Mapping and analysis of the LINE and SINE type of repetitive elements in rice.
ABSTRACT: Non-LTR retrotransposons comprise significant portion of the plants genome. Their complete characterization is thus necessary if the sequenced genome is to be annotated correctly. The long and short interspersed nucleotide repetitive elements (LINE and SINE) may be responsible for alteration in the expression mechanism of neighboring genes, the complete identification of these elements in the rice genome is essential in order studying their putative functional interactions with the plant genes and its role in genome composition. The main emphasis of this work is to assemble a comprehensive dataset of nonLTR (LINEs and SINEs) and the map of completely inserted LINEs and SINE type of retroelement by both intact ends (3' and 5' ends). The assembled information and work may help for further research in this direction.
Project description:In addition to the Alu family of short interspersed repetitive DNA elements (SINEs), we have previously characterized one other repetitive DNA family (Type II) in the prosimian, Galago crassicaudatus. We present here a detailed analysis of seventeen members of a third galago SINE family designated as the Monomer family. Both the Monomer and Type II families are shown to be specific for the galago genome as compared to other primates, including another prosimian, the lemur. Moreover, in vitro transcription of galago SINEs suggests that the Monomer and Type II families have appreciably stronger RNA polymerase III promoters than does the Alu family. This agrees with the promoter sequence for each of these SINE families, in that the Monomer and Type II family promoters are more closely related to the RNA polymerase III promoter consensus sequence than is the Alu family promoter. These promoter strength analyses also correlate with copy number and sequence divergence analyses, which suggests that the SINE families with the strongest promoters have been amplified most recently in the galago genome.
Project description:Background:Although repeat sequences constitute about 37% of carnivore genomes, the characteristics and distribution of repeat sequences among carnivore genomes have not been fully investigated. Based on the updated Repbase library, we re-annotated transposable elements (TEs) in four Caniformia genomes (giant panda, polar bear, domestic dog, and domestic ferret) and performed a systematic, genome-wide comparison focusing on the Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs. Results:We found the majority of young recently integrated transposable elements are LINEs and SINEs in carnivore genomes. In particular, SINEC1_AMe, SINEC1B_AMe and SINEC_C1 are the top three most abundant Can-SINE subfamilies in the panda and polar bear genomes. Transposition in transposition analysis indicates that SINEC1_AMe and SINEC1B_AMe are the most active subfamilies in the panda and the polar bear genomes. SINEC2A1_CF and SINEC1A_CF subfamilies show a higher retrotransposition activity in the dog genome, and MVB2 subfamily is the most active Can-SINE in the ferret genome. As the giant panda is an endangered icon species, we then focused on the identification of panda specific Can-SINEs. With the panda-associated two-way genome alignments, we identified 250 putative panda-specific (PPS) elements (139 SINEC1_AMes and 111 SINEC1B_AMes) that inserted in the panda genome but were absent at the orthologous regions of the other three genomes. Further investigation of these PPS elements allowed us to identify a new Can-SINE subfamily, the SINEC1_AMe2, which was distinguishable from the current SINEC1_AMe consensus by four non-CpG sites. SINEC1_AMe2 has a high copy number (>?100,000) in the panda and polar bear genomes and the vast majority (>?96%) of the SINEC1_AMe2 elements have divergence rates less than 10% in both genomes. Conclusions:Our results suggest that Can-SINEs show lineage-specific retransposition activity in the four genomes and have an important impact on the genomic landscape of different Caniformia lineages. Combining these observations with results from the COSEG, Network, and target site duplication analysis, we suggest that SINEC1_AMe2 is a young mobile element subfamily and currently active in both the panda and polar bear genomes.
Project description:SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. RESULTS: A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 x 105 and 1.7 x 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. CONCLUSION: The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened the hypotheses containing the slippage model for initiation of reverse transcription, retropositional parasitism of SINEs on LINEs, the formation of the stem loop structure in 3'tail region of some SINEs and LINEs and the mechanism of template switching in generating new SINE family.
Project description:Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that comprise a large fraction of the human genome. SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. Here, we show that downregulation of the mRNA of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is associated with increased transcription of SINEs and production of sense and antisense SINE small RNAs. We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes.
Project description:A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.
Project description:Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription.
Project description:A short interspersed nuclear element, Mg-SINE, was isolated and characterized from the genome of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Mg-SINE was isolated as an insertion element within Pot2, an inverted-repeat transposon from M. grisea and shows typical features of a mammalian SINE. Mg-SINE is present as a 0.47-kb interspersed sequence at approximately 100 copies per haploid genome in both rice and non-rice isolates of M. grisea, indicating a common evolutionary origin. Secondary structure analysis of Mg-SINE revealed a tRNA-related region at the 5' end which folds into a cloverleaf structure. Genomic fusions resulting in chimeric Mg-SINEs (Ch-SINEs) composed of a sequence homologous to Mg-SINE at the 3' end and an unrelated sequence at its 5' end were also isolated, indicating that this and other DNA rearrangements mediated by these elements may have a major effect on the genomic architecture of this fungus.
Project description:Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3' -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3' -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3'-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer.
Project description:Background:SINEs are a type of nonautonomous retrotransposon that can transpose from one site to be integrated elsewhere in an organism genome. SINE insertion can give rise to genetic variants and regulate gene expression, allowing organisms to acquire new adaptive capacity. Studies on this subject have focused on the impacts of SINEs on genes. However, ecological disparities in fish have not yet been explained by SINEs. Results:New SINEs were isolated from Coilia nasus, which has two ecotypes-migratory and resident-that differ in their spawning and migration behaviors. The SINEs possess two structures that resemble a tRNA gene and a LINE retrotransposon tail. Comparison of olfactory tissue transcriptomes, intact SINE transcript copies were detected in only the migratory fish at the initial retrotransposition stage. The SINE DNA copy numbers were higher in the resident type than in the migratory type, while the frequency of SINE insertion was higher in the migratory type than in the resident type. Furthermore, SINE insertions can lead to new repeats of short DNA fragments in the genome, along with target site duplications. SINEs in the resident type have undergone excision via a mechanism in which predicted cleavage sites are formed by mutations, resulting in gaps that are then filled by microsatellites via microhomology-induced replication. Conclusions:Notably, SINEs in the resident type have undergone strong natural selection, causing genomic heteroplasmy and driving ecological diversity of C. nasus. Our results reveal possible evolutionary mechanisms underlying the ecological diversity at the interface between SINE mobilization and organism defense.