Population differences in immune responses to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination in infancy.
ABSTRACT: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a marked increase in the interferon (IFN)-gamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD) in UK adolescents, but not in Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that Mtb PPD-induced IFN-gamma after BCG vaccination would be similar in infants from these 2 countries. Infants were vaccinated with BCG during the first 3-13 weeks of life. Three months after BCG vaccination, 51 (100%) of 51 UK infants had an IFN-gamma response to Mtb PPD, compared to 41 (53%) of 78 of Malawian infants, in whom responses varied according to their season of birth. We conclude that population differences in immune responses after BCG vaccination are observed among infants, as well as among young adults.
Project description:BCG vaccination of infants is thought to provide good protection in all settings. This study investigated whether Malawian infants made weaker responses across a cytokine panel after BCG vaccination, compared with UK infants.Diluted whole-blood samples were cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days from BCG-vaccinated infants 3 months (n = 40 Malawi, 28 UK) and 12 months (n = 34 Malawi, 26 UK) after vaccination, and also from UK unvaccinated infants (n = 9 at 3 months, n = 10 at 12 months). Forty-two cytokines were measured in supernatants using a multiplex bead array assay. Principal component analysis was used to summarize the overall patterns in cytokine responses.We found differences in median responses in 27 of the 42 cytokines: 7 higher in the UK and 20 higher in Malawi. The cytokines with higher responses in the UK were all T helper 1 related. The cytokines with higher responses in Malawi included innate proinflammatory cytokines, regulatory cytokines, interleukin 17, T helper 2 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Principal component analysis separated the BCG-vaccinated infants from Malawi from the UK vaccinated infants and from the unvaccinated infants.Malawian infants make cytokine responses following BCG vaccination, but the cytokine profile is different from that in the UK. The different biosignatures following BCG vaccination in the 2 settings may indicate variability in the protective efficacy of infant BCG vaccination.
Project description:The objective of this study is to assess the effect of maternal HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection on cellular responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization.A mother-infant cohort study.Samples were collected from mother-infant pairs at delivery. Infants were BCG-vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and a repeat blood sample was collected from infants at 16 weeks of age. BCG-specific T-cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine expression were measured by flow cytometry. Secreted cytokines and chemokines in cell culture supernatants were analysed using a Multiplex assay.One hundred and nine (47 HIV-exposed and 62 HIV-unexposed) mother-infants pairs were recruited after delivery and followed longitudinally. At birth, proportions of mycobacteria-specific proliferating T cells were not associated with either in-utero HIV exposure or maternal Mtb sensitization. However, in-utero HIV exposure affected infant-specific T-cell subsets [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) single positive proliferating CD4? T cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-?), TNF-? dual-positive CD4? T cells]. Levels of TNF-? protein in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in HIV-exposed infants born to Mtb-sensitized mothers. In the presence of maternal Mtb sensitization, frequencies of maternal and newborn BCG-specific proliferating CD4? T cells were positively correlated. Following BCG vaccination, there was no demonstrable effect of HIV exposure or maternal Mtb infection on infant BCG-specific T-cell proliferative responses or concentrations of secreted cytokines and chemokines.Effects of maternal HIV and Mtb infection on infant immune profiles at birth are transient only, and HIV-exposed, noninfected infants have the same potential to respond to and be protected by BCG vaccination as HIV-unexposed infants.
Project description:BCG immunogenicity in infants differs between populations and these differences have been attributed to various factors. In this study, the influence of geographical location, season of birth, timing of vaccination, micronutrient status (zinc) and inflammatory status (C-reactive protein, CRP) were assessed.Immunogenicity was assessed by cytokine signature in culture supernatants from diluted whole blood samples stimulated with M. tuberculosis PPD, using a multiplex bead assay. Results were correlated with the plasma zinc and CRP concentrations at the time of sampling, and with interview and household data. BCG vaccinated infants were recruited in Malawi, The Gambia and the UK.In Malawi, infants vaccinated within the first week after birth showed lower production of most cytokines measured than those vaccinated later. The number of cytokines showing significant differences between Malawian and Gambian infants decreased after adjusting for season of birth. In Malawi, a proportion of infants had zinc deficiency and elevated plasma CRP (>10 mg/L), but neither zinc deficiency nor high CRP was associated with production of any of the cytokines measured.The cytokine/chemokine signatures observed in response to M. tuberculosis PPD in infants at 3 months post BCG vaccination were affected by geographical location, season of birth, and timing of vaccination but not associated with the concentration of plasma zinc or inflammatory status. These factors should be considered in future trials of new TB vaccines.
Project description:To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination would alter gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA expression in guinea pig cells exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we cloned a cDNA encoding guinea pig IFN-gamma from a spleen cell cDNA library. The cDNA is composed of 1,110 bp, with an open reading frame encoding a 166-amino-acid protein which shows 56 and 41% amino acid sequence homology to human and mouse IFN-gamma, respectively. Spleen or lymph node cells from naïve and BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD) or M. tuberculosis H37Ra or H37Rv, and the total RNA was subjected to Northern blot analysis with a (32)P-labeled probe derived from the cDNA clone. Compared to the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in cells of naïve animals, that in spleen and lymph node cells exposed to various stimuli was enhanced after BCG vaccination. However, there was a significant reduction in IFN-gamma mRNA levels when cells were stimulated with a multiplicity of infection of greater than 1 virulent M. tuberculosis bacterium per 10 cells. The enhanced IFN-gamma mRNA response in BCG-vaccinated animals was associated with an increase in the proportions of CD4(+) T cells in the spleens, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Furthermore, the nonadherent population in the spleens enriched either by panning with anti-guinea pig immunoglobulin G-coated plates or by purification on nylon wool columns produced more IFN-gamma mRNA than whole spleen cells following stimulation with concanavalin A or PPD. This indicates that T cells are principally responsible for the upregulation of IFN-gamma mRNA expression following BCG vaccination. The mechanism by which virulent mycobacteria suppress IFN-gamma mRNA accumulation is currently under investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a booster BCG vaccination delivered intradermally in healthy, BCG vaccinated subjects and to compare with a previous clinical trial where BCG vaccinated subjects were boosted with a new TB vaccine, MVA85A. DESIGN:Phase I open label observational trial, in the UK. Healthy, HIV-negative, BCG vaccinated adults were recruited and vaccinated with BCG. The primary outcome was safety; the secondary outcome was cellular immune responses to antigen 85, overlapping peptides of antigen 85A and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) detected by ex vivo interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISpot assay and flow cytometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:BCG revaccination (BCG-BCG) was well tolerated, and boosting of pre-existing PPD-specific T cell responses was observed. However, when these results were compared with data from a previous clinical trial, where BCG was boosted with MVA85A (BCG-MVA85A), MVA85A induced significantly higher levels (>2-fold) of antigen 85-specific CD4+ T cells (both antigen and peptide pool responses) than boosting with BCG, up to 52 weeks post-vaccination (p = 0.009). To identify antigen 85A-specific CD8+ T cells that were not detectable by ex vivo ELISpot and flow cytometry, dendritic cells (DC) were used to amplify CD8+ T cells from PBMC samples. We observed low, but detectable levels of antigen 85A-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFNgamma (1.5% of total CD8 population) in the BCG primed subjects after BCG boosting in 1 (20%) of 5 subjects. In contrast, in BCG-MVA85A vaccinated subjects, high levels of antigen 85A-specific CD8+ T cells (up to 14% total CD8 population) were observed after boosting with MVA85A, in 4 (50%) of 8 subjects evaluated. In conclusion, revaccination with BCG resulted in modest boosting of pre-existing immune responses to PPD and antigen 85, but vaccination with BCG-MVA85A induced a significantly higher response to antigen 85 and generated a higher frequency of antigen 85A-specific CD8+ T cells. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00654316 NCT00427830.
Project description:BACKGROUND:BCG vaccination has beneficial nonspecific (heterologous) effects that protect against nonmycobacterial infections. We have previously reported that BCG vaccination at birth alters in vitro cytokine responses to heterologous stimulants in the neonatal period. This study investigated heterologous responses in 167 infants in the same trial 7 months after randomization. METHODS:A whole-blood assay was used to interrogate in vitro cytokine responses to heterologous stimulants (killed pathogens) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. RESULTS:Compared to BCG-naive infants, BCG-vaccinated infants had increased production of interferon gamma (IFN-?) and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) (CXCL9) in response to mycobacterial stimulation and decreased production of IFN-? in response to heterologous stimulation and TLR ligands. Reduced IFN-? responses were attributable to a decrease in the proportion of infants who mounted a detectable IFN-? response. BCG-vaccinated infants also had increased production of MIG (CXCL9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and decreased production of IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?), and MIP-1?, the pattern of which varied by stimulant. IL-1Ra responses following TLR1/2 (Pam3CYSK4) stimulation were increased in BCG-vaccinated infants. Both sex and maternal BCG vaccination status influenced the effect of neonatal BCG vaccination. CONCLUSIONS:BCG vaccination leads to changes in IFN-? responsiveness to heterologous stimulation. BCG-induced changes in other cytokine responses to heterologous stimulation vary by pathogen.
Project description:Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia.Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea-Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4 or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD).Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation, particularly of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-?.Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines. BCG may accelerate the development of the neonatal immune system, mediating comprehensive protection against infections and mortality.
Project description:Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine.We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012.This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Uganda, the tuberculosis vaccine BCG is administered on the first day of life. Infants delivered at home receive BCG vaccine at their first healthcare facility visit at 6 weeks of age. Our aim was to determine the effect of this delay in BCG vaccination on the induced immune response. METHODS:We assessed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses with a 12-hour whole-blood intracellular cytokine/cytotoxic marker assay, and with a 6-day proliferation assay. RESULTS:We enrolled 92 infants: 50 had received BCG vaccine at birth and 42 at 6 weeks of age. Birth vaccination was associated with (1) greater induction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing either interferon γ (IFN-γ) alone or IFN-γ together with perforin and (2) induction of proliferating cells that had greater capacity to produce IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 2 together, compared with delayed vaccination. CONCLUSIONS:Distinct patterns of T-cell induction occurred when BCG vaccine was given at birth and at 6 weeks of age. We propose that this diversity might impact protection against tuberculosis. Our results differ from those of studies of delayed BCG vaccination in South Africa and the Gambia, suggesting that geographical and population heterogeneity may affect the BCG vaccine-induced T-cell response.
Project description:Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines recently tested in humans have been designed to boost immunity induced by the current vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Because BCG vaccination is used extensively in infants, this population group is likely to be the first in which efficacy trials of new vaccines will be conducted. However, our understanding of the complexity of immunity to BCG in infants is inadequate, making interpretation of vaccine-induced immune responses difficult.To better understand BCG-induced immunity, we performed gene expression profiling in five 10-week old infants routinely vaccinated with BCG at birth. RNA was extracted from 12 hour BCG-stimulated or purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD)-stimulated PBMC, isolated from neonatal blood collected 10 weeks after vaccination. RNA was hybridised to the Sentrix(R) HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to measure expression of >16,000 genes.We found that ex vivo stimulation of PBMC with PPD and BCG induced largely similar gene expression profiles, except that BCG induced greater macrophage activation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, including PPAR-gamma, involved in activation of the alternative, anti-inflammatory macrophage response was down-regulated following stimulation with both antigens. In contrast, up-regulation of genes associated with the classic, pro-inflammatory macrophage response was noted. Further analysis revealed a decrease in the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), which is known to be important for entry of mycobacteria into the macrophage. Interestingly, more leukocyte genes were down-regulated than up-regulated.Our results suggest that a combination of suppressed and up-regulated genes may be key in determining development of protective immunity to TB induced by vaccination with BCG.