Intraperitoneal clearance as a potential biomarker of cisplatin after intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy: a population pharmacokinetic study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) perioperative chemotherapy with cisplatin is an interesting option in ovarian cancer treatment. A combination of cisplatin with IP epinephrine (already shown to improve IP and decrease systemic platinum (Pt) exposure) was evaluated using a population pharmacokinetic analysis. METHODS: Data from 55 patients treated with cisplatin-based IP perioperative chemotherapy with (n=26) or without (n=29) epinephrine were analysed using NONMEM. RESULTS: Epinephrine halves clearance between peritoneum and serum (IPCL) and increases the Pt central volume of distribution, IP exposure and penetration in tissue. IPCL has a better predictive value than any other parameter with respect to renal toxicity. CONCLUSION: This confirms that IPCL could be useful in assessing renal toxicity. As IPCL is also linked to tissue penetration and IP exposure, it may be proposed as biomarker. In addition to a Bayesian estimation, we propose a single-sample calculation-way to assess it. Prospective studies are needed to validate IPCL as a biomarker in this context.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is particularly aggressive once it has metastasized to the abdominal cavity (stage III). Intraperitoneal (IP) as compared to intravenous (IV) administration of chemotherapy improves survival for stage III ovarian cancer, demonstrating that concentrating chemotherapy at tumor sites has therapeutic benefit; unfortunately, IP therapy also increases toxic side effects, thus preventing its completion in many patients. The ability to target chemotherapy selectively to ovarian tumors while sparing normal tissue would improve efficacy and decrease toxicities. We have previously shown that tumor-tropic neural stem cells (NSCs) dramatically improve the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) when given intracerebrally near an orthotopic brain tumor or into a flank xenograft tumor. Here, we show that NPs either conjugated to the surface of NSCs or loaded within the cells are selectively delivered to and distributed within ovarian tumors in the abdominal cavity following IP injection, with no evidence of localization to normal tissue. IP administration is significantly more effective than IV administration, and NPs carried by NSCs show substantially deeper penetration into tumors than free NPs. The NSCs and NPs target and localize to ovarian tumors within 1 h of administration. Pt-loaded silica NPs (SiNP[Pt]) were developed that can be transported in NSCs, and it was found that the NSC delivery of SiNP[Pt] (NSC-SiNP[Pt]) results in higher levels of Pt in tumors as compared to free drug or SiNP[Pt]. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first demonstration that cells given IP can target the delivery of drug-loaded NPs.
Project description:In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), intraperitoneal (IP) administration of chemotherapy is an effective first-line treatment and may improve outcomes, compared with intravenous (IV) chemotherapy. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to compare long-term survival between propensity score-matched patients with advanced EOC receiving IP (n = 34) vs. IV (n = 68) chemotherapy. Additionally, clinical features associated with carboplatin-based (n = 21) and cisplatin-based (n = 16) IP chemotherapy were analyzed and compared with those associated with IV chemotherapy. The IP and IV chemotherapy groups had a median follow-up duration of 67 (range, 3-131) and 62 (range, 0-126) months, respectively, with no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.735) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.776). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the IV (91.2%) than in the IP (67.6%) chemotherapy group (P = 0.004) received ? 6 cycles. However, the frequency of toxic events (anemia, granulocytopenia, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, neuromuscular effects) was significantly higher in the IP than in the IV group. Within the IP group, no significant differences were observed in PFS (P = 0.533) and OS (P = 0.210) between the cisplatin-based and carboplatin-based chemotherapy subgroups. The 10-year OS was 28.6% and 49.2% in carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy groups, respectively. Toxic events (granulocytopenia, leukopenia, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, neuromuscular effects) were significantly more common in the cisplatin-based subgroup. In patients with EOC, cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy may be an acceptable alternative to IV chemotherapy regarding long-term survival, but toxicity must be addressed.
Project description:Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle.Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135mg/m(2) IV over 3h followed by cisplatin 75mg/m(2) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment.Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain.This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the impact of two different intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy regimens on progression-free survival (PFS) among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian carcinoma. METHODS:Eligible patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week with intravenous (IV) carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IV carboplatin) versus IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week with IP carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IP carboplatin) versus once every 3 weeks IV paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 over 3 hours day 1, IP cisplatin 75 mg/m2 day 2, and IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 day 8 (IP cisplatin). All participants received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks in cycles 2 to 22. RESULTS:A total of 1,560 participants were enrolled and had 84.8 months of follow-up. The median PFS duration was 24.9 months in the IV carboplatin arm, 27.4 months in the IP carboplatin arm, and 26.2 months in the IP cisplatin arm. For the subgroup of 1,380 patients with stage II/III and residual disease of 1 cm or less, median PFS was 26.9 (IV-carboplatin), 28.7 (IP-carboplatin), and 27.8 months (IP cisplatin), respectively. Median PFS for patients with stage II/III and no residual disease was 35.9, 38.8, and 35.5 months, respectively. Median overall survival for all enrolled was 75.5, 78.9, and 72.9 months, respectively, and median overall survival for stage II/III with no gross residual disease was 98.8 months, 104.8 months, and not reached. Mean patient-reported Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy neurotoxicity scores (Gynecologic Oncology Group) were similar for all arms, but the mean Trial Outcome Index of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary scores during chemotherapy were statistically worse in the IP cisplatin arm. CONCLUSION:Compared with the IV carboplatin reference arm, the duration of PFS was not significantly increased with either IP regimen when combined with bevacizumab and was better tolerated than IP cisplatin.
Project description:Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy has revived hopes during the past few years for the management of peritoneal disseminations of digestive and gynecological cancers. Nevertheless, a poor drug penetration is one key drawback of IP chemotherapy since peritoneal neoplasms are notoriously resistant to drug penetration. Recent preclinical studies have focused on targeting the aberrant tumor microenvironment to improve intratumoral drug transport. However, tumor stroma targeting therapies have limited therapeutic windows and show variable outcomes across different cohort of patients. Therefore, the development of new strategies for improving the efficacy of IP chemotherapy is a certain need. In this work, we propose a new magnetically assisted strategy to elevate drug penetration into peritoneal tumor nodules and improve IP chemotherapy. A computational model was developed to assess the feasibility and predictability of the proposed active drug delivery method. The key tumor pathophysiology, including a spatially heterogeneous construct of leaky vasculature, nonfunctional lymphatics, and dense extracellular matrix (ECM), was reconstructed in silico. The transport of intraperitoneally injected magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) inside tumors was simulated and compared with the transport of free cytotoxic agents. Our results on magnetically assisted delivery showed an order of magnitude increase in the final intratumoral concentration of drug-coated MNPs with respect to free cytotoxic agents. The intermediate MNPs with the radius range of 200-300?nm yield optimal magnetic drug targeting (MDT) performance in 5-10?mm tumors while the MDT performance remains essentially the same over a large particle radius range of 100-500?nm for a 1?mm radius small tumor. The success of MDT in larger tumors (5-10?mm in radius) was found to be markedly dependent on the choice of magnet strength and tumor-magnet distance while these two parameters were less of a concern in small tumors. We also validated in silico results against experimental results related to tumor interstitial hypertension, conventional IP chemoperfusion, and magnetically actuated movement of MNPs in excised tissue.
Project description:The platinum drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are highly utilized in the clinic and as a consequence have been extensively studied in the laboratory setting, sometimes by generating fluorophore-tagged analogs. Here, we synthesized two Pt(II) complexes containing ethane-1,2-diamine ligands linked to a BODIPY fluorophore, and compared their biological activity with previously reported Pt(II) complexes conjugated to carboxyfluorescein and carboxyfluorescein diacetate. The cytotoxicity and DNA damage capacity of Pt-fluorophore complexes was compared to cisplatin, and the Pt-BODIPY complexes were found to be more cytotoxic with reduced cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant cells. Microscopy revealed a predominately cytosolic localization, with nuclear distribution at higher concentrations. Spheroids grown from parent and resistant cells revealed penetration of Pt-BODIPY into spheroids, and retention of the cisplatin-resistant spheroid phenotype. While most activity profiles were retained for the Pt-BODIPY complexes, accumulation in resistant cells was only slightly affected, suggesting that some aspects of Pt-fluorophore cellular pharmacology deviate from cisplatin.
Project description:Selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) benefit from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (IPC). However, even after optimal cytoreduction, systemic and locoregional recurrence are common. Perioperative chemotherapy with bevacizumab (BEV) may improve the outcome of these patients.The BEV-IP study is a phase II, single-arm, open-label study aimed at patients with colorectal or appendiceal adenocarcinoma with synchronous or metachronous PC. This study evaluates whether perioperative chemotherapy including BEV in combination with CRS and oxaliplatin-based IPC results in acceptable morbidity and mortality (primary composite endpoint). Secondary endpoints are treatment completion rate, chemotherapy-related toxicity, pathological response, progression free survival, and overall survival.The BEV-IP trial is the first prospective assessment of the safety and efficacy of perioperative chemotherapy combined with anti-angiogenic treatment in patients undergoing CRS and IPC for colorectal peritoneal metastases.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02399410 EudraCT number: 2015-001187-19 (registered March 9, 2015).
Project description:Breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) is a tumour-suppressor gene associated with familial epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Reduced BRCA1 expression is associated with enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. We sought to examine the prognostic relevance of BRCA1 expression in EOC patients treated with intraperitoneal platinum/taxane.The GOG-172 was a phase III, multi-institutional randomised trial of intravenous paclitaxel and cisplatin (IV therapy) vs intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal cisplatin plus paclitaxel (IP therapy) in patients with optimally resected stage III EOC. The BRCA1 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining blinded to clinical outcome in archival tumour specimens. Slides with 10% staining were defined as aberrant and >10% as normal. Correlations between BRCA1 expression and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.Of the 393 patients, 189 tumours had aberrant expression, and 204 had normal BRCA1 expression. There was an interaction between BRCA1 expression and route of administration on OS (P=0.014) but not PFS (P=0.054). In tumours with normal BRCA1 expression, the median OS was 58 months for IP group vs 50 months for IV group (P=0.818). In tumours with aberrant BRCA1 expression, the median OS was 84 vs 47 months in the IP vs IV group, respectively (P=0.0002). Aberrant BRCA1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for better survival in women randomised to IP therapy (hazard ratio (HR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47-0.97, P=0.032). Similar survival was observed in the IV and IP patients with normal BRCA1 expression. Multivariate but not univariate modelling demonstrated that IV patients with aberrant vs normal BRCA1 expression had worse survival.Decreased BRCA1 expression is associated with a 36-month survival improvement in patients with EOC treated with IP chemotherapy. Although these results merit validation in future studies, the results suggest that decreased BRCA1 expression predicts for improved response to cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel.
Project description:Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin) are widely used therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Even though the platinum (Pt)-drugs are routinely used clinically, a clear picture of their distribution within tumor tissues is lacking. The current methods to image the distribution of Pt drugs are limited and do not enable the discrimination of the drug from its metabolites. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a methodology that enables chemical imaging of a Pt drug and its metabolites simultaneously and specifically. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) is combined with an on-tissue chemical derivatization using diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). DDTC abstracts the Pt atom to generate ionizable complexes that can be imaged by MALDI MSI. We demonstrate that Pt drugs and their metabolites can be specifically imaged. This approach was successfully applied to map the penetration and metabolism of oxaliplatin in hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)-like treated 3D colorectal tumor mimics. The distribution of cisplatin and carboplatin was mapped in additional 3D tumor mimics. We demonstrate that the approach can also be used to image the distribution of copper ions in cells. This method has the potential to be used to evaluate the penetration and distribution of a wide range of compounds.
Project description:Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has several potential benefits. Higher doses of chemotherapy can be used with HIPEC because the plasma-peritoneal barrier results in little absorption into the blood stream. HIPEC offers higher peritoneal penetration in comparison to an intravenous (IV) regimen and does not have the traditional normothermic intraperitoneal (IP) regimen limitation of post-operative adhesions. Hyperthermia itself has cytotoxic effects and can potentiate antineoplastic effects of chemotherapy in part by increasing the depth of tumor penetration by up to 3 mm. For the treatment of ovarian cancer, HIPEC has been evaluated in the recurrent setting with secondary cytoreduction. Recent studies, including a prospective trial, have evaluated its role in primary management of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes previous and ongoing studies regarding the use of HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer.