Induction of intracellular calcium concentration by environmental benzo(a)pyrene involves a ?2-adrenergic receptor/adenylyl cyclase/Epac-1/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway in endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) are widely distributed environmental contaminants, known as potent ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These chemicals trigger an early and transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), required for AhR-related effects of PAHs. The mechanisms involved in this calcium mobilization were investigated in the present study. We demonstrated that B(a)P-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) induction was prevented in endothelial HMEC-1 cells by counteracting ?2-adrenoreceptor (?2ADR) activity using pharmacological antagonists, anti-?2ADR antibodies, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of ?2ADR expression; by contrast, it was strongly potentiated by ?2ADR overexpression in human kidney HEK293 cells. B(a)P was shown, moreover, to directly bind to ?2ADR, as assessed by in vitro binding assays and molecular modeling. Pharmacological inhibition and/or siRNA-mediated silencing of various signaling actors acting downstream of ?2ADR in a sequential manner, such as G protein, adenylyl cyclase, Epac-1 protein, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))/IP(3) receptor, were next demonstrated to prevent B(a)P-induced calcium signal. Inhibition or knockdown of these signaling elements, as well as the use of chemical ?-blockers, were finally shown to counteract B(a)P-mediated induction of cytochrome P-450 1B1, a prototypical AhR target gene. Taken together, our results show that B(a)P binds directly to ?2ADR and consequently utilizes ?2ADR machinery to mobilize [Ca(2+)](i), through activation of a G protein/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/Epac-1/IP(3) pathway. This ?2ADR-dependent signaling pathway activated by PAHs may likely be crucial for PAH-mediated up-regulation of AhR target genes, thus suggesting a contribution of ?2ADR to the health-threatening effects of these environmental pollutants.
Project description:H2 O2 is widely understood to regulate intracellular signalling. In airway epithelia, H2 O2 stimulates anion secretion primarily by activating an autocrine PGE2 signalling pathway via EP4 and EP1 receptors to initiate cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) secretion. This study investigated signalling downstream of the receptors activated by H2 O2 .Anion secretion by differentiated bronchial epithelial cells was measured in Ussing chambers during stimulation with H2 O2 , an EP4 receptor agonist or ?2 -adrenoceptor agonist in the presence and absence of inhibitors of ACs and downstream effectors. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]I ) changes were followed by microscopy using fura-2-loaded cells and PKA activation followed by FRET microscopy.Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) were both necessary for H2 O2 and EP4 receptor-mediated CFTR activation in bronchial epithelia. H2 O2 and EP4 receptor agonist stimulated tmAC to increase exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activity that drives PLC activation to raise [Ca(2+) ]i via Ca(2+) store release (and not entry). Increased [Ca(2+) ]i led to sAC activation and further increases in CFTR activity. Stimulation of sAC did not depend on changes in [HCO3 (-) ]. Ca(2+) -activated apical KCa 1.1 channels and cAMP-activated basolateral KV 7.1 channels contributed to H2 O2 -stimulated anion currents. A similar Epac-mediated pathway was seen following ?2 -adrenoceptor or forskolin stimulation.H2 O2 initiated a complex signalling cascade that used direct stimulation of tmACs by G?s followed by Epac-mediated Ca(2+) crosstalk to activate sAC. The Epac-mediated Ca(2+) signal constituted a positive feedback loop that amplified CFTR anion secretion following stimulation of tmAC by a variety of stimuli.
Project description:cAMP signaling plays an essential role in modulating the proliferation of different cell types, including cancer cells. Until now, the regulation of this pathway was restricted to the transmembrane class of adenylyl cyclases. In this study, significant overexpression of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), an alternative source of cAMP, was found in human prostate carcinoma, and therefore, the contribution of this cyclase was investigated in the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Suppression of sAC activity by treatment with the sAC-specific inhibitor KH7 or by sAC-specific knockdown mediated by siRNA or shRNA transfection prevented the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells, led to lactate dehydrogenase release, and induced apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed a significant rise in the G(2) phase population 12 h after sAC inhibition, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclin B(1) and CDK1. sAC-dependent regulation of proliferation involves the EPAC/Rap1/B-Raf signaling pathway. In contrast, protein kinase A does not play a role. In conclusion, this study suggests a novel sAC-dependent signaling pathway that controls the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells.
Project description:Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Antrhax Edema Toxin (ET), or the Epac activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT) Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) were treated with VEGF alone or VEGF in combination with either the the Epac-specific cAMP-mimetic, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT), or anthrax edema toxin (ET), an adenylyl cyclase. ET or 8CPT can inhibit VEGF-mediated chemotaxis and angiogenesis. The goal of the study was to identify genes regulated by cAMP production (ET) or by activation of Epac/Rap (8CPT) that may mitigate the effects of VEGF treatment. Overall design: Gene expression was measured 4 hours after treatment with VEGF, VEGF + 8CPT, VEGF + ET or mock treatment. Each sample contained one replicate.
Project description:Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Antrhax Edema Toxin (ET), or the Epac activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT); Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) were treated with VEGF alone or VEGF in combination with either the the Epac-specific cAMP-mimetic, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT), or anthrax edema toxin (ET), an adenylyl cyclase. ET or 8CPT can inhibit VEGF-mediated chemotaxis and angiogenesis. The goal of the study was to identify genes regulated by cAMP production (ET) or by activation of Epac/Rap (8CPT) that may mitigate the effects of VEGF treatment. Experiment Overall Design: Gene expression was measured 4 hours after treatment with VEGF, VEGF + 8CPT, VEGF + ET or mock treatment. Each sample contained one replicate.
Project description:1. Primary cultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were prepared to examine the properties of prostacyclin (IP) receptors and prostaglandin E(2) (EP) receptors in sensory neurones. 2. IP receptor agonists, cicaprost and iloprost, stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with EC(50) values of 22 and 28 nM, respectively. Prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were 7 fold less potent than cicaprost and iloprost, with PGE(2) displaying a lower maximal response. 3. Adenylyl cyclase activation by iloprost, PGE(1) and PGE(2), but not by forskolin, was highly dependent on DRG cell density. Although the potency of iloprost and PGE(2) for stimulating adenylyl cyclase was unchanged, their maximal responses were significantly increased at low cell density. 4. Both IP and EP(2/4) receptors could be down-regulated by agonist pretreatment, however the presence of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors did not prevent this apparent down-regulation of IP and EP(2/4) receptors at high DRG cell densities. 5. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide was also decreased at high DRG cell density, whereas the responses to beta-adrenoceptor agonists were increased at high DRG cell density. 6. Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF), or the addition of anti-neurotrophin antibodies during the 5-day culture of DRG cells, had no effect on IP receptor-mediated responses. 7. These results indicate that G(s)-coupled receptors involved in nociception are regulated in a variable manner in adult rat sensory neurones, and that this cell density-dependent regulation may be agonist-independent for IP and EP(2/4) receptors.
Project description:Rat cardiac fibroblasts (CF) express multiple adenosine (ADO) receptors. Pharmacological evidence suggests that activation of A(2) receptors may inhibit collagen synthesis via adenylyl cyclase-induced elevation of cellular cAMP. We have characterized the signaling pathways involved in ADO-mediated inhibition of collagen synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat CF. ANG II stimulates collagen production in these cells. Coincubation with agents that elevate cellular cAMP [the ADO agonist, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadensoine (NECA), and forskolin] inhibited the stimulatory effects of ANG II. However, direct stimulators and inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) did not alter ANG II-induced collagen synthesis, indicating that PKA does not mediate the inhibitory effects of NECA. Inhibitors of AMP-kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) do not alter NECA-inhibited collagen synthesis. However, activation of exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (Epac) mimicked the effects of NECA on ANG II-stimulated collagen synthesis. Inhibition of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) reduced the inhibitory effects of NECA on ANG II-induced collagen synthesis, suggesting that NECA acts via PI3K. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K also relieved the inhibitory effect of Epac activation on ANG II-stimulated collagen synthesis. Thus it appears that ADO activates the A(2)R-G(s)-adenylyl cyclase pathway and that the resultant cAMP reduces collagen synthesis via a PKA-independent, Epac-dependent pathway that feeds through PI3K.
Project description:cAMP signaling pathways play crucial roles in photoreceptor cells and other retinal cell types. Previous studies demonstrated a circadian rhythm of cAMP level in chick photoreceptor cell cultures that drives the rhythm of activity of the melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and the rhythm of affinity of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel for cGMP. Here, we report that the photoreceptor circadian clock generates a rhythm in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, which accounts for the temporal changes in the cAMP levels in the photoreceptors. The circadian rhythm of cAMP in photoreceptor cell cultures is abolished by treatment with the l-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nitrendipine, while the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 8644, increased cAMP levels with continued circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of cAMP is dependent, in part, on Ca(2+) influx. Photoreceptor cell cultures exhibit a circadian rhythm in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase enzyme activity with high levels at night and low levels during the day, correlating with the temporal changes of cAMP in these cells. Transcripts encoding two of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 and type 8 (Adcy1 and Adcy8), displayed significant daily rhythms of mRNA expression under a light-dark cycle, but only the Adcy1 transcript rhythm persisted in constant darkness. Similar rhythms of Adcy1 mRNA level and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity were observed in retinas of 2-week-old chickens. These results indicate that a circadian clock controls the expression of Adcy1 mRNA and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity; and calcium influx into these cells gates the circadian rhythm of cAMP, a key component in the regulation of photoreceptor function.
Project description:Epac is a guanine nucleotide exchange protein that is directly activated by cAMP, but whose cardiac cellular functions remain unclear. It is important to understand cardiac Epac signaling, because it is activated in parallel to classical cAMP-dependent signaling via protein kinase A. In addition to activating contraction, Ca(2+) is a key cardiac transcription regulator (excitation-transcription coupling). It is unknown how myocyte Ca(2+) signals are decoded in cardiac myocytes to control nuclear transcription. We examine Epac actions on cytosolic ([Ca(2+)](i)) and intranuclear ([Ca(2+)](n)) Ca(2+) homeostasis, focusing on whether Epac alters [Ca(2+)](n) and activates a prohypertrophic program in cardiomyocytes. Adult rat cardiomyocytes, loaded with fluo-3 were viewed by confocal microscopy during electrical field stimulation at 1Hz. Acute Epac activation by 8-pCPT increased Ca(2+) sparks and diastolic [Ca(2+)](i), but decreased systolic [Ca(2+)](i). The effects on diastolic [Ca(2+)](i) and Ca(2+) spark frequency were dependent on phospholipase C (PLC), inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) and CaMKII activation. Interestingly, Epac preferentially increased [Ca(2+)](n) during both diastole and systole, correlating with the perinuclear expression pattern of Epac. Moreover, Epac activation induced histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) nuclear export, with consequent activation of the prohypertrophic transcription factor MEF2. These data provide the first evidence that the cAMP-binding protein Epac modulates cardiac nuclear Ca(2+) signaling by increasing [Ca(2+)](n) through PLC, IP(3)R and CaMKII activation, and initiates a prohypertrophic program via HDAC5 nuclear export and subsequent activation of the transcription factor MEF2.
Project description:The calcium-sensitive type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC) that converts ATP to cAMP under stimulation. It is a calcium-inhibited AC and integrates negative inputs from Ca(2+) and multiple other signals to regulate the intracellular cAMP level. In the present study, we demonstrate that AC6 functions upstream of CREB and negatively controls neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. Genetic removal of AC6 leads to cyclase-independent and N-terminus of AC6 (AC6N)-dependent elevation of CREB expression, and enhances the expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Consequently, GluN2B-dependent calcium signaling and excitatory postsynaptic current, long-term depression, and spatial reversal learning are enhanced in the hippocampus of AC6(-/-) mice without altering the gross anatomy of the brain. Together, our results suggest that AC6 negatively regulates neuronal plasticity by modulating the levels of CREB and GluN2B in the hippocampus.
Project description:1. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transiently transfected with the mouse prostacyclin (mIP) receptor to examine IP agonist-mediated stimulation of [(3)H]-cyclic AMP and [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production. 2. The prostacyclin analogues, cicaprost, iloprost, carbacyclin and prostaglandin E(1), stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with EC(50) values of 5, 6, 25 and 95 nM, respectively. These IP agonists also stimulated the phospholipase C pathway with 10 - 40 fold lower potency than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. 3. The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics, octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778, also stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, with EC(50) values of 219, 166 and 398 nM, respectively, but failed to stimulate [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production. 4. Octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778 inhibited iloprost-stimulated [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production in a non-competitive manner. 5. Activation of the endogenously-expressed P(2) purinergic receptor by ATP led to an increase in [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production which was inhibited by the non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics in non-transfected CHO cells. Prostacyclin analogues and other prostanoid receptor ligands failed to inhibit ATP-stimulated [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production. 6. A comparison between the IP receptor-specific non-prostanoid ONO-1310 and the structurally-related EP(3) receptor-specific agonist ONO-AP-324, indicated that the inhibitory effect of non-prostanoids was specific for those compounds known to activate IP receptors. 7. The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics also inhibited phospholipase C activity when stimulated by constitutively-active mutant Galpha(q)RC, Galpha(14)RC and Galpha(16)QL transiently expressed in CHO cells. These drugs did not inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity when stimulated by the constitutively-active mutant Galpha(s)QL. 8. These results suggest that non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics can specifically inhibit [(3)H]-inositol phosphate production by targeting G(q/11) and/or phospholipase C in CHO cells, and that this effect is independent of IP receptors.