Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667.
ABSTRACT: Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 ?M without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound.
Project description:NFAT-133 is a <i>Streptomyces</i>-derived aromatic polyketide compound with immunosuppressive, antidiabetic, and antitrypanosomal activities. It inhibits transcription mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), leading to the suppression of interleukin-2 expression and T cell proliferation. It also activates the AMPK pathway in L6 myotubes and increases glucose uptake. In addition to NFAT-133, a number of its congeners, e.g., panowamycins and benwamycins, have been identified. However, little is known about their modes of formation in the producing organisms. Through genome sequencing of <i>Streptomyces pactum</i> ATCC 27456, gene inactivation, and genetic complementation experiments, the biosynthetic gene cluster of NFAT-133 and its congeners has been identified. The cluster contains a highly disordered genetic organization of type I modular polyketide synthase genes with several genes that are necessary for the formation of the aromatic core unit and tailoring processes. In addition, a number of new analogs of NFAT-133 were isolated and their chemical structures elucidated. It is suggested that the heptaketide NFAT-133 is derived from an octaketide intermediate, TM-123. The current study shows yet another unusual biosynthetic pathway involving a noncanonical polyketide synthase assembly line to produce a group of small molecules with valuable bioactivities.
Project description:There have been studies on health beneficial effects of ginger and its components. However, there still remain certain aspects that are not well defined in their anti-hyperglycemic effects. Our aims were to find evidence of possible mechanisms for antidiabetic action of -gingerol, a pungent component of ginger, employing a rat skeletal muscle-derived cell line, a rat-derived pancreatic β-cell line, and type 2 diabetic model animals. The antidiabetic effect of -gingerol was investigated through studies on glucose uptake in L6 myocytes and on pancreatic β-cell protective ability from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RIN-5F cells. Its in vivo effect was also examined using obese diabetic db/db mice. -Gingerol increased glucose uptake under insulin absent condition and induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in L6 myotubes. Promotion by -gingerol of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membrane was visually demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in L6 myoblasts transfected with glut4 cDNA-coding vector. -Gingerol suppressed advanced glycation end product-induced rise of ROS levels in RIN-5F pancreatic β-cells. -Gingerol feeding suppressed the increases in fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose intolerance in db/db mice. -Gingerol regulated hepatic gene expression of enzymes related to glucose metabolism toward decreases in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis as well as an increase in glycogenesis, thereby contributing to reductions in hepatic glucose production and hence blood glucose concentrations. These in vitro and in vivo results strongly suggest that -gingerol has antidiabetic potential through multiple mechanisms.
Project description:Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, significantly reversed activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, respectively, in OHC-4p- and OHC-2m-treated cells. Compound C and SB203580 also inhibited glucose uptake induced by OHC-4p and OHC-2m. Next, we found that OHC-4p and OHC-2m significantly increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membranes and counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK by OHC-4p and OHC-2m is associated with increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation and subsequently led to amelioration of hyperglycemia. Therefore, OHC-4p and OHC-2m might have potential as antidiabetic agents for treating type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, significantly reversed activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, respectively, in OHC-4p- and OHC-2m-treated cells. Compound C and SB203580 also inhibited glucose uptake induced by OHC-4p and OHC-2m. Next, we found that OHC-4p and OHC-2m significantly increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membranes and counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK by OHC-4p and OHC-2m is associated with increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation and subsequently led to amelioration of hyperglycemia. Therefore, OHC-4p and OHC-2m might have potential as antidiabetic agents for treating type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<i>Sarcopoterium spinosum</i> (<i>S. spinosum</i>) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used as an antidiabetic remedy. Previous studies demonstrated its beneficial properties in the treatment of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to further clarify the effect of <i>S. spinosum</i> extract (SSE) on insulin signaling. Phosphoproteomic analysis, performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with SSE, revealed the activation of insulin receptor pathways. SSE increased Glut4-facilitated glucose uptake in adipocytes, with an additive effect between SSE and insulin. While the maximal effect of insulin on glucose uptake was found at days 15-16 of differentiation, SSE-induced glucose uptake was found at an earlier stage of differentiation. Inhibition of PI3K and Akt blocked SSE-dependent glucose uptake. Western blot analysis, performed on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes, showed that in contrast to insulin action, Akt was only marginally phosphorylated by SSE. Furthermore, GSK3? and PRAS40 phosphorylation as well as glucose uptake were increased by the extract. SSE also induced the phosphorylation of ERK similar to insulin. In conclusion, SSE activates insulin signaling, although the upstream event mediating its effects should be further clarified. Identifying the active molecules in SSE may lead to the development of new agents for the treatment of insulin resistance.
Project description:Biodegradable polymer based novel drug delivery systems brought a considerable attention in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of various drugs. 14-deoxy 11, 12-didehydro andrographolide (poorly water soluble compound) loaded polycaprolactone (nano-DDA) was synthesized using the solvent evaporation technique. Nano-DDA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the structural interaction between the drug and the polymer. Functional characterization of the formulation was determined using drug content, cellular uptake and in vitro drug release. 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H] glucose uptake assay was carried out to assess the antidiabetic potential of nano-DDA in L6 myotubes. The nano-DDA displayed spherical shape with a smooth surface (252.898?nm diameter), zeta potential, encapsulation and loading efficiencies of -38.9?mV, 91.98?±?0.13% and 15.09?±?0.18% respectively. No structural alteration between the drug and the polymer was evidenced (FTIR analysis). Confocal microscopy studies with rhodamine 123 loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (Rh123-PCL NPs) revealed the internalization of Rh123-PCL NPs in a time dependent manner in L6 myoblasts. A dose dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed for nano-DDA with a maximal uptake of 108.54?±?1.42% at 100?nM on L6 myotubes, thereby proving its anti-diabetic efficacy. A biphasic pattern of in vitro drug release demonstrated an initial burst release at 24?h followed by a sustained release for up to 11 days. To conclude, our results revealed that nano-DDA formulation can be a potent candidate for antidiabetic drug delivery.
Project description:Reduced glucose uptake into the skeletal muscle is an important pathophysiological abnormality in type 2 diabetes, and is caused by impaired translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the skeletal muscle cell surface. Here, we show a xanthene derivative, DS20060511, induces GLUT4 translocation to the skeletal muscle cell surface, thereby stimulating glucose uptake into the tissue. DS20060511 induced GLUT4 translocation and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated L6-myotubes and into the skeletal muscles in mice. These effects were completely abolished in GLUT4 knockout mice. Induction of GLUT4 translocation by DS20060511 was independent of the insulin signaling pathways including IRS1-Akt-AS160 phosphorylation and IRS1-Rac1-actin polymerization, eNOS pathway, and AMPK pathway. Acute and chronic DS20060511 treatment attenuated the glucose intolerance in obese diabetic mice. Taken together, DS20060511 acts as a skeletal muscle-specific GLUT4 translocation enhancer to facilitate glucose uptake. Further studies of DS20060511 may pave the way for the development of novel antidiabetic medicines.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Thyroid hormones (THs) act genomically to stimulate glucose transport by elevating glucose transporter (Slc2a) expression and glucose utilization by cells. However, nongenomic effects of THs are now emerging. Here, we assess how triiodothyronine (T(3)) acutely affects glucose transport and the content of GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT3 at the surface of muscle cells, and possible interactions between T(3) and insulin action.<h4>Methods</h4>Differentiated L6 myotubes transfected with myc-tagged Slc2a4 (L6-GLUT4myc) or Slc2a1 (L6-GLUT1myc) and wild-type L6 myotubes were studied in the following conditions: control, hypothyroid (Tx), Tx plus T(3), Tx plus insulin, and Tx plus insulin and T(3).<h4>Results</h4>Glucose uptake and GLUT4 content at the cell surface decreased in the Tx group relative to controls. T(3) treatment for 30 minutes increased glucose transport into L6-GLUT4myc cells without altering surface GLUT4 content, which increased only thereafter. The total amount of GLUT4 protein remained unchanged among the groups studied. The surface GLUT1 content of L6-GLUT1myc cells also remained unaltered after T(3) treatment; however, in these cells glucose transport was not stimulated by T(3). In wild-type L6 cells, although T(3) treatment increased the total amount of GLUT3, it did not change the surface GLUT3 content. Moreover, within 30 minutes, T(3) stimulation of glucose uptake was additive to that of insulin in L6-GLUT4myc cells. As expected, insulin elevated surface GLUT4 content and glucose uptake. However, interestingly, surface GLUT4 content remained unchanged or even dropped with T(3) plus insulin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data reveal that T(3) rapidly increases glucose uptake in L6-GLUT4myc cells, which, at least for 30 minutes, did not depend on an increment in GLUT4 at the cell surface yet potentiates insulin action. We propose that this rapid T(3) effect involves activation of GLUT4 transporters at the cell surface, but cannot discount the involvement of an unknown GLUT.
Project description:The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and glucose metabolism abnormalities.
Project description:Tankyrase 1 and 2, members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family, have previously been shown to play a role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, their precise mechanism of action, and their role in insulin action in other cell types, such as myocytes, remains elusive. Treatment of differentiated L6 myotubes with the small molecule tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 resulted in insulin resistance as determined by impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Proteomic analysis of XAV939-treated myotubes identified down-regulation of several glucose transporter GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) proteins including RAB10, VAMP8, SORT1, and GLUT4. A similar effect was observed following knockdown of tankyrase 1 in L6 myotubes. Inhibition of the proteasome using MG132 rescued GSV protein levels as well as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in XAV939-treated L6 myotubes. These studies reveal an important role for tankyrase in maintaining the stability of key GLUT4 regulatory proteins that in turn plays a role in regulating cellular insulin sensitivity.
Project description:Insulin resistance is a characteristic finding in hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes. SIRT1 is a NAD+ dependent deacetylase that plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. SIRT1 activators, including plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle tissue. We hypothesised that the novel plant-derived compounds, strigolactone and pinosylvin, beneficially enhance SIRT1 function, insulin signalling, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Rat L6 skeletal muscle myotubes were treated with strigolactone analogue GR24 and pinosylvin. Resveratrol was included in experiments as a reference compound. We measured the effects of these compounds on SIRT1 function, insulin signalling, glucose uptake, mitochondrial biogenesis and gene expression profiles. Strigolactone GR24 upregulated and activated SIRT1 without activating AMPK, enhanced insulin signalling, glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Pinosylvin activated SIRT1 in vitro and stimulated glucose uptake through the activation of AMPK. The regulation of SIRT1 by strigolactone GR24 and the activation of AMPK by pinosylvin may offer novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.