Tintinnidiidae is assessed from 18S rDNA sequences. The study shows that T. mucicola is not only molecularly distinct, but also characterised by many plesiomorphic features, for instance, it does not possess a verifiable homologue to the ventral organelles. Hence, a new genus, Antetintinnidium nov. gen., is established for T. mucicola. The new insights into the diversity of Tintinnidiidae shed light on the early evolution of tintinnids and might provide clues on their adaptions to freshwater.