Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of 19 sourdoughs used for traditional/typical italian breads: interactions between ingredients and microbial species diversity.
ABSTRACT: The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads.
Project description:Sourdoughs harbor simple microbial communities usually composed of a few prevailing lactic acid bacteria species (LAB) and yeast species. However, yeast and LAB found in sourdough have been described as highly diverse. Even if LAB and yeast associations have been widely documented, the nature of the interactions between them has been poorly described. These interactions define the composition and structure of sourdough communities, and therefore, the characteristics of the final bread product. In this study, the nature of the interactions between strains of two commonly found sourdough yeast species, Kazachstania humilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdoughs has been analyzed. Population density analysis showed no evidence of positive interactions, but instead revealed neutral or negative asymmetric interaction outcomes. When in coculture, the yeasts´ population size decreased in the presence of LAB regardless of the strain, while the LAB´s population size was rarely influenced by the presence of yeasts. However, a higher maltose depletion was shown in maltose-negative K. humilis and maltose-positive obligately heterofermentative LAB cocultures compared to monocultures. In addition, tested pairs of obligately heterofermentative LAB and K. humilis strains leavened dough as much as couples of LAB and S. cerevisiae strains, while K. humilis strains never leavened dough as much as S. cerevisiae when in monoculture. Taken together, our results demonstrate that even if higher fermentation levels with increased maltose depletion were detected for K. humilis and obligately heterofermentative LAB pairs, these interactions cannot be ecologically classified as positive, leading us to rethink the established hypothesis of coexistence by facilitation in sourdoughs.
Project description:The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1?10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.
Project description:A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.
Project description:This study identified the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biota and the volatilome profile of 28 typical sourdoughs of Irpinia-a large area of the Campania region of Southern Italy where numerous breads are produced, even today, following the ancient procedures of sourdough fermentation and for which information on the microbiological and sensory profile is lacking in literature. For this purpose, microbial quality, LAB biodiversity, chemical, and technological characteristics, as well as aroma profile by solid-phase microextraction technique (SPME)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of Irpinian sourdoughs were investigated. The dominant LAB microbiota was examined by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods Polymerase Chain Reaction/Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results showed a high biodiversity in LAB community whereas the most frequent lactobacilli species recognized were Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 22% of total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (11%), Lactobacillus paralimentarius (8%), and Lactobacillus rossiae (6.5%), whereas LAB cocci could be mainly referred to Pediococcus pentosaceus (9.5% of total LAB isolates), Leuconostoc spp. (7.8%), and Weissella cibaria (7.7%). Sourdoughs were characterized by the dominance of one or two LAB species, thus proving that the environment influences the selection and the establishment of few key LAB species and that no specific correlation can be traced between microbial composition and geographical origin of the samples. Furthermore, although sourdoughs were characterized by different qualitative and quantitative volatile organic compound (VOC) compositions, no noticeable correlation between volatilome profile and geographical origin was found. However, it emerged that for more isolated locations, it was possible to find the existence of microbial biotypes and sensory profiles with a strong identity, thus revealing the existence of highly traditional and evocative bread recipes in those geographical contexts.
Project description:Hundreds of sourdoughs have been investigated in the last decades. However, many studies used a culture-dependent and/or culture-independent microbiological approach [mainly based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons], seldomly combined with a metabolite target analysis, to characterize the microbial species communities of the sourdoughs examined. Moreover, attention was mainly paid on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species. In the present study, distinct household-scale (including an artisan lambic brewery) and artisan bakery-scale backslopped sourdoughs (17 in total), obtained from different regions (Belgium, France, United Kingdom, and USA), were examined through a multiphasic approach, encompassing a culture-dependent analysis [targeting LAB, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and yeasts], different culture-independent techniques [rRNA-PCR-DGGE, metagenetics, and metagenomics (four bakery sourdoughs)], and metabolite target analysis. It turned out that the microbial species diversity of the sourdoughs was influenced by the house microbiota of the producer. Further, when the producer made use of different flours, the sourdoughs harbored similar microbial communities, independent of the flour used. AAB were only present in the Belgian sourdoughs, which might again be related to the processing environment. Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly known as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) was the prevalent LAB species of the eight sourdoughs produced by two of the three bakeries of different countries analyzed. These sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Kazachstania humilis. Moreover, the presence of Fl. sanfranciscensis was positively correlated with the production of mannitol and negatively correlated with the presence of other LAB or AAB species. Sourdoughs produced in an artisan lambic brewery were characterized by the presence of the yeast species Dekkera anomala and Pichia membranifaciens. One household sourdough was characterized by the presence of uncommon species, such as Pediococcus parvulus and Pichia fermentans. Metagenomic sequencing allowed the detection of many more LAB and AAB species than the other methods applied, which opened new frontiers for the understanding of the microbial communities involved during sourdough production processes.
Project description:Teff and teff sourdoughs are promising ingredients for bread production. Therefore, this study aimed at the characterization of spontaneous and flour-native starter culture-initiated teff sourdough productions under bakery and laboratory conditions. Backslopped laboratory and bakery teff sourdough productions were characterized by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, but were both characterized by a pH below 4.0 after five backslopping steps. The sourdough-associated Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was isolated for the first time from backslopped spontaneous teff sourdoughs. The autochthonous strain L. sanfranciscensis IMDO 150101 was tested as starter culture during laboratory teff sourdough fermentations. Its prevalence could be related to the process conditions applied, in particular the ambient temperature (below 30°C). Breads made with 20% teff sourdough (on flour basis) displayed interesting features compared with all-wheat-based reference breads. Teff sourdoughs were characterized as to their pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and microbial species composition. Representative strains of the LAB species isolated from these sourdoughs, in particular L. sanfranciscensis, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable teff sourdoughs and flavorful breads, provided they are adapted to the environmental conditions applied.
Project description:Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time.
Project description:Microbial communities are essential for the maintenance and functioning of ecosystems, including fermented food ecosystems. The analysis of food microbial communities is mainly focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while yeast diversity is less understood. Here, we describe the fungal diversity of a typical food fermented product, sourdough bread. The species diversity of 14 sourdoughs collected from bakeries located all over France was analyzed. Bakeries were chosen to represent diverse bakery practices and included bakers and farmer-bakers. Both non-culture-based (pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 amplicons) and culture-based methods were used. While both identification methods were in agreement regarding the dominant yeast species of each sourdough, the ITS1 metabarcoding analysis identified an increased number of fungal species in sourdough communities. Two third of the identified sequences obtained from sourdoughs were Saccharomycetales, mostly in the Kazachstania genus. No Saccharomycetales species was shared by all the sourdoughs, whereas five other fungal species, mainly known plant pathogens, were found in all sourdoughs. Interestingly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as "baker's yeast," was identified as the dominant species in only one sourdough. By contrast, five Kazachstania species were identified as the dominant sourdough species, including one recently described Kazachstania species, Kazachstania saulgeensis and an undescribed Kazachstania sp. Sourdoughs from farmer-bakers harbored Kazachstania bulderi, Kazachstania unispora and two newly described Kazachstania species, while sourdough from bakers mostly carried Kazachstania humilis as the dominant species. Such yeast diversity has not been found in sourdoughs before, highlighting the need to maintain different traditional food practices to conserve microbial diversity.
Project description:Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.
Project description:Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.