Modification of the early gene enhancer-promoter improves the oncolytic potency of adenovirus 11.
ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) have several shortcomings, including the downregulation of its receptor in cancer cells, high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies and hepatotoxicity. Another adenoviral serotype, Ad11, could overcome these obstacles. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines express higher levels of the Ad11 receptor CD46, resulting in much better infectivity than Ad5. Surprisingly, only 36% (9/25) of the cell lines were more sensitive to Ad11- than to Ad5-mediated cytotoxicity. Investigations revealed that it was the transcription of Ad11 E1A, not CD46 expression or virus infectivity, which determined the cell's sensitivity to Ad11 killing. Ad11 E1A mRNA levels have an effect on viral DNA replication, structural protein synthesis and infectious particle production. To test the hypothesis that increased E1A transcription would lead to improved Ad11 replication in Ad5-sensitive (but Ad11-less sensitive) cells, two Ad11 mutants (Ad11-Ad5-P and Ad11-Ad5-EP) were constructed where either the E1A promoter or enhancer-promoter, respectively, was replaced by that of Ad5. Ad11-Ad5-EP demonstrated increased E1A mRNA levels and replication, together with enhanced oncolytic potency in vitro and in vivo. This effect was found in both the Ad5-sensitive and Ad11-sensitive cancer cells, broadening the range of tumors that could be effectively killed by Ad11-Ad5-EP.
Project description:Adenovirus vectors based on human serotype 5 (Ad5) have successfully been used as gene transfer vectors in many gene therapy-based approaches to treat disease. Despite their widespread application, many potential therapeutic applications are limited by the widespread prevalence of vector-neutralizing antibodies within the human population and the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce important therapeutic target cell types. In an attempt to circumvent these problems, we have developed Ad vectors based on human Ad serotype 11 (Ad11), since the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Ad11 in humans is low. E1-deleted Ad11 vector genomes were generated by homologous recombination in 293 cells expressing the Ad11-E1B55K protein or by recombination in Escherichia coli. E1-deleted Ad11 genomes did not display transforming activity in rodent cells. Transduction of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and immature dendritic cells was more efficient with Ad11 vectors than with Ad5 vectors. Thirty minutes after intravenous injection into mice that express one of the Ad11 receptors (CD46), we found, in a pattern and at a level comparable to what is found in humans, Ad11 vector genomes in all analyzed organs, with the highest amounts in liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. Neither Ad11 genomes nor Ad11 vector-mediated transgene expression were, however, detected at 72 h postinfusion. A large number of Ad11 particles were also found to be associated with circulating blood cells. We also discovered differences in in vitro transduction efficiencies and in vivo biodistributions between Ad11 vectors and chimeric Ad5 vectors possessing Ad11 fibers, indicating that Ad11 capsid proteins other than fibers influence viral infectivity and tropism. Overall, our study provides a basis for the application of Ad11 vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer and for gaining an understanding of the factors that determine Ad tropism.
Project description:Conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAds) display significant anti-tumor effects. However, the traditional adenovirus of serotype 5 (Ad5) entering cancer cells via coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) can't be utilized for bladder cancer with low expression of CAR, which limits the application of Ad5.We utilized Ad5/F11p containing the chimeric fiber gene encoding the Ad5 fiber tail domain and Ad11p fiber shaft and knob domains to construct bladder cancer-specific chimeric type viruses Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A, which can infect bladder cancer cells mediated by CD46 molecule. We carried out series of experiments in vitro to research anti-tumor effect of Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A and the interaction in combination with cisplatin.The results demonstrated Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A could infect bladder cancer cells (T24, EJ and 5637) in a CAR-independent way, and exert anti-tumor effect by blocking the cancer cells in G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin enhanced the anti-proliferative effect and increased the number of apoptotic cells compared with viruses or cisplatin alone. Ad5/F11p-PSCAE-UPII-E1A plus cisplatin could upregulate the proteins expression of p53, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, and downregulated Bcl-2 protein expression in T24, EJ and 5637 cells.We constructed a bladder cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus and provided new combination treatment strategies for bladder cancer.
Project description:Human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 3 causes respiratory infections. It is considered highly virulent, accounting for about 13% of all Ad isolates. We report here the complete Ad3 DNA sequence of 35,343 base pairs (GenBank accession DQ086466). Ad3 shares 96.43% nucleotide identity with Ad7, another virulent subspecies B1 serotype, and 82.56 and 62.75% identity with the less virulent species B2 Ad11 and species C Ad5, respectively. The genomic organization of Ad3 is similar to the other human Ads comprising five early transcription units, E1A, E1B, E2, E3, and E4, two delayed early units IX and IVa2, and the major late unit, in total 39 putative and 7 hypothetical open reading frames. A recombinant E1-deleted Ad3 was generated on a bacterial artificial chromosome. This prototypic virus efficiently transduced CD46-positive rodent and human cells. Our results will help in clarifying the biology and pathology of adenoviruses and enhance therapeutic applications of viral vectors in clinical settings.
Project description:Gene therapy with adenoviral early region gene (E1A) may enhance the susceptibility of neoplastic cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death. Our previous study developed a urothelium-specific oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) with the uroplakin II (UPII) promoter controlling E1A expression. The present study investigated whether this urothelium-specific recombinant adenovirus (Ad5-UPII-E1A) enhanced mitomycin (MMC) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) sensitization and drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. The results of the MTT assay revealed that combination therapy, using Ad5-UPII-E1A and MMC or HCPT, synergistically inhibited the viability of bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when compared with either agent alone. When cells were treated with Ad5-UPII-E1A alone they arrested in the G1 phase, but cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed S phase arrest when treated with combined therapy. Treatment with MMC or HCPT enhanced Ad5-UPII-E1A-induced apoptosis in 5,637 cells, observed by transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis revealed that MMC and HCPT enhanced the E1A expression of the Ad5-UPII-E1A vectorin a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that Ad5-UPII-E1A combined with MMC or HCPT resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in a process which involved the promotion of apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines. MMC and HCPT also promoted the oncolytic effect of Ad5-UPII-E1A. Thus, treatment using Ad5-UPII-E1A combined with MMC or HCPT may be an attractive strategy for the sensitization of bladder cancer to chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We have previously developed an oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) with chromogranin-A (CgA) promoter-controlled E1A expression, Ad[CgA-E1A], with the intention to treat neuroendocrine tumors, including carcinoids. Since carcinoids tend to metastasize to the liver it is important to fully repress viral replication in hepatocytes to avoid adenovirus-related liver toxicity. Herein, we explore miRNA-based regulation of E1A expression as a complementary mechanism to promoter-based transcriptional control.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Ad[CgA-E1A-miR122], where E1A expression is further controlled by six tandem repeats of the target sequence for the liver-specific miR122, was constructed and compared to Ad[CgA-E1A]. We observed E1A suppression and replication arrest of the miR122-detargeted adenovirus in normal hepatocytes, while the two viruses killed carcinoid cells to the same degree. Repeated intravenous injections of Ad[CgA-E1A] induced liver toxicity in mice while Ad[CgA-E1A-miR122] injections did not. Furthermore, a miR122-detargeted adenovirus with the wild-type E1A promoter showed reduced replication in hepatic cells compared to wild-type Ad5 but not to the same extent as the miR122-detargeted adenovirus with the neuroendocrine-selective CgA promoter.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>A combination of transcriptional (promoter) and post-transcriptional (miRNA target) regulation to control virus replication may allow for the use of higher doses of adenovirus for efficient tumors treatment without liver toxicity.
Project description:In the recently halted HIV type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine STEP trial, individuals that were seropositive for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) showed increased rates of HIV-1 infection on vaccination with an Ad5 vaccine. We propose that this was due to activation and expansion of Ad5-specific mucosal-homing memory CD4 T cells. To test this hypothesis, Ad5 and Ad11 antibody titers were measured in 20 healthy volunteers. Dendritic cells (DCs) from these individuals were pulsed with replication defective Ad5 or Ad11 and co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes. Cytokine profiles, proliferative capacity, mucosal migration potential, and susceptibility to HIV infection of the adenovirus-stimulated memory CD4 T cells were measured. Stimulation of T cells from healthy Ad5-seropositive but Ad11-seronegative individuals with Ad5, or serologically distinct Ad11 vectors induced preferential expansion of adenovirus memory CD4 T cells expressing alpha(4)beta(7) integrins and CCR9, indicating a mucosal-homing phenotype. CD4 T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production in response to Ad stimulation correlated with Ad5 antibody titers. However, Ad5 serostatus did not correlate with total cytokine production upon challenge with Ad5 or Ad11. Expanded Ad5 and Ad11 memory CD4 T cells showed an increase in CCR5 expression and higher susceptibility to infection by R5 tropic HIV-1. This suggests that adenoviral-based vaccination against HIV-1 in individuals with preexisting immunity against Ad5 results in preferential expansion of HIV-susceptible activated CD4 T cells that home to mucosal tissues, increases the number of virus targets, and leads to a higher susceptibility to HIV acquisition.
Project description:Although there are 55 serotypes of adenovirus (Ad) that infect humans, Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most widely studied because of the availability of commercial kits for its genetic manipulation. In fact, engineered Ad 5 is currently being used in all of the 87 global clinical trials utilizing Ad for the treatment of cancer. Unfortunately, Ad5 is one of the most seroprevalent serotypes, meaning that this virus has to confront additional immunological barriers to be effective in Ad5-immune patients. In this work, we compare Ad5 to 13 other adenoviral serotypes from species B, C, D and E for oncolytic potential in both immunodeficient mouse and immunocompetent hamster models. Our results indicate that species D Ads are not effective oncolytics against most solid tumors. Conversely, lower seroprevalent Ad6 and Ad11 had anti-cancer activity comparable to Ad5. This work strongly supports the consideration of Ad6-based oncolytic therapies for the treatment of breast, ovarian, kidney and liver tumors.
Project description:Twenty-five patients with chemotherapy refractory cancer were treated with a fully serotype 3-based oncolytic adenovirus Ad3-hTERT-E1A. In mice, Ad3 induced higher amounts of cytokines but less liver damage than Ad5 or Ad5/3. In humans, the only grade 3 adverse reactions were self-limiting cytopenias and generally the safety profile resembled Ad5-based oncolytic viruses. Patients that had been previously treated with Ad5 viruses presented longer lasting lymphocytopenia but no median increase in Ad3-specific T-cells in blood, suggesting immunological activity against antigens other than Ad3 hexon. Frequent alterations in antitumor T-cells in blood were seen regardless of previous virus exposure. Neutralizing antibodies against Ad3 increased in all patients, whereas Ad5 neutralizing antibodies remained stable. Treatment with Ad3-hTERT-E1A resulted in re-emergence of Ad5 viruses from previous treatments into blood and vice versa. Signs of possible efficacy were seen in 11/15 (73%) patients evaluable for tumor markers, four of which were treated only intravenously. Particularly promising results were seen in breast cancer patients and especially those receiving concomitant trastuzumab. Taken together, Ad3-hTERT-E1A seems safe for further clinical testing or development of armed versions. It offers an immunologically attractive alternative, with possible pharmacodynamic differences and a different receptor compared to Ad5.
Project description:Glioblastoma, the most common human brain tumor, is highly invasive and difficult to cure using conventional cancer therapies. As an alternative, adenovirus-mediated virotherapies represent a popular and maturing technology. However, the cell surface coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)-dependent infection mechanism limits the infectivity and oncolytic effects of Adenovirus type 5. To address this limitation, in this study we aimed to develop a novel oncolytic adenovirus for enhanced infectivity and therapeutic efficacy toward glioblastoma. We developed a novel genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus vector with dual capsid modifications to facilitate infection and specific cytotoxicity toward glioma cells. Modification of the adenoviral capsid proteins involved the incorporation of a synthetic leucine zipper-like dimerization domain into the capsid protein IX (pIX) of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and the exchange of the fiber knob from Ad37. The virus infection mechanism and anti-tumor efficacy of modified vectors were evaluated in both in vitro (cell) and in vivo (mouse) models. Ad37-knob exchange efficiently promoted the virus infection and replication-induced glioma cell lysis by oncolytic Ad5. We also found that gene therapy mediated by the dual-modified oncolytic Ad5 vector coupled with the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exhibited significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. This genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus provides a promising vector for future use in glioblastoma gene-viral-based therapies.
Project description:Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely and frequently used as a virus vector in cancer gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel antitumor treatment for inducing lytic cell death in tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Based on the Ad5 genome, we have generated three types of telomerase-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses: OBP-301 (Telomelysin), green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing OBP-401 (TelomeScan), and tumor suppressor p53-armed OBP-702. These viruses drive the expression of the adenoviral E1A and E1B genes under the control of the hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase-encoding gene) promoter, providing tumor-specific virus replication. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of three hTERT promoter-driven oncolytic adenoviruses against bone and soft-tissue sarcoma cells with telomerase activity. OBP-301 induces the antitumor effect in monotherapy or combination therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs via induction of autophagy and apoptosis. OBP-401 enables visualization of sarcoma cells within normal tissues by serving as a tumor-specific labeling reagent for fluorescence-guided surgery via induction of GFP expression. OBP-702 exhibits a profound antitumor effect in OBP-301-resistant sarcoma cells via activation of the p53 signaling pathway. Taken together, telomerase-specific oncolytic adenoviruses are promising antitumor reagents that are expected to provide novel therapeutic options for the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.