Taxonomic review of the Pterostichini and Loxandrini fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Carabidae).
ABSTRACT: The generic-level taxa included in Pterostichini and Loxandrini from New Caledonia are reviewed and a key to genera and species provided. Two new genera are described, Paniestichus and Abacophrastus, with the following new species: Paniestichus subsolianus, Abacophrastus millei, Abacophrastus chapes, Abacophrastus carnifex, Abacophrastus hobbit, Abacophrastus megalops, Abacophrastus reflexus and Abacophrastus bellorum. Abacoleptus curtus new species, is described. Notonomus irideus and Notonomus savesi are moved to Prosopogmus. Four new species of Prosopogmus are described: Prosopogmus koghisensis, Prosopogmus lescheni, Prosopogmus fortis and Prosopogmus aoupiniensis. Homalosoma griseolum is moved to Sphodrosomus. Cerabilia is newly recorded from New Caledonia and the genus is moved from Platynini to Loxandrini and therefore is the first report of Loxandrini from New Caledonia. An apparent adventive from Australia, Darodilia, is newly reported from New Caledonia.
Project description:Taxonomic changes are made for several problematic Australian Carabidae in the tribes Harpalini, Abacetini, Pterostichini, and Oodini. Examination of types resulted in the synonymy of Veradia Castelnau, 1867 with Leconomerus Chaudoir, 1850; Nelidus Chaudoir, 1878, Feronista Moore, 1965, and Australomasoreus Baehr, 2007 with Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and newly combining Fouquetius variabilis Straneo, 1960 in the genus Pediomorphus Chaudoir, 1878; Australomasoreus monteithi Baehr, 2007 in the genus Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and Anatrichis lilliputana W.J. Macleay, 1888 in the genus Nanodiodes Bousquet, 1996. Cuneipectus Sloane, 1907 is placed in Pterostichini Bonelli, 1810, which is a senior synonym of Cuneipectini Sloane, 1907.
Project description:Lesticus finisterrae (Carabidae: Pterostichini) sp. n. (type locality: Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea), is described and characters to differentiate it from other "Trigonotomi" species are given. A key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of the island, including all genera of Morionini, Cratocerini, Drimostomatini, Abacetini, Loxandrini and Pterostichini, is provided. The genus Rhytisternus (Pterostichini) is for the first time reported from New Guinea, represented by the likely adventive species Rhytisternus laevis (Macleay). The previously unknown male of Stegazopteryx ivimkaensis Will (Drimostomatini) is described.
Project description:All of the known species of the Chinese endemic subgenus Pterostichus (Circinatus) are revised, keyed, and illustrated. Eleven new species and one new subspecies are described: Pterostichus adelphus sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.66°, E103.06°); Pterostichus ailaoicus sp. n. (Yunnan: Xinping, N23.94°, E101.50°); Pterostichus camelus sp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°); Pterostichus dimorphus sp. n. (Yunnan: Dayao, N26.08°, E101.03°); Pterostichus maitreya sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus miao sp. n. (Guangxi: Maoershan, N25.87°, E110.41°); Pterostichus tumulus sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus wangjiani sp. n. (Yunnan: Dongchuan, N26.08°, E102.87°); Pterostichus yan sp. n. (Hubei: Shennongjia, N31.47°, E110.39°); Pterostichus yuxiaodongi sp. n. (Sichuan: Wolong, N30.99°, E103.15°); Pterostichus zhygealu sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.67°, E103.05°); and Pterostichus cavazzutianus mianningensis subsp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°). Pterostichus cavazzutianus is proposed as a replacement name for Pterostichus cavazuttii Allegro and Sciaky 2010, preoccupied by Pterostichus (Sinosteropus) barbarae cavazuttii Sciaky and Facchini 2003. A lectotype is designated for Pterostichus baenningeri Jedli?ka 1931. Two species, Pterostichus schuelkei Sciaky & Wrase and Pterostichus wenxianensis Allegro & Sciaky, are moved from the subgenus Circinatus to Morphohaptoderus. An infra-subgeneric taxonomy is proposed for the subgenus Circinatus with four species groups. The male endophallus characters for most species of Circinatus were well studied, with three types of endophallus defined. A phylogenetic analysis based on adult morphological characters confirmed the infra-subgeneric classification and clarified some of the relationships among species. Two main lineages within Circinatus were identified from the phylogenetic analyses. Three of the four species groups were monophyletic, whereas the fourth group was paraphyletic.
Project description:New Caledonia is home to many endemic species of plants and animals. Here, we improve our grasp on that biota by describing five new species of armored scale insects in the genus Andaspis: Andaspis brevicornutasp. n, A. conicasp. n., A. nothofagisp. n., A. novaecaledoniaesp. n., and A. ornatasp. n. Each is known exclusively from collections on southern beeches (Nothofagus spp.) in New Caledonia. A key to the species of Andaspis of New Caledonia is provided.
Project description:New Caledonian representation of the cosmopolitan genus Oxyethira Eaton is reviewed, with the description of new species bringing to 26 the total for the genus on the island. The species are referred to three subgenera: Trichoglene Neboiss (11 species), Pacificotrichia Kelley (13 species) and Dampfitrichia Ulmer (one species) and one species is unplaced to subgenus. A key is provided to Oxyethira species of New Caledonia. In addition, new records are given for two otherwise Australian species, Hydroptila losida Mosely and Hellyethira malleoforma Wells. Points marked on a series of small maps of New Caledonia indicate the site or sites at which the species were collected. This final paper in a series of generic revisions brings the hydroptilid fauna of the island of New Caledonia to 60 species, distributed in six genera.
Project description:A new species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) is described: Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum Butaud. It is restricted to the coral islands of Ouvéa, Lifou and Maré in the Loyalty Islands Province (New Caledonia) and is most similar to Stigmaphyllondiscolor (Gand.) C.E.Anderson, known from New Caledonia and Solomon Islands. Previously, plants now known as Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum were included in Stigmaphyllontaomense (Baker f.) C.E.Anderson, endemic to the northern part of Grande-Terre and Belep Islands (New Caledonia). A new circumscription of Stigmaphyllontaomense is proposed. The regional key for New Caledonian species of Stigmaphyllon is updated.
Project description:All animals must coordinate growth rate and timing of maturation to reach the appropriate final size. Here, we describe <i>hobbit</i>, a novel and conserved gene identified in a forward genetic screen for <i>Drosophila</i> animals with small body size. <i>hobbit</i> is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes, but its function remains unknown. We demonstrate that <i>hobbit</i> mutant animals have systemic growth defects because they fail to secrete insulin. Other regulated secretion events also fail in <i>hobbit</i> mutant animals, including mucin-like 'glue' protein secretion from the larval salivary glands. <i>hobbit</i> mutant salivary glands produce glue-containing secretory granules that are reduced in size. Importantly, secretory granules in <i>hobbit</i> mutant cells lack essential membrane fusion machinery required for exocytosis, including Synaptotagmin 1 and the SNARE SNAP-24. These membrane fusion proteins instead accumulate inside enlarged late endosomes. Surprisingly, however, the Hobbit protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest that Hobbit regulates a novel step in intracellular trafficking of membrane fusion proteins. Our studies also suggest that genetic control of body size, as a measure of insulin secretion, is a sensitive functional readout of the secretory machinery.
Project description:The species of the genus Notopygos Grube, 1855 are characterized by an ovate body, a prominent caruncle with three lobes, dendritic branchiae, and double dorsal cirri. Twenty-two species belonging to Notopygos have been described, mostly from the Indo-Pacific region. In America, few species are frequently recorded: Notopygos crinita Grube, 1855 from St. Helena Island (Atlantic) and Notopygos ornata Grube and Ørsted in Grube 1857 from Costa Rica (Pacific). Notopygos crinita is a widely distributed species in the Western Atlantic with additional reports in the Mediterranean Sea (as a questionable alien species) and in the Pacific Ocean. However, only the genus features have been considered, consequently some records could be misidentifications. During a revision of materials from collections and the barcode project, 'Mexican Barcode of Life, MEXBOL', we found specimens of Notopygos megalops and an undescribed species from reef zones in the Caribbean; the former had been considered a junior synonym of Notopygos crinita. Herein, Notopygos megalops is reestablished and Notopygos caribeasp. n. is described. A morphological and DNA barcode approach was used to explain the records of Notopygos ornata in the Atlantic and to show the differences with the new species, since both species share features such as complex pigmentation patterns, and circular projections in the median lobe of the caruncle.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>The biodiversity hotspot of New Caledonia is globally renowned for the diversity and endemism of its flora. New Caledonia's tropical rainforests have been reported to have higher stem densities, higher concentrations of relictual lineages and higher endemism than other rainforests. This study investigates whether these aspects differ in New Caledonian rainforests compared to other high-diversity rainforests in the Southwest Pacific.<h4>Methods</h4>Plants (with a diameter at breast height ?10 cm) were surveyed in nine 1-ha rainforest plots across the main island of New Caledonia and compared with 14 1-ha plots in high-diversity rainforests of the Southwest Pacific (in Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands). This facilitated a comparison of stem densities, taxonomic composition and diversity, and species turnover among plots and countries.<h4>Key results</h4>The study inventoried 11 280 stems belonging to 335 species (93 species ha-1 on average) in New Caledonia. In comparison with other rainforests in the Southwest Pacific, New Caledonian rainforests exhibited higher stem density (1253 stems ha-1 on average) including abundant palms and tree ferns, with the high abundance of the latter being unparalleled outside New Caledonia. In all plots, the density of relictual species was ?10 % for both stems and species, with no discernible differences among countries. Species endemism, reaching 89 % on average, was significantly higher in New Caledonia. Overall, species turnover increased with geographical distance, but not among New Caledonian plots.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High stem density, high endemism and a high abundance of tree ferns with stem diameters ?10 cm are therefore unique characteristics of New Caledonian rainforests. High endemism and high spatial species turnover imply that the current system consisting of a few protected areas is inadequate, and that the spatial distribution of plant species needs to be considered to adequately protect the exceptional flora of New Caledonian rainforests.
Project description:The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty-use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among hypotheses that have been put forward in three of the most important current debates in hominin phylogenetics--the relationship between Australopithecus sediba and Homo, the taxonomic status of the Dmanisi hominins, and the place of the so-called hobbit fossils from Flores, Indonesia, in the hominin tree. Based on our results, several published hypotheses can be statistically rejected. For example, the data do not support the claim that Dmanisi hominins and all other early Homo specimens represent a single species, nor that the hobbit fossils are the remains of small-bodied modern humans, one of whom had Down syndrome. More broadly, our study provides a new baseline dataset for future work on hominin phylogeny and illustrates the promise of Bayesian approaches for understanding hominin phylogenetic relationships.