Strongly hyperpolarized gas from parahydrogen by rational design of ligand-capped nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: The production of hyperpolarized fluids in continuous mode would broaden substantially the range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and biomedicine. Here we show that the rational design of a heterogeneous catalyst based on a judicious choice of metal type, nanoparticle size and surface decoration with appropriate ligands leads to highly efficient pairwise addition of dihydrogen across an unsaturated bond. This is demonstrated in a parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) experiment by a 508-fold enhancement (±78) of a CH(3) proton signal and a corresponding 1219-fold enhancement (±187) of a CH(2) proton signal using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). In contrast, bulk metal catalyst does not show this effect due to randomization of reacting dihydrogen. Our approach results in the largest gas-phase NMR signal enhancement by PHIP known to date. Sensitivity-enhanced NMR with this technique could be used to image microfluidic reactions in-situ, to probe nonequilibrium thermodynamics or for the study of metabolic reactions.
Project description:Parahydrogen can be used in catalytic hydrogenations to achieve substantial enhancement of NMR signals of the reaction products and in some cases of the reaction reagents as well. The corresponding nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique, known as parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP), has been applied to boost the sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging by several orders of magnitude. The catalyst properties are of paramount importance for PHIP because the addition of parahydrogen to a substrate must be pairwise. This requirement significantly narrows down the range of the applicable catalysts. Herein, we study an efficient silica-supported vanadium oxo organometallic complex (VCAT) in hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions in terms of efficient PHIP production. This is the first example of group 5 catalyst used to produce PHIP. Hydrogenations of propene and propyne with parahydrogen over VCAT demonstrated production of hyperpolarized propane and propene, respectively. The achieved NMR signal enhancements were 200-300-fold in the case of propane and 1300-fold in the case of propene. Propane dehydrogenation in the presence of parahydrogen produced no hyperpolarized propane, but instead the hyperpolarized side-product 1-butene was detected. Test experiments of other group 5 (Ta) and group 4 (Zr) catalysts showed a much lower efficiency in PHIP as compared to that of VCAT. The results prove the general conclusion that vanadium-based catalysts and other group 4 and group 5 catalysts can be used to produce PHIP. The hydrogenation/dehydrogenation processes, however, are accompanied by side reactions leading, for example, to C4, C2, and C1 side products. Some of the side products like 1-butene and 2-butene were shown to appear hyperpolarized, demonstrating that the reaction mechanism includes pairwise parahydrogen addition in these cases as well.
Project description:We report on a simple approach for efficient NMR proton hyperpolarization of propane using the parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) technique, which yielded ?6.2?% proton polarization using ?80?% parahydrogen, a record level achieved with any hyperpolarization technique for propane. Unlike in previously developed approaches designed for continuous-flow operation, where reactants (propene and parahydrogen) are simultaneously loaded for homogeneous or heterogeneous pairwise addition of parahydrogen, here a batch-mode method is applied: propene is first loaded into the catalyst-containing solution, which is followed by homogeneous hydrogenation via parahydrogen bubbling delivered at ?7.1 atm. The achieved nuclear spin polarization of this contrast agent potentially useful for pulmonary imaging is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved in the continuous-flow homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation, and a factor of 3-10 more efficient compared to the typical results of heterogeneous continuous-flow hydrogenations.
Project description:A supported metal catalyst was designed, characterized, and tested for aqueous phase heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate with parahydrogen to produce 13 C-hyperpolarized ethyl acetate for potential biomedical applications. The Rh/TiO2 catalyst with a metal loading of 23.2?wt?% produced strongly hyperpolarized 13 C-enriched ethyl acetate-1-13 C detected at 9.4 T. An approximately 14-fold 13 C signal enhancement was detected using circa 50?% parahydrogen gas without taking into account relaxation losses before and after polarization transfer by magnetic field cycling from nascent parahydrogen-derived protons to 13 C nuclei. This first observation of 13 C PHIP-hyperpolarized products over a supported metal catalyst in an aqueous medium opens up new possibilities for production of catalyst-free aqueous solutions of nontoxic hyperpolarized contrast agents for a wide range of biomolecules amenable to the parahydrogen induced polarization by side arm hydrogenation (PHIP-SAH) approach.
Project description:Hyperpolarized gases revolutionize functional pulmonary imaging. Hyperpolarized propane is a promising emerging contrast agent for pulmonary MRI. Unlike hyperpolarized noble gases, proton-hyperpolarized propane gas can be imaged using conventional MRI scanners with proton imaging capability. Moreover, it is non-toxic odorless anesthetic. Furthermore, propane hyperpolarization can be accomplished by pairwise addition of parahydrogen to propylene. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of propane hyperpolarization via hydrogenation of cyclopropane with parahydrogen. 1 H propane polarization up to 2.4?% is demonstrated here using 82?% parahydrogen enrichment and heterogeneous Rh/TiO2 hydrogenation catalyst. This level of polarization is several times greater than that obtained with propylene as a precursor under the same conditions despite the fact that direct pairwise addition of parahydrogen to cyclopropane may also lead to formation of propane with NMR-invisible hyperpolarization due to magnetic equivalence of nascent parahydrogen protons in two CH3 groups. NMR-visible hyperpolarized propane demonstrated here can be formed only via a reaction pathway involving cleavage of at least one C-H bond in the reactant molecule. The resulting NMR signal enhancement of hyperpolarized propane was sufficient for 2D gradient echo MRI of ?5.5?mL phantom with 1×1?mm2 spatial resolution and 64×64 imaging matrix despite relatively low chemical conversion of cyclopropane substrate.
Project description:Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was used to demonstrate the concept that highly polarized, catalyst-free fluids can be obtained in a catalysis-free regime using a chemical reaction with molecular addition of parahydrogen to a water-soluble Rh(I) complex carrying a payload of compound with unsaturated (C?C) bonds. Hydrogenation of norbornadiene leads to formation of norbornene, which is eliminated from the Rh(I) complex and, therefore, leaves the aqueous phase and becomes a gaseous hyperpolarized molecule. The Rh(I) metal complex resides in the original liquid phase, while the product of hydrogen addition is found exclusively in the gaseous phase based on the affinity. Hyperpolarized norbornene (1)H NMR signals observed in situ were enhanced by a factor of approximately 10,000 at a static field of 47.5 mT. High-resolution (1)H NMR at a field of 9.4 T was used for ex situ detection of hyperpolarized norbornene in the gaseous phase, where a signal enhancement factor of approximately 160 was observed. This concept of stoichiometric as opposed to purely catalytic use of PHIP-available complexes with an unsaturated payload precursor molecule can be extended to other contrast agents for both homogeneous and heterogeneous PHIP. The Rh(I) complex was employed in aqueous medium suitable for production of hyperpolarized contrast agents for biomedical use. Detection of PHIP hyperpolarized gas by low-field NMR is demonstrated here for the first time.
Project description:Reported here is a water soluble Rh(I)-based catalyst for performing parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). The [Rh(I)(norbornadiene)(THP)(2)](+)[BF(4)](-) catalyst utilizes the monodentate phosphine ligand tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The monodentate PHIP catalyst is less susceptible to oxygenation by air and THP ligand and is significantly less expensive than bidentate water-soluble PHIP ligands. In situ PHIP detection with this monodentate Rh(I) based catalyst in water yielded 12% (13)C polarization for the parahydrogen addition product, 2-hydroxyethyl 1-(13)C-propionate-d(2,3,3) (HEP), with a (13)C T(1) relaxation of 108 seconds at 0.0475 T. PHIP polarization yields were high, reflecting efficient hydrogenation even under conditions of high content of the oxidized phosphine form of the THP ligand.
Project description:Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is an NMR hyperpolarization technique that increases nuclear spin polarization by orders of magnitude, and it is particularly well-suited to study hydrogenation reactions. However, the use of high-field NMR spectroscopy is not always possible, especially in the context of potential industrial-scale reactor applications. On the other hand, the direct low-field NMR detection of reaction products with enhanced nuclear spin polarization is challenging due to near complete signal cancellation from nascent parahydrogen protons. We show that hydrogenation products prepared by PHIP can be irradiated with weak (on the order of spin-spin couplings of a few hertz) alternating magnetic field (called Spin-Lock Induced Crossing or SLIC) and consequently efficiently detected at low magnetic field (e.g., 0.05 T used here) using examples of several types of organic molecules containing a vinyl moiety. The detected hyperpolarized signals from several reaction products at tens of millimolar concentrations were enhanced by 10000-fold, producing NMR signals an order of magnitude greater than the background signal from protonated solvents.
Project description:Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is an intriguing quantum-mechanical effect that is used for routine medical diagnostics and chemical analysis alike. Numerous advancements have contributed to the success of the technique, including hyperpolarized contrast agents that enable real-time imaging of metabolism in?vivo. Herein, we report the finding of an NMR radio amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (RASER), which continuously emits 1 H NMR signal for more than 10?min. Using parahydrogen induced hyperpolarization (PHIP) with 50?% para-hydrogen, we demonstrated the effect at 600?MHz but expect that it is functional across a wide range of frequencies, e.g. 101 -103 ?MHz. PHIP-RASER occurs spontaneously or can be triggered with a standard NMR excitation. Full chemical shift resolution was maintained, and a linewidth of 0.6?ppb was achieved. The effect was reproduced by simulations using a weakly coupled, two spin- 1/2 system. All devices used were standard issue, such that the effect can be reproduced by any NMR lab worldwide with access to liquid nitrogen for producing parahydrogen.
Project description:The ability of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) to activate H2 is of significant interest for metal-free catalysis. The activation of H2 is also the key element of parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP), one of the nuclear spin hyperpolarization techniques. It is demonstrated that o-phenylene-based ansa-aminoboranes (AABs) can produce 1H nuclear spin hyperpolarization through a reversible interaction with parahydrogen at ambient temperatures. Heteronuclei are useful in NMR and MRI as well because they have a broad chemical shift range and long relaxation times and may act as background-free labels. We report spontaneous formation of 15N hyperpolarization of the N-H site for a family of AABs. The process is efficient at the high magnetic field of an NMR magnet (7 T), and it provides up to 350-fold 15N signal enhancements. Different hyperpolarization effects are observed with various AAB structures and in a broad temperature range. Spontaneous hyperpolarization, albeit an order of magnitude weaker than that for 15N, was also observed for 11B nuclei.
Project description:Complex mixtures, commonly encountered in metabolomics and food analytics, are now routinely measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Since many samples must be measured, one-dimensional proton (1D 1H) spectroscopy is the experiment of choice. A common challenge in complex mixture 1H NMR spectroscopy is spectral crowding, which limits the assignment of molecular components to those molecules in relatively high abundance. This limitation is exacerbated when the sample quantity itself is limited and concentrations are reduced even further during sample preparation for routine measurement. To address these challenges, we report a novel microfluidic NMR platform integrating signal enhancement via parahydrogen induced hyperpolarisation. The platform simultaneously addresses the challenges of handling small sample quantities through microfluidics, the associated decrease in signal given the reduced sample quantity by Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE), and overcoming spectral crowding by taking advantage of the chemosensing aspect of the SABRE effect. SABRE at the microscale is enabled by an integrated PDMS membrane alveolus, which provides bubble-free hydrogen gas contact with the sample solution. With this platform, we demonstrate high field NMR chemosensing of microliter sample volumes, nanoliter detection volumes, and micromolar concentrations corresponding to picomole molecular sensitivity.