Mosquitoes LTR retrotransposons: a deeper view into the genomic sequence of Culex quinquefasciatus.
ABSTRACT: A set of 67 novel LTR-retrotransposon has been identified by in silico analyses of the Culex quinquefasciatus genome using the LTR_STRUC program. The phylogenetic analysis shows that 29 novel and putatively functional LTR-retrotransposons detected belong to the Ty3/gypsy group. Our results demonstrate that, by considering only families containing potentially autonomous LTR-retrotransposons, they account for about 1% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus. In previous studies it has been estimated that 29% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus is occupied by mobile genetic elements.The potential role of retrotransposon insertions strictly associated with host genes is described and discussed along with the possible origin of a retrotransposon with peculiar Primer Binding Site region. Finally, we report the presence of a group of 38 retrotransposons, carrying tandem repeated sequences but lacking coding potential, and apparently lacking "master copy" elements from which they could have originated. The features of the repetitive sequences found in these non-autonomous LTR retrotransposons are described, and their possible role discussed.These results integrate the existing data on the genomics of an important virus-borne disease vector.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a major fraction of the genomes of higher plants. For example, retrotransposons comprise more than 50% of the maize genome and more than 90% of the wheat genome. LTR retrotransposons are believed to have contributed significantly to the evolution of genome structure and function. The genome sequencing of selected experimental and agriculturally important species is providing an unprecedented opportunity to view the patterns of variation existing among the entire complement of retrotransposons in complete genomes. RESULTS:Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, (LTR retrotransposon structure program), we have mined the GenBank rice (Oryza sativa) database as well as the more extensive (259 Mb) Monsanto rice dataset for LTR retrotransposons. Almost two-thirds (37) of the 59 families identified consist of copia-like elements, but gypsy-like elements outnumber copia-like elements by a ratio of approximately 2:1. At least 17% of the rice genome consists of LTR retrotransposons. In addition to the ubiquitous gypsy- and copia-like classes of LTR retrotransposons, the rice genome contains at least two novel families of unusually small, non-coding (non-autonomous) LTR retrotransposons. CONCLUSIONS:Each of the major clades of rice LTR retrotransposons is more closely related to elements present in other species than to the other clades of rice elements, suggesting that horizontal transfer may have occurred over the evolutionary history of rice LTR retrotransposons. Like LTR retrotransposons in other species with relatively small genomes, many rice LTR retrotransposons are relatively young, indicating a high rate of turnover.
Project description:A nest of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTRs), discovered by LTR_STRUC analysis, is near core genes encoding the NPR1 disease resistance-activating factor and a heat-shock-factor-(HSF-) like protein in sugarbeet hybrid US H20. SCHULTE, a 10 833 bp LTR retrotransposon, with 1372 bp LTRs that are 0.7% divergent, has two ORFs with unexpected introns but encoding a reverse transcriptase with rve and Rvt2 domains similar to Ty1/copia-type retrotransposons and a hypothetical protein. SCHULTE produced significant nucleotide BLAST alignments with repeat DNA elements from all four families of plants represented in the TIGR plant repeat database (PRD); the best nucleotide sequence alignment was to ToRTL1 in Lycopersicon esculentum. A second sugarbeet LTR retrotransposon, SCHMIDT, 11 565 bp in length, has 2561 bp LTRs that share 100% identity with each other and share 98-99% nucleotide sequence identity over 10% of their length with DRVs, a family of highly repetitive, relatively small DNA sequences that are widely dispersed over the sugarbeet genome. SCHMIDT encodes a complete gypsy-like polyprotein in a single ORF. Analysis using LTR_STRUC of an in silico deletion of both of the above two LTR retrotransposons found that SCHULTE and SCHMIDT had inserted within an older LTR retrotransposon, resulting in a nest that is only about 10 Kb upstream of NPR1 in sugarbeet hybrid US H20.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons make up a large fraction of the typical mammalian genome. They comprise about 8% of the human genome and approximately 10% of the mouse genome. On account of their abundance, LTR retrotransposons are believed to hold major significance for genome structure and function. Recent advances in genome sequencing of a variety of model organisms has provided an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate better the diversity of LTR retrotransposons resident in eukaryotic genomes. RESULTS: Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, in conjunction with conventional techniques, we have mined the GenBank mouse (Mus musculus) database and the more complete Ensembl mouse dataset for LTR retrotransposons. We report here that the M. musculus genome contains at least 21 separate families of LTR retrotransposons; 13 of these families are described here for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: All families of mouse LTR retrotransposons are members of the gypsy-like superfamily of retroviral-like elements. Several different families of unrelated non-autonomous elements were identified, suggesting that the evolution of non-autonomy may be a common event. High sequence similarity between several LTR retrotransposons identified in this study and those found in distantly-related species suggests that horizontal transfer has been a significant factor in the evolution of mouse LTR retrotransposons.
Project description:Autonomous retrotransposons lacking long terminal repeats (LTR) account for much of the variation in genome size and structure among vertebrates. Mammalian genomes contain hundreds of thousands of non-LTR retrotransposon copies, mostly resulting from the amplification of a single clade known as L1. The genomes of teleost fish and squamate reptiles contain a much more diverse array of non-LTR retrotransposon families, whereas copy number is relatively low. The majority of non-LTR retrotransposon insertions in nonmammalian vertebrates also appear to be very recent, suggesting strong purifying selection limits the accumulation of non-LTR retrotransposon copies. It is however unclear whether this turnover model, originally proposed in Drosophila, applies to nonmammalian vertebrates. Here, we studied the population dynamics of L1 in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). We found that although most L1 elements are recent in this genome, truncated insertions accumulate readily, and many are fixed at both the population and species level. In contrast, full-length L1 insertions are found at lower population frequencies, suggesting that the turnover model only applies to longer L1 elements in Anolis. We also found that full-length L1 inserts are more likely to be fixed in populations of small effective size, suggesting that the strength of purifying selection against deleterious alleles is highly dependent on host demographic history. Similar mechanisms seem to be controlling the fate of non-LTR retrotransposons in both Anolis and teleostean fish, which suggests that mammals have considerably diverged from the ancestral vertebrate in terms of how they interact with their intragenomic parasites.
Project description:Background:Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. SINEs are composite transposable elements that are mobilized by non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, also called long interspersed elements (LINEs). The 3' part of SINEs usually originated from that of counterpart non-LTR retrotransposons. The 5' part of SINEs mostly originated from small RNA genes. SINE1 is a group of SINEs whose 5' part originated from 7SL RNA, and is represented by primate Alu and murine B1. Well-defined SINE1 has been found only from Euarchontoglires, a group of mammals, in contrast to the wide distribution of SINE2, which has a tRNA-derived sequence, from animals to plants to protists. Both Alu and B1 are mobilized by L1-type non-LTR retrotransposons, which are the only lineage of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons active in these mammalian lineages. Results:Here a new lineage of SINE1 is characterized from the seashore hagfish Eptatretus burgeri genome. This SINE1 family, designated SINE1-1_EBu, is young, and is transposed by RTE-type non-LTR retrotransposon, not L1-type. Comparison with other SINE families from hagfish indicated the birth of SINE1-1_EBu through chimera formation of a 7SL RNA-derived sequence and an older tRNA-derived SINE family. It reveals parallel evolution of SINE1 in two vertebrate lineages with different autonomous non-LTR retrotransposon partners. The comparison between two SINE1 lineages supports that the RNA secondary structure of the Alu domain of 7SL RNA is required for the efficient retrotransposition. Conclusions:The hagfish SINE1 is the first evident SINE1 family found outside of Euarchontoglires. Independent evolution of SINE1 with similar RNA secondary structure originated in 7SL RNA indicates the functional importance of 7SL RNA-derived sequence in the proliferation of SINEs.
Project description:Autonomous non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and their repetitive remnants are ubiquitous components of mammalian genomes. Recently, we identified non-LTR retrotransposon families, Ingi-1_AAl and Ingi-1_EE, in two hedgehog genomes. Here we rename them to Vingi-1_AAl and Vingi-1_EE and report a new clade "Vingi," which is a sister clade of Ingi that lacks the ribonuclease H domain. In the European hedgehog genome, there are 11 non-autonomous families of elements derived from Vingi-1_EE by internal deletions. No retrotransposons related to Vingi elements were found in any of the remaining 33 mammalian genomes nearly completely sequenced to date, but we identified several new families of Vingi and Ingi retrotransposons outside mammals. Our data suggest the horizontal transfer of Vingi elements to hedgehog, although the vertical transfer cannot be ruled out. The compact structure and trans-mobilization of nonautonomous derivatives of Vingi can make them useful for in vivo retrotransposition assay system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: LTR Retrotransposons transpose through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and are ubiquitous components of all eukaryotic genomes thus far examined. Plant genomes, in particular, have been found to be comprised of a remarkably high number of LTR retrotransposons. There is a significant body of direct and indirect evidence that LTR retrotransposons have contributed to gene and genome evolution in plants. RESULTS: To explore the evolutionary history of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and their impact on the genome of Oryza sativa, we have extended an earlier computer-based survey to include all identifiable full-length, fragmented and solo LTR elements in the rice genome database as of April 2002. A total of 1,219 retroelement sequences were identified, including 217 full-length elements, 822 fragmented elements, and 180 solo LTRs. In order to gain insight into the chromosomal distribution of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome, a detailed examination of LTR-retrotransposon sequences on Chromosome 10 was carried out. An average of 22.3 LTR-retrotransposons per Mb were detected in Chromosome 10. CONCLUSIONS: Gypsy-like elements were found to be >4 x more abundant than copia-like elements. Eleven of the thirty-eight investigated LTR-retrotransposon families displayed significant subfamily structure. We estimate that at least 46.5% of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome are older than the age of the species (< 680,000 years). LTR-retrotransposons present in the rice genome range in age from those just recently inserted up to nearly 10 million years old. Approximately 20% of LTR retrotransposon sequences lie within putative genes. The distribution of elements across chromosome 10 is non-random with the highest density (48 elements per Mb) being present in the pericentric region.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Retrotransposons make a significant contribution to the size, organization and genetic diversity of their host genomes. To characterize retrotransposon families in the grapevine genome (the fourth crop plant genome sequenced) we have combined two approaches: a PCR-based method for the isolation of RnaseH-LTR sequences with a computer-based sequence similarity search in the whole-genome sequence of PN40024. RESULTS: Supported by a phylogenic analysis, ten novel Ty1/copia families were distinguished in this study. To select a canonical reference element sequence from amongst the various insertions in the genome belonging to each retroelement family, the following screening criteria were adopted to identify the element sequence with: (1) perfect 5 bp-duplication of target sites, (2) the highest level of identity between 5' and 3'-LTR within a single insertion sequence, and (3) longest, un-interrupted coding capacity within the gag-pol ORF. One to eight copies encoding a single putatively functional gag-pol polyprotein were found for three families, indicating that these families could be still autonomous and active. For the others, no autonomous copies were identified. However, a subset of copies within the presumably non-autonomous families had perfect identity between their 5' and 3' LTRs, indicating a recent insertion event. A phylogenic study based on the sequence alignment of the region located between reverse transcriptase domains I and VII distinguished these 10 families from other plant retrotransposons. Including the previously characterized Ty1/copia-like grapevine retrotransposons Tvv1 and Vine 1 and the Ty3/gypsy-like Gret1 in this assessment, a total of 1709 copies were identified for the 13 retrotransposon families, representing 1.24% of the sequenced genome. The copy number per family ranged from 91-212 copies. We performed insertion site profiling for 8 out of the 13 retrotransposon families and confirmed multiple insertions of these elements across the Vitis genus. Insertional polymorphism analysis and dating of full-length copies based on their LTR divergence demonstrated that each family has a particular amplification history, with 71% of the identified copies being inserted within the last 2 million years. CONCLUSION: The strategy we used efficiently delivered new Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon sequences, increasing the total number of characterized grapevine retrotrotransposons from 3 to 13. We provide insights into the representation and dynamics of the 13 families in the genome. Our data demonstrated that each family has a particular amplification pattern, with 7 families having copies recently inserted within the last 0.2 million year. Among those 7 families with recent insertions, three retain the capacity for activity in the grape genome today.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons constitute 42.4 % of the genome of the 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group), implying that retrotransposons have played important roles in Pyrus evolution. Therefore, further analysis of retrotransposons will enhance our understanding of the evolutionary history of Pyrus. RESULTS:We identified 1836 LTR-retrotransposons in the 'Suli' pear genome, of which 440 LTR-retrotransposons were predicted to contain at least two of three gene models (gag, integrase and reverse transcriptase). Because these were most likely to be functional transposons, we focused our analyses on this set of 440. Most of the LTR-retrotransposons were estimated to have inserted into the genome less than 2.5 million years ago. Sequence analysis showed that the reverse transcriptase component of the identified LTR-retrotransposons was highly heterogeneous. Analyses of transcripts assembled from RNA-Seq databases of two cultivars of Pyrus species showed that LTR-retrotransposons were expressed in the buds and fruit of Pyrus. A total of 734 coding sequences in the 'Suli' genome were disrupted by the identified LTR-retrotransposons. Five high-copy-number LTR-retrotransposon families were identified in Pyrus. These families were rarely found in the genomes of Malus and Prunus, but were distributed extensively in Pyrus and abundance varied between species. CONCLUSIONS:We identified potentially functional, full-length LTR-retrotransposons with three gene models in the 'Suli' genome. The analysis of RNA-seq data demonstrated that these retrotransposons are expressed in the organs of pears. The differential copy number of LTR-retrotransposon families between Pyrus species suggests that the transposition of retrotransposons is an important evolutionary force driving the genetic divergence of species within the genus.
Project description:The dynamics of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and their contribution to genome evolution during plant speciation have remained largely unanswered. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparison of all eight Oryza AA-genome species, and identify 3911 intact LTR retrotransposons classified into 790 families. The top 44 most abundant LTR retrotransposon families show patterns of rapid and distinct diversification since the species split over the last ?4.8 MY (million years). Phylogenetic and read depth analyses of 11 representative retrotransposon families further provide a comprehensive evolutionary landscape of these changes. Compared with Ty1-copia, independent bursts of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon expansions have occurred with the three largest showing signatures of lineage-specific evolution. The estimated insertion times of 2213 complete retrotransposons from the top 23 most abundant families reveal divergent life histories marked by speedy accumulation, decline, and extinction that differed radically between species. We hypothesize that this rapid evolution of LTR retrotransposons not only divergently shaped the architecture of rice genomes but also contributed to the process of speciation and diversification of rice.