HIV incidence and prevalence among cohorts of women with higher risk behaviour in Bloemfontein and Rustenburg, South Africa: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT: The primary objective was to measure HIV incidence in two prospective cohorts of HIV-negative women. Secondary objectives included measuring pregnancy rates and participant retention rates.Cross-sectional HIV screening of women selected for higher risk behaviours, with a subsequent prospective study of uninfected women, followed monthly for up to 6 months.Clinics established for research purposes in Bloemfontein and Rustenburg, South Africa.The authors enrolled women 18-35 years old and presumed at higher risk of sexual acquisition of HIV as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviour or recent sexually transmitted infection symptoms. In Bloemfontein, 1364 women were screened, 1154 were eligible for HIV testing and 1145 agreed to be tested. The prospective study enrolled 401 HIV-negative women. In Rustenburg, 946 women were screened, 540 were eligible and underwent HIV testing and 223 HIV-negative women entered the prospective study.Baseline prevalences of HIV infection and HIV incidence rates in the prospective cohorts, according to a double rapid test algorithm with a third rapid test for discrepant or indeterminate results. Pregnancy prevalences and pregnancy incidence rate in Bloemfontein. Participant retention rates in the prospective cohort until the study end.In Bloemfontein, 1145 women were tested, 391 entered follow-up and 92.3% of participants completed six study visits. In Rustenburg, 540 women were tested, 194 entered follow-up and retention up to the point of early study termination was 88.6%. Overall HIV prevalence was 21.2% (95% CI 18.9% to 23.6%) in Bloemfontein and 23.5% (95% CI 19.9% to 27.1%) in Rustenburg. Overall HIV incidence was 5.5/100 person-years (95% CI 2.5 to 10.4) in Bloemfontein and 3.0/100 person-years (95% CI 0.4 to 10.8) in Rustenburg. Cross-sectional pregnancy prevalences were 6.5% in Bloemfontein and 8.6% in Rustenburg.The authors observed substantial HIV incidence rates in both cohorts. Vigorous prevention efforts are needed in these smaller cities.
Project description:HIV prevention trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Women at risk for HIV are also at risk of pregnancy. To maximize safety, women agree to avoid pregnancy during trials, yet pregnancies occur. Using data from the HVTN 503/"Phambili" vaccine trial, we report pregnancy incidence during and after the vaccination period and identify factors, measured at screening, associated with incident pregnancy.To enrol in the trial, women agreed and were supported to avoid pregnancy until 1 month after their third and final vaccination ("vaccination period"), corresponding to the first 7 months of follow-up. Unsterilized women, pooled across study arms, were analyzed. Poisson regression compared pregnancy rates during and after the vaccination period. Cox proportional hazards regression identified associations with first pregnancy.Among 352 women (median age 23 yrs; median follow-up 1.5 yrs), pregnancy incidence was 9.6/100 women-years overall and 6.8/100 w-yrs and 11.3/100 w-yrs during and after the vaccination period, respectively [Rate Ratio = 0.60 (0.32-1.14), p = 0.10]. In multivariable analysis, pregnancy was reduced among women who: enrolled at sites providing contraception on-site [HR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.22-0.86)]; entered the trial as injectable contraceptive users [HR = 0.37 (0.21-0.67)] or as consistent condom users (trend) [HR = 0.54 (0.28-1.04)]. Compared with women with a single partner of HIV-unknown status, pregnancy rates were increased among women with: a single partner whose status was HIV-negative [HR = 2.34(1.16-4.73)] and; 2 partners both of HIV-unknown status [HR = 4.42(1.59-12.29)]. Women with 2 more of these risk factors: marijuana use, heavy drinking, or use of either during sex, had increased pregnancy incidence [HR = 2.66 (1.24-5.72)].It is possible to screen South African women for pregnancy risk at trial entry. Providing injectable contraception for free on-site and supporting consistent condom use may reduce incident pregnancy. Screening should determine the substance use, partnering, and HIV status of both members of the couple for both pregnancy and HIV prevention.SA National Health Research Database DOH-27-0207-1539; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00413725.
Project description:There is conflicting data on the effect of HIV infection as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pregnancy outcome. The objectives of this study were to compare pregnancy outcomes in women with and without HIV infection, and to evaluate the effect of HAART on pregnancy in HIV-infected women.This is a prospective case record analysis of 212 HIV-infected women delivering between 2002 and 2015, in a tertiary health care center in India. The pregnancy outcome in HIV-infected women was compared to 238 HIV-uninfected controls. Women received ART for prevention of mother to child transmission as per protocol which varied during the period of study. Effect of use of ART on preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was analyzed.HIV-infected women were more likely to have PTB, IUGR, and anemia (9.4%, 9.9%, 5.2%) compared to uninfected women (7.6%, 5%, 3.8%), this did not reach statistical significance (P-value = >0.05). The incidence of PIH, diabetes mellitus and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was similar in both groups. Mean birth weight was significantly lower in neonates of HIV-infected women (2593.60±499g) than HIV-uninfected women (2919±459g) [P-value=0.001]. neonatal intensive care unit admissions were also significantly higher in infants born to HIV-infected women (P-value=0.002). HIV-infected women on ART had decreased incidence of PTB and IUGR.Good antenatal care and multidisciplinary team approach can optimize pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected women.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Many people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa desire biological children. Implementation of HIV prevention strategies that support the reproductive goals of people living with HIV while minimizing HIV transmission risk to sexual partners and future children requires a comprehensive understanding of pregnancy in this population. We analyzed prospective cohort data to determine pregnancy incidence and predictors among HIV-positive women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a setting with high HIV prevalence and fertility.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART in Mbarara. Bloodwork (including CD4 cells/mm(3), HIV viral load) and questionnaires (including socio-demographics, health status, sexual behavior, partner dynamics, HIV history, and self-reported pregnancy) were completed at baseline and quarterly. Our analysis includes 351 HIV-positive women (18-49 years) who enrolled between 2005-2011. We measured pregnancy incidence by proximal and distal time relative to ART initiation and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (with repeated events) to identify baseline and time-dependent predictors of pregnancy post-ART initiation.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline (pre-ART initiation), median age was 33 years [IQR: 27-37] and median prior livebirths was four [IQR: 2-6]. 38% were married with 61% reporting HIV-positive spouses. 73% of women had disclosed HIV status to a primary sexual partner. Median baseline CD4 was 137 cells/mm(3) [IQR: 81-207]. At enrolment, 9.1% (31/342) reported current pregnancy. After ART initiation, 84 women experienced 105 pregnancies over 3.8 median years of follow-up, yielding a pregnancy incidence of 9.40 per 100 WYs. Three years post-ART initiation, cumulative probability of at least one pregnancy was 28% and independently associated with younger age (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR): 0.89/year increase; 95%CI: 0.86-0.92) and HIV serostatus disclosure to primary sexual partner (AHR: 2.45; 95%CI: 1.29-4.63).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nearly one-third of women became pregnant within three years of initiating ART, highlighting the need for integrated services to prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce periconception-related risks for HIV-infected women choosing to conceive. Association with younger age and disclosure suggests a role for early and couples-based safer conception counselling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Safer conception strategies empower individuals trying to conceive to minimise HIV transmission risk to partners and potential children; however, effectiveness data are scarce. We aimed to assess adoption of safer conception methods and HIV and pregnancy outcomes from Sakh'umndeni, a novel safer conception service in South Africa. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, the Sakh'umndeni clinical cohort at Witkoppen Cinic in Johannesburg (South Africa) enrolled adults aged at least 18 years who were trying to conceive and in relationships with an HIV-positive partner. Couples who were pregnant at enrolment or had been previously diagnosed as infertile were excluded. Participants received safer conception care by a nurse, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-negative partners, counselling around timed condomless sex, or syringes for self-insemination. Primary outcomes were pregnancy incidence and HIV transmission to partners and infants. We estimated time to first pregnancy using Kaplan-Meier curves; pregnancy and HIV incidence were estimated as events per person-years of risk. FINDINGS:Between July 16, 2013, and April 5, 2017, 526 individuals (334 women and 192 men) from 334 partnerships enrolled. 162 (48%) of 334 couples were serodifferent, 149 (45%) were HIV-positive seroconcordant, and 23 (7%) were an HIV-positive woman and an unknown status male partner. At enrolment, 176 (61%) of 287 HIV-positive women and 60 (46%) of 131 HIV-positive men were virally suppressed (<50 copies per mL). Among the safer conception strategies, ART was initiated by 73 (91%) of 80 HIV-positive participants not on ART and PrEP was initiated by 28 (28%) of 101 HIV-negative participants. 2719 follow-up visits were completed, and 99 pregnancies were observed in 89 women. Pregnancy incidence was 41·2 per 100 person-years (95% CI 33·4-50·7); 25 (28%) of 89 pregnancies with a known outcome were miscarried or terminated because of risk to the mother. Pregnancy incidence was 79·0 per 100 person-years (95% CI 49·8-125·4) among HIV-negative women and 36·7 per 100 person-years (29·1-46·3) among HIV-positive women. At the time of pregnancy, viral suppression among women was high (68 [87%] of 78 women had viral loads of <50 copies per mL and 77 [99%] had viral loads of <1000 copies per mL). No horizontal or vertical HIV transmission events were observed. INTERPRETATION:Safer conception strategies empowered couples to safely conceive. Pregnancy incidence among service users was high. Integration of safer conception counselling could promote HIV prevention and linkage to care. FUNDING:US Agency for International Development; UJMT Consortium/Fogarty International Center, US National Institutes of Health (NIH); and Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research (NIH).
Project description:Background:Women enrolled in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efficacy trials receive counseling on prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and pregnancy during every visit. Incident pregnancy has an impact on efficacy outcomes. Incidence rates of pregnancy and HIV/STIs among women who became pregnant and associated risk factors were assessed. Methods:Data from 9165 women participating in HIV prevention trials in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa from 2002-2012 were combined. Demographic and behavioral predictors of incidence pregnancy and incidence HIV and STIs were determined using Cox regression models. Results:Overall pregnancy incidence was 9.6 per 100 person-year (py) (95% confidence interval [Cl], 9.1-10.3). Human immunodeficiency virus incidence among pregnant women was 5.93 per 100 py (95% Cl, 4.73-7.44). Incidence of STIs among pregnant women for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum (syphilis) were 10.87, 7.42, 3.92, and 1.43 per 100 py, respectively. In the adjusted analyses, we observed overlapping risk factors for HIV acquisition during pregnancy, ie, young age, not married/not cohabitating, and low parity. The risk of pregnancy and HIV acquisition is more than 3 times higher among young women (<20 years of age). Conclusions:We identified overlapping risk factors for pregnancy and HIV incidence, suggesting an urgent need for appropriate, targeted, individual-centred counseling for women participating in HIV prevention trials.
Project description:To prepare for future HIV prevention trials, we conducted prospective cohort studies among women working in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania. We examined the prevalence and incidence of HIV and HSV-2, and associated risk factors.Women aged 18-44 years working in food and recreational facilities were screened to determine their eligibility for the studies. Between 2008-2010, HIV-negative women were enrolled and followed for 12 months. At enrolment and 3-monthly, we collected socio-demographic and behavioural data, and performed clinical examinations for collection of biological specimens that were tested for reproductive tract infections. Risk factors for HIV and HSV-2 incidence were investigated using Poisson regression models.We screened 2,229 and enrolled 1,378 women. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range, IQR 22, 33), and median duration working at current facility was 2 years. The prevalences of HIV at screening and HSV-2 at enrolment were 16% and 67%, respectively. Attendance at the 12-month visit was 86%. HIV and HSV-2 incidence rates were 3.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.8,5.1) and 28.6 (95% CI: 23.5,35.0)/100 person-years, respectively. Women who were separated, divorced, or widowed were at increased risk of HIV (adjusted incidence rate ratio, aRR?=?6.63; 95% CI: 1.97,22.2) and HSV-2 (aRR?=?2.00; 95% CI: 1.15,3.47) compared with married women. Women reporting ?3 partners in the past 3 months were at higher HIV risk compared with women with 0-1 partner (aRR?=?4.75; 95% CI: 2.10,10.8), while those who had reached secondary education or above were at lower risk of HSV-2 compared with women with incomplete primary education (aRR?=?0.42; 95% CI: 0.22,0.82).HIV and HSV-2 rates remain substantially higher in this cohort than in the general population, indicating urgent need for effective interventions. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of conducting trials to test new interventions in this highly-mobile population.
Project description:Pregnancy incidence rates among women living with HIV (WLWH) have increased over time due to longer life expectancy, improved health status, and improved access to and HIV prevention benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, it is unclear whether intended or unintended pregnancies are contributing to observed increases.We analyzed retrospective data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS). Kaplan-Meier methods and GEE Poisson models were used to measure cumulative incidence and incidence rate of pregnancy after HIV diagnosis overall, and by pregnancy intention. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine independent correlates of unintended pregnancy among the most recent/current pregnancy.Of 1,165 WLWH included in this analysis, 278 (23.9%) women reported 492 pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, 60.8% of which were unintended. Unintended pregnancy incidence (24.6 per 1,000 Women-Years (WYs); 95% CI: 21.0, 28.7) was higher than intended pregnancy incidence (16.6 per 1,000 WYs; 95% CI: 13.8, 20.1) (Rate Ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8). Pregnancy incidence among WLWH who initiated cART before or during pregnancy (29.1 per 1000 WYs with 95% CI: 25.1, 33.8) was higher than among WLWH not on cART during pregnancy (11.9 per 1000 WYs; 95% CI: 9.5, 14.9) (Rate Ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-3.0). Women with current or recent unintended pregnancy (vs. intended pregnancy) had higher adjusted odds of being single (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.42), younger at time of conception (AOR: 0.95 per year increase, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), and being born in Canada (AOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.92).Nearly one-quarter of women reported pregnancy after HIV diagnosis, with 61% of all pregnancies reported as unintended. Integrated HIV and reproductive health care programming is required to better support WLWH to optimize pregnancy planning and outcomes and to prevent unintended pregnancy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care. METHODS:Data were obtained through the linkage of two separate studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study (UK CHIC), a cohort of adults attending 13 large HIV clinics; and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a national surveillance study of HIV-positive pregnant women. Pregnancy incidence was measured using the proportion of women in UK CHIC with a pregnancy reported to NSHPC. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors of pregnancy and assess changes in pregnancy incidence in 2000-2009. RESULTS:The number of women accessing care at UK CHIC sites increased as did the number of pregnancies. Older women were less likely to have a pregnancy [adjusted relative rate (aRR) 0.44 per 10 year increment in age, [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.41-0.46)], P < 0.001] as were women with CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/?l compared with CD4 cell count 200-350 cells/?l [aRR 0.65 (0.55-0.77), P < 0.001] and women of white ethnicity compared with women of black African ethnicity [aRR 0.67 (0.57-0.80), P?< 0.001]. The likelihood that women had a pregnancy increased over the study period [aRR 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P < 0.001). The rate of change did not significantly differ according to age group, antiretroviral therapy use, CD4 group or ethnicity. CONCLUSION:The pregnancy rate among women accessing HIV clinical care increased in 2000-2009. HIV-positive women with, or planning, a pregnancy require a high level of care and this is likely to continue and increase as more women of older age have pregnancies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Women may have persistent risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum. Estimating risk of HIV during these periods is important to inform optimal prevention approaches. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate maternal HIV incidence during pregnancy/postpartum and to compare mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk among women with incident versus chronic infection.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We searched PubMed, Embase, and AIDS-related conference abstracts between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2013, for articles and abstracts describing HIV acquisition during pregnancy/postpartum. The inclusion criterion was studies with data on recent HIV during pregnancy/postpartum. Random effects models were constructed to pool HIV incidence rates, cumulative HIV incidence, hazard ratios (HRs), or odds ratios (ORs) summarizing the association between pregnancy/postpartum status and HIV incidence, and MTCT risk and rates. Overall, 1,176 studies met the search criteria, of which 78 met the inclusion criterion, and 47 contributed data. Using data from 19 cohorts representing 22,803 total person-years, the pooled HIV incidence rate during pregnancy/postpartum was 3.8/100 person-years (95% CI 3.0-4.6): 4.7/100 person-years during pregnancy and 2.9/100 person-years postpartum (p?=?0.18). Pooled cumulative HIV incidence was significantly higher in African than non-African countries (3.6% versus 0.3%, respectively; p<0.001). Risk of HIV was not significantly higher among pregnant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.5-2.1) or postpartum women (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.6) than among non-pregnant/non-postpartum women in five studies with available data. In African cohorts, MTCT risk was significantly higher among women with incident versus chronic HIV infection in the postpartum period (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.2-3.9) or in pregnancy/postpartum periods combined (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.4). However, the small number of studies limited power to detect associations and sources of heterogeneity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of persistent HIV risk, at rates similar to "high risk" cohorts. MTCT risk was elevated among women with incident infections. Detection and prevention of incident HIV in pregnancy/postpartum should be prioritized, and is critical to decrease MTCT.
Project description:In sub-Saharan Africa, most women who test HIV negative at the first antenatal care encounter are rarely tested again during pregnancy and postpartum, yet data suggests that pregnancy is associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition compared to non-pregnant women. We describe HIV incidence during pregnancy and postpartum in Lesotho, a high prevalence setting, and factors associated with HIV seroconversion. We enrolled a cohort of HIV negative women presenting at health facilities for antenatal care and followed them through delivery up to 24 months postpartum. Women were repeatedly tested for HIV according to the Lesotho Ministry of Health routine rapid HIV testing guidelines and responded to risk behavior questionnaire every three months. We estimated HIV incidence and associated 95% confidence intervals. We used mixed effects Cox regression models to identify independent factors associated with seroconversion accounting for repeated assessment. The estimated overall HIV incidence rate was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.05-2.28) per 100 person- years. The estimated HIV incidence rate during pregnancy (2.61 per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.12-5.14) was almost double the estimated HIV incidence during postpartum (1.36 per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 0.83-2.10). Women's age (14-24 years compared to 25-45 years), multiple sexual partnerships, urethral discharge and no condoms nor pre-exposure prophylaxis were independently associated with HIV infection. There is an increased need for counseling and support of HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women to stay HIV-negative, including provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis during this high-risk period, particularly among adolescent and young women.