Trapping of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial to measure furan metabolism in human liver microsomes by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
ABSTRACT: Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen, but the human health effects of furan exposure remain unknown. The oxidation of furan by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is necessary for furan toxicity. The product of this reaction is the reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). To determine whether human liver microsomes metabolize furan to BDA, a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to detect and quantify BDA by trapping this reactive metabolite with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and N-acetyl-l-lysine (NAL). Reaction of NAC and NAL with BDA generates N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine (NAC-BDA-NAL). Formation of NAC-BDA-NAL was quantified in 21 different human liver microsomal preparations. The levels of metabolism were comparable to that observed in F-344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse liver microsomes, two species known to be sensitive to furan-induced toxicity. Studies with recombinant human liver P450s indicated that CYP2E1 is the most active human liver furan oxidase. The activity of CYP2E1 as measured by p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity was correlated to the extent of NAC-BDA-NAL formation in human liver microsomes. The formation of NAC-BDA-NAL was blocked by CYP2E1 inhibitors but not other P450 inhibitors. These results suggest that humans are capable of oxidizing furan to its toxic metabolite, BDA, at rates comparable to those of species sensitive to furan exposure. Therefore, humans may be susceptible to furan's toxic effects.
Project description:Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. On the basis of these observations and the large potential for human exposure, furan has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. The mechanism of tumor induction by furan is unknown. However, the toxicity requires cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan. The product of this oxidation, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), reacts readily with glutathione, amino acids, and DNA and is a bacterial mutagen in Ames assay strain TA104. Characterization of the urinary metabolites of furan is expected to provide information regarding the structure(s) of the reactive metabolite(s). Recently, several urinary metabolites have been identified. We reported the presence of a monoglutathione-BDA reaction product, N-[4-carboxy-4-(3-mercapto-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-l-cysteinylglycine cyclic sulfide. Three additional urinary metabolites of furan were also characterized as follows: R-2-acetylamino-6-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-hexanoic acid, N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine, and its sulfoxide. It was postulated that these three metabolites are derived from degraded protein adducts. However, the possibility that these metabolites result from the reaction of BDA with free lysine and/or cysteine was not ruled out. In this latter case, one might predict that the reaction of thiol-BDA with free lysine would not occur exclusively on the epsilon-amino group. Reaction of BDA with N-acetylcysteine or GSH in the presence of lysine indicated that both the alpha- and the epsilon-amino groups of lysine can be modified by thiol-BDA. The N-acetylcysteine-BDA-N-acetyllysine urinary metabolites were solely linked through the epsilon-amino group of lysine. A GSH-BDA-lysine cross-link was a significant hepatocyte metabolite of furan. In this case, the major product resulted from reaction with the epsilon-amino group of lysine; however, small amounts of the alpha-amino reaction product were also observed. Western analysis of liver and hepatocyte protein extracts using anti-GSH antibody indicated that GSH was covalently linked to proteins in tissues or cells exposed to furan. Our data support the hypothesis that GSH-BDA can react with either free lysine or protein lysine groups. These data suggest that there are multiple pathways by which furan can modify cellular nucleophiles. In one pathway, BDA reacts directly with proteins to form cysteine-lysine reaction products. In another, BDA reacts with GSH to form GSH-BDA conjugates, which then react with cellular nucleophiles like free lysine or lysine moieties in proteins. Both pathways will give rise to N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine. Given the abundance of these metabolites in urine of furan-treated rats, these pathways appear to be major pathways of furan biotransformation in vivo.
Project description:Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. Although humans are most likely exposed to furan through a variety of sources, the effect of furan exposure on human health is still unknown. In rodents, furan requires metabolism to exert its toxic effects. The initial product of the cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation is a reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA is toxic and mutagenic and consequently is considered responsible for the toxic effects of furan. The urinary metabolites of furan in rats are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, and precursors to these metabolites are detected in furan-exposed hepatocytes. Many of these precursors are 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial-amine cross-links in which the amines are amino acids and polyamines. Because these metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, their levels are a measure of the internal dose of this reactive metabolite. To compare the ability of human hepatocytes to convert furan to the same metabolites as rodent hepatocytes, furan was incubated with cryopreserved human and rodent hepatocytes. A semiquantitative liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for a number of the previously characterized furan metabolites. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of the metabolites demonstrated that furan is metabolized in a similar manner in all three species. These results indicate that humans may be susceptible to the toxic effects of furan.
Project description:Furan is a rodent hepatotoxicant and carcinogen. Because this compound is an important industrial intermediate and has been detected in heat-processed foods and smoke, humans are likely exposed to this toxic compound. Characterization of urinary metabolites of furan will lead to the development of biomarkers to assess human health risks associated with furan exposure. Previous studies indicate that furan is oxidized to a reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), in a reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450. Five previously characterized metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles such as glutathione and protein. They include the monoglutathione reaction product, N-[4-carboxy-4-(3-mercapto-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-l-cysteinylglycine cyclic sulfide, and its downstream metabolite, S-[1-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methylthiol, as well as (R)-2-acetylamino-6-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-hexanoic acid and N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine and its sulfoxide. The last two compounds are downstream metabolites of a BDA-derived cysteine-lysine cross-link, S-[1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine. In this report, we present the characterization of seven additional urinary furan metabolites, all of which are derived from this cross-link. The cysteinyl residue is subject to several biotransformation reactions, including N-acetylation and S-oxidation. Alternatively, it can undergo beta-elimination followed by S-methylation to a methylthiol intermediate that is further oxidized to a sulfoxide. The lysine portion of the cross-link either is N-acetylated or undergoes a transamination reaction to generate an alpha-ketoacid metabolite that undergoes oxidative decarboxylation. Some of these metabolites are among the most abundant furan metabolites present in urine as judged by LC-MS/MS analysis, indicating that the oxidation of furan to BDA and BDA's subsequent reaction with cellular cysteine and lysine residues may represent a significant in vivo pathway of furan biotransformation. Because they are derived from cellular BDA reaction products, these metabolites are markers of furan exposure and bioactivation and could be explored as potential biomarkers in human studies.
Project description:The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co-occur. Furans are produced from several precursors such as ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and are found in a variety of foods including coffee and canned and jarred foods. Regarding furan occurrence, 17,056 analytical results were used in the evaluation. No occurrence data were received on methylfurans. The highest exposures to furan were estimated for infants, mainly from ready-to-eat meals. Grains and grain-based products contribute most for toddlers, other children and adolescents. In adults, elderly and very elderly, coffee is the main contributor to dietary exposure. Furan is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is found in highest amounts in the liver. It has a short half-life and is metabolised by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to the reactive metabolite, cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dialdehyde (BDA). BDA can bind covalently to amino acids, proteins and DNA. Furan is hepatotoxic in rats and mice with cholangiofibrosis in rats and hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in mice being the most prominent effects. There is limited evidence of chromosomal damage in vivo and a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. Clear evidence for indirect mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, gene expression alterations, epigenetic changes, inflammation and increased cell proliferation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the risk characterisation using as a reference point a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10% of 0.064 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of cholangiofibrosis in the rat. The calculated MOEs indicate a health concern. This conclusion was supported by the calculated MOEs for the neoplastic effects.
Project description:Furan is toxic and carcinogenic in rodents. Because of the large potential for human exposure, furan is classified as a possible human carcinogen. The detailed mechanism by which furan causes toxicity and cancer is not yet known. Since furan toxicity requires cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, we have characterized the urinary and hepatocyte metabolites of furan to gain insight into the chemical nature of the reactive intermediate. Previous studies in hepatocytes indicated that furan is oxidized to the reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which reacts with glutathione (GSH) to form 2-(S-glutathionyl)succinaldehyde (GSH-BDA). This intermediate forms pyrrole cross-links with cellular amines such as lysine and glutamine. In this article, we demonstrate that GSH-BDA also forms cross-links with ornithine, putrescine, and spermidine when furan is incubated with rat hepatocytes. The relative levels of these metabolites are not completely explained by hepatocellular levels of the amines or by their reactivity with GSH-BDA. Mercapturic acid derivatives of the spermidine cross-links were detected in the urine of furan-treated rats, which indicates that this metabolic pathway occurs in vivo. Their detection in furan-treated hepatocytes and in urine from furan-treated rats indicates that polyamines may play an important role in the toxicity of furan.
Project description:Limonin (LIM), a furan-containing limonoid, is one of the most abundant components of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Recent studies demonstrated that LIM has great potential for inhibiting the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, the mechanisms of LIM-induced enzyme inactivation processes remain unexplored. The main objective of this study was to identify the reactive metabolites of LIM using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three nucleophiles, glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and N-acetyl lysine (NAL), were used to trap the reactive metabolites of LIM in in vitro and in vivo models. Two different types of mass spectrometry, a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry and a LTQ velos Pro ion trap mass spectrometry, were employed to acquire structural information of nucleophile adducts of LIM. In total, six nucleophile adducts of LIM (M1-M6) with their isomers were identified; among them, M1 was a GSH and NAL conjugate of LIM, M2-M4 were glutathione adducts of LIM, M5 was a NAC and NAL conjugate of LIM, and M6 was a NAC adduct of LIM. Additionally, CYP3A4 was found to be the key enzyme responsible for the bioactivation of limonin. This metabolism study largely facilitates the understanding of mechanisms of limonin-induced enzyme inactivation processes.
Project description:Metabolism of the hepatotoxicant furan leads to protein adduct formation in the target organ. The initial bioactivation step involves cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, generating cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA reacts with lysine to form pyrrolin-2-one adducts. Metabolic studies indicate that BDA also reacts with glutathione (GSH) to generate 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial (GSH-BDA), which then reacts with lysine to form GSH-BDA-lysine cross-links. To explore the relative reactivity of these two reactive intermediates, cytochrome c was reacted with BDA in the presence and absence of GSH. As judged by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, BDA reacts extensively with cytochrome c to form adducts that add 66 Da to the protein, consistent with the formation of pyrrolinone adducts. Addition of GSH to the reaction mixture reduced the overall extent of adduct formation. The mass of the adducted protein was shifted by 355 Da as expected for GSH-BDA-protein cross-link formation. LC-MS/MS analysis of the tryptic digests of the alkylated protein indicated that the majority of adducts occurred on lysine residues, with BDA reacting less selectively than GSH-BDA. Both types of adducts may contribute to the toxic effects of furan.
Project description:Here we report the identification and approximate quantification of cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins in human liver microsomes as determined by nano-LC-MS/MS with application of the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) algorithm during database searching. Protocols based on 1D-gel protein separation and 2D-LC peptide separation gave comparable results. In total, 18 CYP isoforms were unambiguously identified based on unique peptide matches. Further, we have determined the absolute quantity of two CYP enzymes (2E1 and 1A2) in human liver microsomes using stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, where microsomal proteins were separated by 1D-gel electrophoresis, digested with trypsin in the presence of either a CYP2E1- or 1A2-specific stable-isotope labeled tryptic peptide and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the isotope-labeled tryptic peptides and their natural unlabeled analogues quantification could be performed over the range of 0.1-1.5 pmol on column. Liver microsomes from four individuals were analyzed for CYP2E1 giving values of 88-200 pmol/mg microsomal protein. The CYP1A2 content of microsomes from a further three individuals ranged from 165 to 263 pmol/mg microsomal protein. Although, in this proof-of-concept study for CYP quantification, the two CYP isoforms were quantified from different samples, there are no practical reasons to prevent multiplexing the method to allow the quantification of multiple CYP isoforms in a single sample.
Project description:Caderofloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone that is under phase III clinical trials in China. Here we examined the effects of caderofloxacin on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms as well as the potential of caderofloxacin interacting with co-administered drugs.Male rats were treated with caderofloxacin (9 mg/kg, ig) once or twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The effects of caderofloxacin on CYP3A, 2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 2E1 and 2C9 were evaluated using a "cocktail" of 6 probes (midazolam, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, theophylline, chlorzoxazone and diclofenac) injected on d 0 (prior to caderofloxacin exposure) and d 15 (after caderofloxacin exposure). Hepatic microsomes from the caderofloxacin-treated rats were used to assess CYP2E1 activity and chlorzoxazone metabolism. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in hepatic microsomes was analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of hepatic CYP2E1, leading to enhanced metabolism of chlorzoxazone. In vitro microsomal study confirmed that CYP2E1 was a major metabolic enzyme involved in chlorzoxazone metabolism, and the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the activity of CYP2E1 in hepatic microsomes, resulting in increased formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone. Furthermore, the 14-d administration of caderofloxacin significantly increased the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein in liver microsomes, which was consistent with the pharmacokinetic results.Fourteen-day administration of caderofloxacin can induce the expression and activity of hepatic CYP2E1 in rats. When caderofloxacin is administered, a potential drug-drug interaction mediated by CYP2E1 induction should be considered.
Project description:Furan, a possible human carcinogen, is found in heat treated foods and tobacco smoke. Previous studies have shown that humans are capable of converting furan to its reactive metabolite, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), and therefore may be susceptible to furan toxicity. Human risk assessment of furan exposure has been stymied because of the lack of mechanism-based exposure biomarkers. Therefore, a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for six furan metabolites was applied to measure their levels in urine from furan-exposed rodents as well as in human urine from smokers and nonsmokers. The metabolites that result from direct reaction of BDA with lysine (BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine) and from cysteine-BDA-lysine cross-links (N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine, N-acetylcysteine-BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine, and their sulfoxides) were targeted in this study. Five of the six metabolites were identified in urine from rodents treated with furan by gavage. BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine, N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine, and its sulfoxide were detected in most human urine samples from three different groups. The levels of N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine sulfoxide were more than 10 times higher than that of the corresponding sulfide in many samples. The amount of this metabolite was higher in smokers relative to that in nonsmokers and was significantly reduced following smoking cessation. Our results indicate a strong relationship between BDA-derived metabolites and smoking. Future studies will determine if levels of these biomarkers are associated with adverse health effects in humans.