Molecular docking of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase in Rhizopus oryzae.
ABSTRACT: Recent expansion of immunocompromised population has led to significant rise in zygomycosis caused by filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae. Due to emergence of fungal resistance and side-effects of antifungal drugs, there is increased demand for novel drug targets. The current study elucidates molecular interactions of peptide drugs with G-6-P synthase (catalyzing the rate-limiting step of fungal cell wall biosynthetic pathway) of R.oryzae by molecular docking studies. The PDB structures of enzyme in R.oryzae are not known which were predicted using I-TASSER server and validated with PROCHECK. Peptide inhibitors, FMDP and ADGP previously used against enzyme of E.coli (PDBid: 1XFF), were used for docking studies of enzyme in R.oryzae by SchrödingerMaestro v9.1. To investigate binding between enzyme and inhibitors, Glide and Induced Fit docking were performed. IFD results of 1XFF with FMDP yielded C1, R73, W74, T76, G99 and D123 as the binding sites. C379 and Q427 appear to be vital for binding of R.oryzae enzymes to inhibitors. The comparison results of IFD scores of enzyme in R.oryzae and E.coli (PDBid: 2BPL) yield appreciable score, hinting at the probable effectiveness of inhibitors FMDP and ADGP against R.oryzae, with ADGP showing an improved enzyme affinity. Moreover, the two copies of gene G-6-P synthase due to extensive fungal gene duplication, in R. oryzae eliminating the problem of drug ineffectiveness could act as a potential antifungal drug target in R. oryzae with the application of peptide ligands.
Project description:Purpose:In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), bloodstream infections (BSI) and invasive fungal disease (IFD) remain important complications causing considerable mortality and morbidity. At present, the morbidity of IFD and the strategies to initiate antifungal treatment in HM patients with BSI remain unclear. Patients and Methods:Patient characteristics, infection-related variables, and therapy-related features of 1374 HM patients with proven BSI from three hospitals were reviewed to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of IFD. Results:The morbidity of proven and probable IFD in HM patients with BSI was 11.2%, and the mortality of those patients was 40.5%. Existing IFD risk scores were not accurate enough in distinguishing these patients benefiting from antifungal prophylaxis. Multivariate logistic regression identified age >45 years, profound neutropenia, hypoproteinemia, and use of vasopressors as independent variables associated with IFD morbidity in HM patients with BSI. In patients with proven and probable IFD patients, age >45 years, Pitt bacteremia score >3, use of vasopressors, abnormal blood coagulation, and initiation of antifungal therapy within 72 hrs after the onset of fever were independent prognostic factors. The mortality was significantly reduced in patients with high-risk factors of IFD if they initiate antifungal treatment within 72 hrs after the onset of fever compared to the patients not. Conclusion:The morbidity and mortality of IFD increase significantly in HM patients with BSI. Early antifungal therapy may improve prognosis in HM patients with BSI complicated with IFD risk factors.
Project description:A 5-year-old patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) developed proven pulmonary invasive fungal disease (IFD) due to Actinomucor elegans. While completing ALL treatment according to AIEOP ALL protocol 2009 for further 15 months, antifungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and intermittent additional posaconazole was continued until immune reconstitution 7 months after the end of ALL treatment. Repeated imaging guided treatment decisions. Twenty-six and 19 months after the end of ALL treatment and antifungal treatment, respectively, the patient is still in the first complete remission and shows no signs of active invasive fungal disease (IFD).
Project description:Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of infection-related-mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this prospective pilot study, we investigated the use of bedside lung ultrasound (US) in IFD management. Ten consecutive hematological patients, who developed pulmonary IFD after HSCT, were included in the study. Standard computed tomography scan and lung US were performed at IFD diagnosis and 10 days after antifungal treatment. The lung US demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of lung lesions at IFD diagnosis and in the follow-up examinations. It is of potential clinical relevance for IFD management in hematological patients.
Project description:Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN). These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients.We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study ?2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates.Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87) or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99). The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical) than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing.Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality. We demonstrate a state of economic equipoise between empirical and diagnostic-directed pre-emptive antifungal treatment strategies, influenced by small changes in cost of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing, in the current literature. This work emphasizes the need for optimization of existing fungal diagnostic strategies, development of more efficient diagnostic strategies, and less toxic and more cost-effective antifungals.
Project description:Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancy. Recurrence of IFD after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with poor prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of different strategies of secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) for IFD and choose an appropriate SAP regimen.Clinical data of patients with previous IFD who underwent chemotherapy or HSCT between Jan 2008 and Jun 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and followed up to 180 days post-chemotherapy or HSCT. The clinical characteristics and diagnosis were analyzed according to the diagnostic criteria for IFD. The efficacy of different strategies for SAP and risk factors influencing the failure of SAP were evaluated.Of the 164 patients enrolled, 121 patients received SAP regimen (73.78%), and IFD recurred in 40 patients: 16.5% (20/121) in SAP group and 46.5% (20/43) in non-SAP group. In SAP group, 58 received SAP agents which were proven effective for their previous IFD, while other 63 patients received other broad-spectrum antifungal agents. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rates between these two subgroups (13.8% (8/58) vs 19.0% (12/63), P?=?0.437). The IFD recurrence rates were statistically significant between patients with allogeneic HSCT and chemotherapy or autologous HSCT (25% vs 8.2%, P?=?0.013). Multivariate analysis indicated that allogeneic HSCT was the independent risk factor of IFD recurrence after SAP.Secondary antifungal prophylaxis is necessary to prevent IFD recurrence in patients with hematological malignancy, especially for patients in the setting of allogeneic HSCT.
Project description:Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised patients due to their weakened immune system. Immunomodulatory therapy, in synergy with existing antifungal therapy, is an attractive option to enhance their immune system and aid clearance of these opportunistic pathogens. From a scientific and clinical perspective, we explore the immunotherapeutic options to augment standard antifungal drugs for patients with an IFD. We discuss the range of immunomodulatory therapies being considered in IFD - from cytokines, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, IFN-?, and cytokine agonists, to cellular therapies, consisting of granulocyte transfusion, adoptive T-cell, CAR T-cell, natural killer cell therapies, and monoclonal antibodies. Adjunct pharmaceutical agents which augment the immunity are also being considered. Lastly, we explore the likelihood of the use of probiotics and manipulation of the microbiome/mycobiome to enhance IFD treatment outcomes.
Project description:Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is a fungal pathogen and the causal agent of rice blast disease. Previous lipidomics analysis of M. oryzae demonstrated that trehalose, a carbohydrate common to various fungi and algae, is thought to be involved in the possible conversion of glycogen into triacylglycerides for energy, an important step in the pathogenesis of M. oryzae. A key enzyme responsible for trehalose synthesis is trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (Tps1). Therefore, we modeled the structure of Tps1 and sought to screen a chemical database in silico for possible inhibitors of the enzyme. Based on homologous alignment and sequence analysis, we first modeled the structure of Tps1 to determine the potential active site of the enzyme and its conformation. Using this model, we then undertook a docking study to determine the potential interaction that would manifest between Tsp1 and potential chemical inhibitors. Of the 400,000 chemicals screened in the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, we identified 45 potential candidates. The best candidate (Compound 24789937) was chosen and subjected to various structural optimization techniques to improve the suitability of the potential chemical inhibitors at the docking site of Tps1. From these modified versions of Compound 24789937, one lead compound (Lead 25) was shown to have the best binding affinity to Tps1 and good water solubility as compared with the ideal template compound and the other 44 potential candidates. Molecular dynamics simulation further confirmed the strength of the Tps1-Lead 25 complex and indicated the potential for Lead 25 to be used as an inhibitor of Tps1 in the control of M. oryzae-mediated rice blast disease.
Project description:Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) caused by Cryptococcus and dimorphic fungi are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Isavuconazole (ISAV) is a novel, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent (IV and by mouth [PO]) developed for the treatment of IFD. It displays potent activity in vitro against these pathogens and in this report we examine outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis or dimorphic fungal infections treated with ISAV.The VITAL study was an open-label nonrandomized phase 3 trial conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ISAV treatment in management of rare IFD. Patients received ISAV 200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days followed by 200 mg once-daily (IV or PO). Proven IFD and overall response at end of treatment (EOT) were determined by an independent, data-review committee. Mortality and safety were also assessed.Thirty-eight patients received ISAV for IFD caused by Cryptococcus spp. (n = 9), Paracoccidioides spp. (n = 10), Coccidioides spp. (n = 9), Histoplasma spp. (n = 7) and Blastomyces spp. (n = 3). The median length of therapy was 180 days (range 2-331 days). At EOT 24/38 (63%) patients exhibited a successful overall response. Furthermore, 8 of 38 (21%) had stable IFD at the end of therapy without progression of disease, and 6 (16%) patients had progressive IFD despite this antifungal therapy. Thirty-three (87%) patients experienced adverse events.ISAV was well tolerated and demonstrated clinical activity against these endemic fungi with a safety profile similar to that observed in larger studies, validating its broad-spectrum in vitro activity and suggesting it may be a valuable alternative to currently available agents.NCT00634049.
Project description:Background:Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children with hematological malignancies or after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on monocenter, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer triazoles or echinocandins. Procedure:We prospectively collected clinical data on incidence, diagnostic procedures, management and outcome of IFD in children treated for hematological malignancies or undergoing HSCT in three major European pediatric cancer centers. Results:A total of 304 children (median age 6.0 years) who underwent 360 therapies (211 chemotherapy treatments, 138 allogeneic HSCTs and/or 11 investigational chemotherapeutic treatments) were included in the analysis. Nineteen children developed proven/probable IFD, mostly due to Aspergillus (n = 10) and Candida spp. (n = 5), respectively. In patients receiving chemotherapy, 11 IFDs occurred, all during induction or re-induction therapy. None of these patients died due to IFD, whereas IFD was lethal in 3 of the 8 HSCT recipients with IFD. Significant differences among centers were observed with regard to the use of imaging diagnostics and the choice, initiation and duration of antifungal prophylaxis. Conclusion:This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cleistanthins A and B are isolated compounds from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb (Euphorbiaceae). This plant is poisonous in nature which causes cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypotension, nonspecific ST-T changes and QTc prolongation. The biological activity predictions spectra of the compounds show the presence of antihypertensive, diuretic and antitumor activities. OBJECTIVE: Objective of the present study was to determine the in silico molecular interaction of cleistanthins A and B with Angiotensin I- Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) using Induced Fit Docking (IFD) protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the molecular modeling calculations like IFD docking, binding free energy calculation and ADME/Tox were carried out using Glide software (Schrödinger LLC 2009, USA) in CentOS EL-5 workstation. RESULTS: The IFD complexes showed favorable docking score, glide energy, glide emodel, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions between the active site residues of ACE-I and the compounds. Binding free energy was calculated for the IFD complexes using Prime MM-GBSA method. The conformational changes induced by the inhibitor at the active site of ACE-I were observed based on changes of the back bone Cα atoms and side-chain chi (x) angles. The various physicochemical properties were calculated for these compounds. Both cleistanthins A and B showed better docking score, glide energy and glide emodel when compared to captopril inhibitor. CONCLUSION: These compounds have successively satisfied all the in silico parameters and seem to be potent inhibitors of ACE-I and potential candidates for hypertension.