Activin a plays a critical role in proliferation and differentiation of human adipose progenitors.
ABSTRACT: Growth of white adipose tissue takes place in normal development and in obesity. A pool of adipose progenitors is responsible for the formation of new adipocytes and for the potential of this tissue to expand in response to chronic energy overload. However, factors controlling self-renewal of human adipose progenitors are largely unknown. We investigated the expression profile and the role of activin A in this process.Expression of INHBA/activin A was investigated in three types of human adipose progenitors. We then analyzed at the molecular level the function of activin A during human adipogenesis. We finally investigated the status of activin A in adipose tissues of lean and obese subjects and analyzed macrophage-induced regulation of its expression.INHBA/activin A is expressed by adipose progenitors from various fat depots, and its expression dramatically decreases as progenitors differentiate into adipocytes. Activin A regulates the number of undifferentiated progenitors. Sustained activation or inhibition of the activin A pathway impairs or promotes, respectively, adipocyte differentiation via the C/EBP?-LAP and Smad2 pathway in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Activin A is expressed at higher levels in adipose tissue of obese patients compared with the expression levels in lean subjects. Indeed, activin A levels in adipose progenitors are dramatically increased by factors secreted by macrophages derived from obese adipose tissue.Altogether, our data show that activin A plays a significant role in human adipogenesis. We propose a model in which macrophages that are located in adipose tissue regulate adipose progenitor self-renewal through activin A.
Project description:Maintenance of the adipose tissue requires a proper balance between self-renewal and differentiation of adipose progenitors (AP). Any deregulation leads either to fat overexpansion and obesity or fat loss and consequent lipodystrophies. Depending on the fat pad location, APs and adipocytes are heterogeneous. However, information on the pharmacological sensitivity of distinct APs to drugs known to alter the function of adipose tissue, especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) is scant. Here we show that PIs decreased proliferation and clonal expansion of APs, modifying their self-renewal potential. Lopinavir was the most potent PI tested. Decrease in self-renewal was accompanied by a reduced expression of the immediate early response gene IER3, a gene associated with tissue expansion. It was more pronounced in chin-derived APs than in knee-derived APs. Furthermore, lopinavir lowered the activin A-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Expressions of the transcription factor EGR1 and its targets, including INHBA were subsequently altered. Therefore, activin A secretion was reduced leading to a dramatic impairment of APs self-renewal sustained by the activin A autocrine loop. All together, these observations highlight the activin A autocrine loop as a crucial effector to maintain APs self-renewal. Targeting this pathway by HIV-PIs may participate in the induction of unwanted side effects.
Project description:Adipocyte differentiation is controlled by many transcription factors, but few known downstream targets of these factors are necessary for adipogenesis. Here we report that retinol saturase (RetSat), which is an enzyme implicated in the generation of dihydroretinoid metabolites, is induced during adipogenesis and is directly regulated by the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Ablation of RetSat dramatically inhibited adipogenesis but, surprisingly, this block was not overcome by the putative product of RetSat enzymatic activity. On the other hand, ectopic RetSat with an intact, but not a mutated, FAD/NAD dinucleotide-binding motif increased endogenous PPARgamma transcriptional activity and promoted adipogenesis. Indeed, RetSat was not required for adipogenesis when cells were provided with exogenous PPARgamma ligands. In adipose tissue, RetSat is expressed in adipocytes but is unexpectedly downregulated in obesity, most likely owing to infiltration of macrophages that we demonstrate to repress RetSat expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reversed low RetSat expression in adipose tissue of obese mice. Thus, RetSat plays an important role in the biology of adipocytes, where it favors normal differentiation, yet is reduced in the obese state. RetSat is thus a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity and its associated morbidities represent the major and most rapidly expanding world-wide health epidemic. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reveal that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in the Family with Sequence Similarity 13, Member A (FAM13A) gene is strongly associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) with adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (WHRadjBMI). However, the function of FAM13A in adipose development and obesity remains largely uncharacterized. METHODS:The expression of FAM13A in adipose tissue depots were investigated using lean, genetic obese and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) animal models and during adipocyte differentiation. Stromal vascular cells (SVCs) or 3T3-L1 cells with gain and loss of function of FAM13A were used to determine the involvement of FAM13A in regulating adipocyte differentiation. Adipose development and metabolic homeostasis in Fam13a-/- mice were characterized under normal chow and high fat diet feeding. RESULTS:Murine FAM13A expression was nutritionally regulated and dramatically reduced in epididymal and subcutaneous fat in genetic and diet-induced obesity. Its expression was enriched in mature adipocytes and significantly upregulated during murine and human adipogenesis potentially through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?)-dependent mechanism. However, Fam13a-/- mice only exhibited a tendency of higher adiposity and were not protected from DIO and insulin resistance. While Fam13a-/- SVCs maintained normal adipogenesis, overexpression of FAM13A in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes downregulated ?-catenin signaling and rendered preadipocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Moreover, FAM13A overexpression largely blocked adipogenesis induced by a standard hormone cocktail, but adipogenesis can be partially rescued by the addition of PPAR? agonist pioglitazone at an early stage of differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that FAM13A is dispensable for adipose development and insulin sensitivity. Yet the expression of FAM13A needs to be tightly controlled in adipose precursor cells for their proper survival and downstream adipogenesis. These data provide novel insights into the link between FAM13A and obesity.
Project description:Senescent cells accumulate in fat with aging. We previously found genetic clearance of senescent cells from progeroid INK-ATTAC mice prevents lipodystrophy. Here we show that primary human senescent fat progenitors secrete activin A and directly inhibit adipogenesis in non-senescent progenitors. Blocking activin A partially restored lipid accumulation and expression of key adipogenic markers in differentiating progenitors exposed to senescent cells. Mouse fat tissue activin A increased with aging. Clearing senescent cells from 18-month-old naturally-aged INK-ATTAC mice reduced circulating activin A, blunted fat loss, and enhanced adipogenic transcription factor expression within 3 weeks. JAK inhibitor suppressed senescent cell activin A production and blunted senescent cell-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis. Eight weeks-treatment with ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK1/2 inhibitor, reduced circulating activin A, preserved fat mass, reduced lipotoxicity, and increased insulin sensitivity in 22-month-old mice. Our study indicates targeting senescent cells or their products may alleviate age-related dysfunction of progenitors, adipose tissue, and metabolism.
Project description:Human adipose tissue is a major site of expression of inhibin beta B (INHBB) which homodimerizes to form the novel adipokine activin B. Our aim was to determine if molecules needed for a local action of activin B are expressed in adipose tissue. Microarray analysis showed that adipose tissue expressed activin type I and II receptors and that the expression of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) was adipose tissue specific. In obesity discordant siblings from the SOS Sib Pair study, adipose tissue ALK7 expression was higher in lean (n=90) compared to obese (n=90) subjects (p=4 x 10(-31)). Adipose tissue ALK7 expression correlated with several measures of body fat, carbohydrate metabolism and lipids. In addition, ALK7 and INHBB expression correlated but only in lean subjects and in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We conclude that activin B may have local effects in adipose tissue and thereby influence obesity and its comorbidities.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Potential regulators of adipogenesis include microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that have been recently shown related to adiposity and differentially expressed in fat depots. However, to date no study is available, to our knowledge, regarding miRNAs expression profile during human adipogenesis. Thereby, the aim of this study was to investigate whether miRNA pattern in human fat cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated to obesity and co-morbidities and whether miRNA expression profile in adipocytes is linked to adipogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a global miRNA expression microarray of 723 human and 76 viral mature miRNAs in human adipocytes during differentiation and in subcutaneous fat samples from non-obese (n = 6) and obese with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-2) women. Changes in adipogenesis-related miRNAs were then validated by RT-PCR. Fifty of 799 miRNAs (6.2%) significantly differed between fat cells from lean and obese subjects. Seventy miRNAs (8.8%) were highly and significantly up or down-regulated in mature adipocytes as compared to pre-adipocytes. Otherwise, 17 of these 799 miRNAs (2.1%) were correlated with anthropometrical (BMI) and/or metabolic (fasting glucose and/or triglycerides) parameters. We identified 11 miRNAs (1.4%) significantly deregulated in subcutaneous fat from obese subjects with and without DM-2. Interestingly, most of these changes were associated with miRNAs also significantly deregulated during adipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The remarkable inverse miRNA profile revealed for human pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes hints at a closely crosstalk between miRNAs and adipogenesis. Such candidates may represent biomarkers and therapeutic targets for obesity and obesity-related complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease that is generally characterized by enhanced inflammation in obese adipose tissue (AT). Here, we investigated alterations in gene expression between lean and obese conditions using mRNA-Seq data derived from human purified adipocytes (ACs) and preadipocytes (preACs). RESULTS:Total mRNA-seq data were generated with 27 AC and 21 preAC samples purified from human visceral AT collected during resection surgery in cancer patients, where the samples were classified into lean and obese categories by BMI?>?25 kg/m2. We defined four classes of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing gene expression between (1) lean and obese ACs, (2) lean and obese preACs, (3) lean ACs and lean preACs, and 4) obese ACs and obese preACs. Based on an analysis of comparison 1, numerous canonical obesity-related genes, particularly inflammatory genes including IL-6, TNF-? and IL-1?, i.e., the genes that are expected to be upregulated in obesity conditions, were found to be expressed at significantly lower levels in obese ACs than in lean ACs. In contrast, some inflammatory genes were found to be expressed at higher levels in obese preACs than lean preACs in the analysis of comparison 2. The analysis of comparisons 3 and 4 showed that inflammatory gene classes were expressed at higher levels in differentiated ACs than undifferentiated preACs under both lean and obese conditions; however, the degree of upregulation was significantly greater for lean than for obese conditions. We validated our observations using previously published microarray transcriptome data deposited in the GEO database (GSE80654). CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our analyses suggest that inflammatory genes are expressed at lower levels in obese ACs than in lean ACs because lean adipogenesis involves even greater enhancement of inflammatory responses than does obese adipogenesis.
Project description:Obesity is characterized as an accumulation of adipose tissue mass represented by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obesity-derived inflammation involves chemokines as important regulators contributing to the pathophysiology of obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers. The obesity-driven chemokine network is poorly understood. Here, we identified the profiles of chemokine signature between human preadipocytes and adipocytes, using PCR arrays and qRT-PCR. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes showed absent or low levels in chemokine receptors in spite of some changes. On the other hand, the chemokine levels of CCL2, CCL7-8, CCL11, CXCL1-3, CXCL6 and CXCL10-11 were dominantly expressed in preadipocytes compared to adipocytes. Interestingly, CXCL14 was the most dominant chemokine expressed in adipocytes compared to preadipocytes. Moreover, there is significantly higher protein level of CXCL14 in conditioned media from adipocytes. In addition, we analyzed the data of the chemokine signatures in adipocytes obtained from healthy lean and obese postmenopausal women based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Adipocytes from obese individuals had significantly higher levels in chemokine signature as follows: CCL2, CCL13, CCL18-19, CCL23, CCL26, CXCL1, CXCL3 and CXCL14, as compared to those from lean ones. Also, among the chemokine networks, CXCL14 appeared to be the highest levels in adipocytes from both lean and obese women. Taken together, these results identify CXCL14 as an important chemokine induced during adipogenesis, requiring further research elucidating its potential therapeutic benefits in obesity.
Project description:A method for the preparation of isolated adipocytes from obese mice is described. Similar yields of adipocytes (50--60%), as judged by several criteria, are obtained from obese mice and lean controls. Few fat-globules and no free nuclei were observed in cell preparations, which are metabolically active, respond to hormonal control and appear to be representative of intact adipose tissue. Noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis was inhibited by insulin, equally in adipocytes from lean and obese mice. Inhibition in obese cells required exogenous glucose, and the insulin dose--response curve was shifted to the right. Basal lipogenesis from glucose was higher in adipocytes from obese mice, and the stimulatory effect of insulin was greater in cells from obese mice compared with lean controls. A rightward shift in the insulin dose--response curve was again observed with cells from obese animals. This suggests that adipose tissue from obese mice is insulin-sensitive at the high blood insulin concentrations found in vivo. The resistance of obese mice to the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin and their impaired tolerance to glucose loading appear to be associated with an impaired insulin response by muscle rather than by adipose tissue.
Project description:Adipose tissue dysregulation in obesity strongly influences systemic metabolic homeostasis and is often linked to insulin resistance (IR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity are not fully understood. Herein, a proteomic analysis of subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) fat from lean subjects and obese individuals with different degrees of insulin sensitivity was performed to identify adipose tissue biomarkers related to obesity-associated metabolic disease. Our results suggest that dysregulation of both adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and intracellular trafficking processes may be associated with IR in obesity. Thus, abnormal accumulation of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan, lumican, as observed in SC fat of IR obese individuals, modifies collagen I organization, impairs adipogenesis and activates stress processes [endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress] in adipocytes. In OM fat, IR is associated with increased levels of the negative regulator of the Rab family of small GTPases, GDI2, which alters lipid storage in adipocytes by inhibiting insulin-stimulated binding of the Rab protein, Rab18, to lipid droplets. Together, these results indicate that lumican and GDI2 might play depot-dependent, pathogenic roles in obesity-associated IR. Our findings provide novel insights into the differential maladaptive responses of SC and OM adipose tissue linking obesity to IR.