Prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgical patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
ABSTRACT: VTE is a common cause of preventable death in surgical patients.We developed recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in nonorthopedic surgical patients by using systematic methods as described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement.We describe several alternatives for stratifying the risk of VTE in general and abdominal-pelvic surgical patients. When the risk for VTE is very low (< 0.5%), we recommend that no specific pharmacologic (Grade 1B) or mechanical (Grade 2C) prophylaxis be used other than early ambulation. For patients at low risk for VTE (?1.5%), we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at moderate risk for VTE (?3%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (Grade 2B), low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis with IPC (Grade 2C) over no prophylaxis. For patients at high risk for VTE (?6%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis with LMWH (Grade 1B) or low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. In these patients, we suggest adding mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings or IPC to pharmacologic prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at high risk for VTE undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer, we recommend extended-duration, postoperative, pharmacologic prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWH over limited-duration prophylaxis (Grade 1B). For patients at moderate to high risk for VTE who are at high risk for major bleeding complications or those in whom the consequences of bleeding are believed to be particularly severe, we suggest use of mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis until the risk of bleeding diminishes and pharmacologic prophylaxis may be initiated (Grade 2C). For patients in all risk groups, we suggest that an inferior vena cava filter not be used for primary VTE prevention (Grade 2C) and that surveillance with venous compression ultrasonography should not be performed (Grade 2C). We developed similar recommendations for other nonorthopedic surgical populations.Optimal thromboprophylaxis in nonorthopedic surgical patients will consider the risks of VTE and bleeding complications as well as the values and preferences of individual patients.
Project description:This guideline addressed VTE prevention in hospitalized medical patients, outpatients with cancer, the chronically immobilized, long-distance travelers, and those with asymptomatic thrombophilia.This guideline follows methods described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement.For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at increased risk of thrombosis, we recommend anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) bid, LDUH tid, or fondaparinux (Grade 1B) and suggest against extending the duration of thromboprophylaxis beyond the period of patient immobilization or acute hospital stay (Grade 2B). For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at low risk of thrombosis, we recommend against the use of pharmacologic prophylaxis or mechanical prophylaxis (Grade 1B). For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at increased risk of thrombosis who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, we suggest mechanical thromboprophylaxis with graduated compression stockings (GCS) (Grade 2C) or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) (Grade 2C). For critically ill patients, we suggest using LMWH or LDUH thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). For critically ill patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, we suggest mechanical thromboprophylaxis with GCS and/or IPC at least until the bleeding risk decreases (Grade 2C). In outpatients with cancer who have no additional risk factors for VTE we suggest against routine prophylaxis with LMWH or LDUH (Grade 2B) and recommend against the prophylactic use of vitamin K antagonists (Grade 1B).Decisions regarding prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients should be made after consideration of risk factors for both thrombosis and bleeding, clinical context, and patients' values and preferences.
Project description:Background:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism is a frequent complication in immobile patients with acute ischemic stroke. This guideline document presents the European Stroke Organisation guidelines for the prophylaxis of VTE in immobile patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Guidelines for haemorrhagic stroke have already been published. Methods:A multidisciplinary group identified related questions and developed its recommendations based on evidence from randomised controlled trials using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. This guideline document was reviewed within the European Stroke Organisation and externally and was approved by the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee. Results:We found mainly moderate quality evidence comprising randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews evaluating graduated compression stockings (GCS), intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and prophylactic anticoagulation with unfractionated (UFH) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and heparinoids, but no randomised trials evaluating neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NES). We recommend that clinicians should use IPC in immobile patients, but that they should not use GCS. Prophylactic anticoagulation with UFH (5000U ×2, or ×3 daily) or LMWH or heparinoid should be considered in immobile patients with ischaemic stroke in whom the benefits of reducing the risk of VTE is high enough to offset the increased risks of intracranial and extracranial bleeding associated with their use. Where a judgement has been made that prophylactic anticoagulation is indicated LMWH or heparinoid should be considered instead of UFH because of its greater reduction in risk of DVT, the greater convenience, reduced staff costs and patient comfort associated single vs. multiple daily injections but these advantages should be weighed against the higher risk of extracranial bleeding, higher drug costs and risks in elderly patients with poor renal function associated with LMWH and heparinoids. Conclusions:IPC, UFH or LMWH and heparinoids can reduce the risk of VTE in immobile patients with acute ischaemic stroke but further research is required to test whether NES is effective. The strongest evidence is for IPC. Better methods are needed to help stratify patients in the first few weeks after stroke onset, by their risk of VTE and their risk of bleeding on anticoagulants.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication for critically ill patients. Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is recommended for patients with high risk of bleeding. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of IPC for thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that evaluated IPC in critically ill patients. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies were included. The IPC group significantly reduced the VTE incidence compared with no thromboprophylaxis group (risk ratio [RR]: 0.35, confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.68, P = .002) and the IPC group also showed lower VTE incidence than the graduated compression stockings (GCS) group (RR: 0.47, CI: 0.24-0.91, P = .03). There were no significant differences between using IPC and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for VTE incidence (RR: 1.26, CI: 0.72-2.22, P = .41), but LMWH showed significantly more bleeding events. Intermittent pneumatic compression as an adjunctive treatment did not further reduce VTE incidence (RR: 0.55, CI: 0.24-1.27, P = .16). Intermittent pneumatic compression can reduce the incidence of VTE for critically ill patients, which is better than GCS and similar to LMWH, but it has no significant advantage as an adjunct therapy for thromboprophylaxis.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication among acutely ill medical patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory insufficiency, rheumatologic disorders, and acute infectious and/or inflammatory diseases. Based on robust data from randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses showing a reduced incidence of VTE by 40% to about 60% with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, prevention of VTE with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), or fondaparinux is currently recommended in all at-risk hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. In patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, mechanical prophylaxis with graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression may be suggested. Thromboprophylaxis is generally continued for 6 to 14 days or for the duration of hospitalization. Selected cases could benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis beyond this period, although the risk of major bleeding remains a concern, and additional studies are needed to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged prophylaxis. For hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with renal insufficiency, a low dose (1.5 mg once daily) of fondaparinux or prophylactic LMWH subcutaneously appears to have a safe profile, although proper evaluation in randomized studies is lacking. The evidence on the use of prophylaxis for VTE in this latter group of patients, as well as in those at higher risk of bleeding complications, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, remains scarce. For critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units with no contraindications, LMWH or UFH are recommended, with frequent and careful assessment of the risk of bleeding. In this review, we discuss the evidence for use of thromboprophylaxis for VTE in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, with a focus on (low-dose) fondaparinux.
Project description:VTE is a serious, but decreasing complication following major orthopedic surgery. This guideline focuses on optimal prophylaxis to reduce postoperative pulmonary embolism and DVT.The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement.In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we recommend the use of one of the following rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis: low-molecular-weight heparin; fondaparinux; dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban (total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty but not hip fracture surgery); low-dose unfractionated heparin; adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist; aspirin (all Grade 1B); or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) (Grade 1C) for a minimum of 10 to 14 days. We suggest the use of low-molecular-weight heparin in preference to the other agents we have recommended as alternatives (Grade 2C/2B), and in patients receiving pharmacologic prophylaxis, we suggest adding an IPCD during the hospital stay (Grade 2C). We suggest extending thromboprophylaxis for up to 35 days (Grade 2B). In patients at increased bleeding risk, we suggest an IPCD or no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). In patients who decline injections, we recommend using apixaban or dabigatran (all Grade 1B). We suggest against using inferior vena cava filter placement for primary prevention in patients with contraindications to both pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). We recommend against Doppler (or duplex) ultrasonography screening before hospital discharge (Grade 1B). For patients with isolated lower-extremity injuries requiring leg immobilization, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2B). For patients undergoing knee arthroscopy without a history of VTE, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2B).Optimal strategies for thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery include pharmacologic and mechanical approaches.
Project description:This article addresses the treatment of VTE disease.We generated strong (Grade 1) and weak (Grade 2) recommendations based on high-quality (Grade A), moderate-quality (Grade B), and low-quality (Grade C) evidence.For acute DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE), we recommend initial parenteral anticoagulant therapy (Grade 1B) or anticoagulation with rivaroxaban. We suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux over IV unfractionated heparin (Grade 2C) or subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B). We suggest thrombolytic therapy for PE with hypotension (Grade 2C). For proximal DVT or PE, we recommend treatment of 3 months over shorter periods (Grade 1B). For a first proximal DVT or PE that is provoked by surgery or by a nonsurgical transient risk factor, we recommend 3 months of therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if provoked by a nonsurgical risk factor and low or moderate bleeding risk); that is unprovoked, we suggest extended therapy if bleeding risk is low or moderate (Grade 2B) and recommend 3 months of therapy if bleeding risk is high (Grade 1B); and that is associated with active cancer, we recommend extended therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if high bleeding risk) and suggest LMWH over vitamin K antagonists (Grade 2B). We suggest vitamin K antagonists or LMWH over dabigatran or rivaroxaban (Grade 2B). We suggest compression stockings to prevent the postthrombotic syndrome (Grade 2B). For extensive superficial vein thrombosis, we suggest prophylactic-dose fondaparinux or LMWH over no anticoagulation (Grade 2B), and suggest fondaparinux over LMWH (Grade 2C).Strong recommendations apply to most patients, whereas weak recommendations are sensitive to differences among patients, including their preferences.
Project description:International guidelines recommend low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as first-line pharmacological option for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in many patient categories. Guidance on the optimal prophylactic dose is lacking. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized controlled trials to assess benefits and harms of low-dose LMWH versus placebo or no treatment for thrombosis prophylaxis in patients at risk of VTE. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase were searched up to June 2019. Results were presented as relative risk (RR) with conventional and TSA-adjusted confidence intervals (CI). Forty-four trials with a total of 22,579 participants were included. Six (14%) had overall low risk of bias. Low-dose LMWH was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality (RR 0.99; 95%CI 0.85-1.14; TSA-adjusted CI 0.89-1.16) but did reduce symptomatic VTE (RR 0.62; 95%CI 0.48-0.81; TSA-adjusted CI 0.44-0.89) and any VTE (RR 0.61; 95%CI 0.50-0.75; TSA-adjusted CI 0.49-0.82). Analyses on major bleeding (RR 1.07; 95%CI 0.72-1.59), as well as serious adverse events (SAE) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding were inconclusive. There was very low to moderate-quality evidence that low-dose LMWH for thrombosis prophylaxis did not decrease all-cause mortality but reduced the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE, while the analysis of the effects on bleeding and adverse events remained inconclusive.
Project description:When should a patient with a known thrombophilia or prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) receive low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis during pregnancy and/or the postpartum period? Accurately predicting thrombotic and bleeding risks and knowing what to do with this information is at the heart of decision-making in these challenging scenarios. This article will explore the concept of a risk threshold from clinician and patient perspectives and provide guidance for the use of antepartum and postpartum LMWH prophylaxis in women with a known thrombophilia or prior VTE. Advice for the management of LMWH prophylaxis use around labor and delivery is also reviewed.
Project description:Importance:The guidelines by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society for Clinical Oncology recommend the routine use of thromboprophylaxis for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. However, many physicians in Asian countries use venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis much less often because of the perceived lower VTE incidence in this population. Objectives:To evaluate the incidence of postgastrectomy VTE in Korean patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, and to identify the complications and evaluate the efficacy and safety of VTE prevention methods. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Optimal Prophylactic Method for Venous Thromboembolism After Gastrectomy in Korean Patients (PROTECTOR) randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015. Patients with histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma presenting to a single center (Seoul St Mary's Hospital in Seoul, South Korea) were enrolled. Patients were randomized to either an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC)-only group or an IPC+low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin sodium group. The data were analyzed on intention-to-treat and per protocol bases. Data analysis was performed from April 1, 2016, to October 30, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:Venous thromboembolism incidence was the primary outcome. Postoperative complications, particularly those associated with VTE prophylaxis methods, were the secondary end point. Results:Of the 682 patients enrolled and randomized, 447 (65.5%) were male and 245 (34.5%) were female, with a mean (SD) age of 57.67 (12.94) years. Among the 666 patients included in the analysis, the overall incidence of VTE was 2.1%. The incidence of VTE was statistically significantly higher in the IPC-only group compared with the IPC+LMW heparin group (3.6%; 95% CI, 2.05%-6.14% vs 0.6%; 95% CI, 0.17%-2.18%; P?=?.008). Among the 14 patients (2.1%) with VTE, 13 were asymptomatic and received a deep vein thrombosis diagnosis, whereas 1 patient received a symptomatic pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis. The overall incidence of bleeding complications was 5.1%. The incidence of bleeding complications was significantly higher in the IPC+LMW heparin group compared with the IPC-only group (9.1% vs 1.2%; P?<?.001). No cases of VTE-associated mortality were noted. Conclusions and Relevance:Use of IPC alone is inferior to the use of IPC+LMW heparin in preventing postoperative VTE. Because LMW heparin is associated with a high bleeding risk, further study is needed to stratify the patients at high risk for perioperative development of VTE. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448746.
Project description:A majority of deep vein thromboses identified in screening studies of hospitalized patients remain clinically insignificant. Guidelines based on these studies markedly overestimate the risk of clinical venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the benefit of heparin prophylaxis. Accordingly, in 2012, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) removed screening studies from the 9th edition of its Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy guideline (AT9), and downgraded recommendations. Involvement of authors of the 8th edition (AT8) was restricted due to financial and intellectual conflicts of interest. However, the first author of AT8 subsequently wrote a "Getting Started Kit," widely distributed to help Canadian hospitals develop VTE protocols. Based on screening studies reporting <i>asymptomatic</i> VTE, it lacks estimates of the magnitudes of benefit or harm from low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), yet advises prophylaxis in almost all hospitalized patients. Most Canadian hospitals have implemented guidelines based on this kit. Guidelines from the U. K National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality recommend a similar approach. However, a critical review of evidence reveals that most hospitalized patients have a risk of <i>clinical</i> VTE equal to or lower than the bleeding risk from LMWH. Most hospitalized patients should not receive LMWH until and unless randomized trials show more benefit than harm. Guidelines recommending liberal LMWH prophylaxis in hospitalized patients are not evidence based and should be critically re-examined.