Accurate quantification of cardiovascular biomarkers in serum using Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) and selected reaction monitoring.
ABSTRACT: Development of new biomarkers needs to be significantly accelerated to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and toxicity monitoring as well as therapeutic follow-up. Biomarker evaluation is the main bottleneck in this development process. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising option to speed this step, particularly because of its multiplexing capacities. However, analytical variabilities because of upstream sample handling or incomplete trypsin digestion still need to be resolved. In 2007, we developed the PSAQ™ method (Protein Standard Absolute Quantification), which uses full-length isotope-labeled protein standards to quantify target proteins. In the present study we used clinically validated cardiovascular biomarkers (LDH-B, CKMB, myoglobin, and troponin I) to demonstrate that the combination of PSAQ and SRM (PSAQ-SRM) allows highly accurate biomarker quantification in serum samples. A multiplex PSAQ-SRM assay was used to quantify these biomarkers in clinical samples from myocardial infarction patients. Good correlation between PSAQ-SRM and ELISA assay results was found and demonstrated the consistency between these analytical approaches. Thus, PSAQ-SRM has the capacity to improve both accuracy and reproducibility in protein analysis. This will be a major contribution to efficient biomarker development strategies.
Project description:The validation of putative biomarker candidates has become the major bottle-neck in protein biomarker development. Conventional immunoaffinity methods are limited by the availability of antibodies and kits. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) without isotope labeling to achieve fast and reproducible quantification of serum proteins. The SRM/MRM assays for three standard serum proteins, including ceruloplasmin (CP), serum aymloid A (SAA) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), have good linear ranges, generally 10(3) to 10(4) . There are almost perfect correlations between SRM intensities and the loaded peptide amounts (R(2) is usually ~0.99). Our data suggest that SRM/MRM is able to quantify proteins within the range of 0.2-2 fmol, which is comparable to the commercial ELISA/LUMINEX kits for these proteins. Excellent correlations between SRM/MRM and ELISA/LUMINEX assays were observed for SAA and SHBG (R(2)=0.928 and 0.851, respectively). However, the correlation between SRM/MRM and ELISA for CP is less desirable (R(2)=0.565). The reproducibility for SRM/MRM assays is generally very good but may depend on the proteins/peptides being analyzed (R(2)=0.931 and 0.882 for SAA and SHBG, and 0.723 for CP). The SRM/MRM assay without isotope labeling is a rapid and useful method for protein biomarker validation in a modest number of samples and is especially useful when other assays such as ELISA or LUMINEX are not available.
Project description:Ribosomes are the sophisticated machinery that is responsible for protein synthesis in a cell. Recently, quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) have been successfully applied for understanding the dynamics of protein complexes. Here, we developed a highly specific and reproducible method to quantify all ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) by combining selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and isotope labeling. We optimized the SRM methods using purified ribosomes and Escherichia coli lysates and verified this approach as detecting 41 of the 54 r-proteins separately synthesized in E. coli S30 extracts. The SRM methods will enable us to utilize qMS as a highly specific analytical tool in the research of E. coli ribosomes, and this methodology have potential to accelerate the understanding of ribosome biogenesis, function, and the development of engineered ribosomes with additional functions.
Project description:We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM), for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion. Limits of quantification (LOQ) at low ng/mL levels with a median coefficient of variation (CV) of ?12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum. PRISM-SRM provided >100-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional LC-SRM measurements. PRISM-SRM was then applied to measure several low-abundance endogenous serum proteins, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in clinical prostate cancer patient sera. PRISM-SRM enabled confident detection of all target endogenous serum proteins except the low pg/mL-level cardiac troponin T. A correlation coefficient >0.99 was observed for PSA between the results from PRISM-SRM and immunoassays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can successfully quantify low ng/mL proteins in human plasma or serum without depletion. We anticipate broad applications for PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance proteins in candidate biomarker verification and systems biology studies.
Project description:Absolute quantification of target proteins within complex biological samples is critical to a wide range of research and clinical applications. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for the development and application of quantitative assays using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). First, likely quantotypic target peptides are identified based on numerous criteria. This includes identifying proteotypic peptides, avoiding sites of posttranslational modification, and analyzing the uniqueness of the target peptide to the target protein. Next, crude external peptide standards are synthesized and used to develop SRM assays, and the resulting assays are used to perform qualitative analyses of the biological samples. Finally, purified, quantified, heavy isotope labeled internal peptide standards are prepared and used to perform isotope dilution series SRM assays. Analysis of all of the resulting MS data is presented. This protocol was used to accurately assay the absolute abundance of proteins of the chemotaxis signaling pathway within RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line). The quantification of Gi2 (a heterotrimeric G-protein ?-subunit) is described in detail.
Project description:Protein biomarkers have the potential to transform medicine as they are clinically used to diagnose diseases, stratify patients, and follow disease states. Even though a large number of potential biomarkers have been proposed over the past few years, almost none of them have been implemented so far in the clinic. One of the reasons for this limited success is the lack of technologies to validate proposed biomarker candidates in larger patient cohorts. This limitation could be alleviated by the use of antibody-independent validation methods such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Similar to measurements based on affinity reagents, SRM-based targeted mass spectrometry also requires the generation of definitive assays for each targeted analyte. Here, we present a library of SRM assays for 5568 N-glycosites enabling the multiplexed evaluation of clinically relevant N-glycoproteins as biomarker candidates. We demonstrate that this resource can be utilized to select SRM assay sets for cancer-associated N-glycoproteins for their subsequent multiplexed and consistent quantification in 120 human plasma samples. We show that N-glycoproteins spanning 5 orders of magnitude in abundance can be quantified and that previously reported abundance differences in various cancer types can be recapitulated. Together, the established N-glycoprotein SRMAtlas resource facilitates parallel, efficient, consistent, and sensitive evaluation of proposed biomarker candidates in large clinical sample cohorts.
Project description:Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B) is a family of inducible transcription factors regulated by stimulus-induced protein interactions. In the cytoplasm, the NF-?B member RelA transactivator is inactivated by binding inhibitory I?Bs, whereas in its activated state, the serine-phosphorylated protein binds the p300 histone acetyltransferase. Here we describe the isolation of a ssDNA aptamer (termed P028F4) that binds to the activated (I?B?-dissociated) form of RelA with a K(D) of 6.4 × 10(-10), and its application in an enrichment-mass spectrometric quantification assay. ssDNA P028F4 competes with cognate duplex high affinity NF-?B binding sites for RelA binding in vitro, binds activated RelA in eukaryotic nuclei and reduces TNF?-stimulated endogenous NF-?B dependent gene expression. Incorporation of P028F4 as an affinity isolation step enriches for serine 536 phosphorylated and p300 coactivator complexed RelA, simultaneously depleting I?B?·RelA complexes. A stable isotope dilution (SID)-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)- mass spectrometry (MS) assay for RelA was developed that produced a linear response over 1,000 fold dilution range of input protein and had a 200 amol lower limit of quantification. This multiplex SID-SRM-MS RelA assay was used to quantify activated endogenous RelA in cytokine-stimulated eukaryotic cells isolated by single-step P028F4 enrichment. The aptamer-SID-SRM-MS assay quantified the fraction of activated RelA in subcellular extracts, detecting the presence of a cytoplasmic RelA reservoir unresponsive to TNF? stimulation. We conclude that aptamer-SID-SRM-MS is a versatile tool for quantification of activated NF-?B/RelA and its associated complexes in response to pathway activation.
Project description:The rigorous testing of hypotheses on suitable sample cohorts is a major limitation in translational research. This is particularly the case for the validation of protein biomarkers; the lack of accurate, reproducible, and sensitive assays for most proteins has precluded the systematic assessment of hundreds of potential marker proteins described in the literature. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for the development and refinement of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays for human proteins. The method was applied to generate such assays for more than 1000 cancer-associated proteins, which are functionally related to candidate cancer driver mutations. We used the assays to determine the detectability of the target proteins in two clinically relevant samples: plasma and urine. One hundred eighty-two proteins were detected in depleted plasma, spanning five orders of magnitude in abundance and reaching below a concentration of 10 ng/ml. The narrower concentration range of proteins in urine allowed the detection of 408 proteins. Moreover, we demonstrate that these SRM assays allow reproducible quantification by monitoring 34 biomarker candidates across 83 patient plasma samples. Through public access to the entire assay library, researchers will be able to target their cancer-associated proteins of interest in any sample type using the detectability information in plasma and urine as a guide. The generated expandable reference map of SRM assays for cancer-associated proteins will be a valuable resource for accelerating and planning biomarker verification studies.
Project description:There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein quantification methods in complex samples and address the pressing demand of systems biology or biomarker evaluation studies.
Project description:MS-based proteome technologies have greatly improved our ability to detect and quantify proteomes across various biological samples. High throughput bottom-up proteome profiling in combination with targeted MS method, e.g. SRM assay, is emerging as a powerful approach in the field of biomarker discovery. In the past few years, increasing number of studies have attempted to integrate genomic and proteomic data for biomarker discovery. Here, we describe how allele-specific peptide can be applied in biomarker discovery and their impact in protein quantification.
Project description:Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a secreted, cancer-associated protein in many types of epithelial cancer cells. We developed a highly sensitive targeted mass spectrometric assay for quantification of AGR2 in urine and serum. Digested peptides from clinical samples were processed by PRISM (high pressure and high resolution separations coupled with intelligent selection and multiplexing), which incorporates high pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separations to fractionate and select target fractions for follow-on LC-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM) analyses. The PRISM-SRM assay for AGR2 showed a reproducibility of <10% CV and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of ∼130 pg/mL in serum and ∼10 pg per 100 μg of total protein mass in urine, respectively. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.91) was observed for the measurable AGR2 concentrations in urine between SRM and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On the basis of an initial cohort of 37 subjects, urinary AGR2/PSA concentration ratios showed a significant difference (P = 0.026) between noncancer and cancer. Large clinical cohort studies are needed for the validation of AGR2 as a useful diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. Our work validated the approach of identifying candidate secreted protein biomarkers through genomics and measurement by targeted proteomics, especially for proteins where no immunoassays are available.