Extracellular ATP reduces tumor sphere growth and cancer stem cell population in glioblastoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor in the CNS and is characterized by having a cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation essential for tumor survival. The purinergic system plays an important role in glioma growth, since adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can induce proliferation of glioma cells, and alteration in extracellular ATP degradation by the use of exogenous nucleotidases dramatically alters the size of gliomas in rats. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of the purinergic system on glioma CSCs. Human U87 glioma cultures presented tumor spheres that express the markers of glioma cancer stem cells CD133, Oct-4, and Nanog. Messenger RNA of several purinergic receptors were differently expressed in spheres when compared to a cell monolayer not containing spheres. Treatment of human gliomas U87 or U343 as well as rat C6 gliomas with 100 ?M of ATP reduced the number of tumor spheres when grown in neural stem cell medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Moreover, ATP caused a decline in the number of spheres observed in culture in a dose-dependent manner. ATP also reduces the expression of Nanog, as determined by flow cytometry, as well as CD133 and Oct-4, as analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR in U87 cells. The differential expression of purinergic receptor in tumor spheres when compared to adherent cells and the effect of ATP in reducing tumor spheres suggest that the purinergic system affects CSC biology and that ATP may be a potential agonist for differentiation therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel of glioma samples increasing histological grade demonstrated frequencies of CD133(+) cells which correlated with high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). METHODS: We used qRT-PCR and immunoblotting to examine the molecular interplay between MT1-MMP and COX-2 gene and protein expression in parental, CD133(+), and neurospheres U87 glioma cell cultures. RESULTS: We found that CD133, COX-2 and MT1-MMP expression were enhanced when glioma cells were cultured in neurosphere conditions. A CD133(+)-enriched U87 glioma cell population, isolated from parental U87 cells with magnetic cell sorting technology, also grew as neurospheres and showed enhanced COX-2 expression. MT1-MMP gene silencing antagonized COX-2 expression in neurospheres, while overexpression of recombinant MT1-MMP directly triggered COX-2 expression in U87 cells independent from MT1-MMP's catalytic function. COX-2 induction by MT1-MMP was also validated in wild-type and in NF-kappaB p65-/- mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but was abrogated in NF-kappaB 1 (p50-/-) mutant cells. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for enhanced COX-2 expression in CD133(+) glioma cells, and direct cell-based evidence of NF-kappaB-mediated COX-2 regulation by MT1-MMP. The biological significance of such checkpoint control may account for COX-2-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory balance responsible of therapy resistance phenotype of cancer stem cells.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of ovarian cancer (OC) development, recurrence, and chemoresistance. We investigated changes in expression levels of the CSC biomarker, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), from primary OC cell lines to induction of CSC-spheres in an attempt to explore the mechanisms related to modulation of stemness, drug resistance, and tumorigenesis in CSCs, thus facilitating the search for new therapeutics for OC. The effect of CD133 overexpression on the induction of CSC properties was evaluated by sphere-forming assays, RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, cell viability assays, and in vivo xenograft experiments. Moreover, the potential signaling molecules that participate in CD133 maintenance of stemness were screened by RNA-sequencing. CD133 expression was upregulated during OCSC induction and chemotherapeutic drug treatment over time, which increased the expressions of stemness-related markers (SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog). CD133 overexpression also promoted tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice. Several signalings were controlled by CD133 spheres, including extracellular matrix receptor interactions, chemokine signaling, and Wnt signaling, all of which promote cell survival and cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest that CD133 possesses the ability to maintain functional stemness and tumorigenesis of OCSCs by promoting cell survival signaling and may serve as a potential target for stem cell-targeted therapy of OC.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are comprised of a rare sub-population of cells in tumors that have been proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rates and resistance to chemotherapy. Galectins are highly expressed in cancers that correlate with the aggressiveness of tumors. Galectins may also promote the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the role of galectins in CSCs remains unknown. In this study, sphere formation was used to enrich H1299 human lung CSCs that had self-renewal ability, advanced tumorigenic potential, and that highly expressed stem/progenitor cell markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and CD133. A novel candidate molecule, galectin-3, for stemness was found in lung CSCs. The expression of galectin-3 robustly increased in lung cancer spheres over serial passages, but its suppression in the H1299 monolayer or spheres resulted in reduced expression of stemness-related genes, sphere-forming ability, tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, and tumor initiation in mice. Notably, the overexpression of galectin-3 in A549 lung cancer cells, which have low capability to grow as tumor spheres, promoted CSC formation. ?-catenin activity was increased in H1299 spheres and counteracted by galectin-3 suppression. Thus, galectin-3 may act as a cofactor by interacting with ?-catenin to augment the transcriptional activities of stemness-related genes. Furthermore, galectin-3 expression correlated with tumor progression and expressions of ?-catenin and CSC marker CD133 in lung cancer tissues. Targeting galectin-3 signaling may provide a new strategy for lung cancer treatment by inhibiting stem-like properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tumor development is recently hypothesized to depend on a rare cell population with stem cell properties, such cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). From various cancer tissues or cancer cell lines, CD133 expressing cells were found to define a unique CSC/TIC phenotype. To study whether that also could be the case in lung cancer, we examined different lung cancer cell lines for CD133 expression. RESULTS: Among the 4 cell lines studied, only the cell line LC-42 expressed CD133. Therefore, LC-42 was further characterized and studied with special emphasis on identifying the presence of CD133+ CSCs/TICs. FACS sorted CD133high and CD133dim subpopulations from LC-42 showed no differences in soft agar colony-forming capacity and spheres-forming capacity in serum-free cultures. LC-42 cells contained Side Population (SP), and only SP cells were able to form spheres. Furthermore, Nanog expression was significantly higher in SP than in non-SP. However, no difference was observed of CD133 expression in SP and non-SP. When CD133high and CD133dim cells were serially xeno-transplanted in NOD/SCID mice, both formed tumours similar to their parental LC-42 cells. There were no expression differences for NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 examined immunohistochemically in the xenografts from both cell fractions. CONCLUSION: Our data do not show a difference in tumorigenic potential of CD133high and CD133dim cells with respect to any of the parameters analyzed in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that CD133 expression is not restricted to cancer-initiating cells in the human lung cancer cell line LC-42.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a number of solid tumors, but not yet in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequently occurring soft tissue tumor in childhood. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify and characterize a CSC population in RMS using a functional approach. We found that embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS) cell lines can form rhabdomyosarcoma spheres (short rhabdospheres) in stem cell medium containing defined growth factors over several passages. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we demonstrate that a 100 fold less sphere cells result in faster tumor growth compared to the adherent population suggesting that CSCs were enriched in the sphere population. Furthermore, stem cell genes such as oct4, nanog, c-myc, pax3 and sox2 are significantly upregulated in rhabdospheres which can be differentiated into multiple lineages such as adipocytes, myocytes and neuronal cells. Surprisingly, gene expression profiles indicate that rhabdospheres show more similarities with neuronal than with hematopoietic or mesenchymal stem cells. Analysis of these profiles identified the known CSC marker CD133 as one of the genes upregulated in rhabdospheres, both on RNA and protein levels. CD133(+) sorted cells were subsequently shown to be more tumorigenic and more resistant to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Using a tissue microarray (TMA) of eRMS patients, we found that high expression of CD133 correlates with poor overall survival. Hence, CD133 could be a prognostic marker for eRMS. These experiments indicate that a CD133(+) CSC population can be enriched from eRMS which might help to develop novel targeted therapies against this pediatric tumor.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers that display striking cellular heterogeneity. A highly tumorigenic glioma tumor subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells, promotes therapeutic resistance and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, targeting cancer stem cells may improve patient survival. We interrogated the role of a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, L1CAM, in glioma stem cells as L1CAM regulates brain development and is expressed in gliomas. L1CAM(+) and CD133(+) cells cosegregated in gliomas, and levels of L1CAM were higher in CD133(+) glioma cells than normal neural progenitors. Targeting L1CAM using lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference in CD133(+) glioma cells potently disrupted neurosphere formation, induced apoptosis, and inhibited growth specifically in glioma stem cells. We identified a novel mechanism for L1CAM regulation of cell survival as L1CAM knockdown decreased expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 and up-regulated the p21(WAF1/CIP1) tumor suppressor in CD133(+) glioma cells. To determine if targeting L1CAM was sufficient to reduce glioma stem cell tumor growth in vivo, we targeted L1CAM in glioma cells before injection into immunocompromised mice or directly in established tumors. In each glioma xenograft model, shRNA targeting of L1CAM expression in vivo suppressed tumor growth and increased the survival of tumor-bearing animals. Together, these data show that L1CAM is required for maintaining the growth and survival of CD133(+) glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo, and L1CAM may represent a cancer stem cell-specific therapeutic target for improving the treatment of malignant gliomas and other brain tumors.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme, a World Health Organization grade IV glioma, has a poor prognosis in humans despite current treatment options. Here, we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data regarding the regression of aggressive rat F98 gliomas and human U87 glioma xenografts after treatment with the nitrone compound OKN-007, a disulfonyl derivative of ?-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone.MRI was used to assess tumor volumes in F98 and U87 gliomas, and bioluminescence imaging was used to measure tumor volumes in F98 gliomas encoded with the luciferase gene (F98(luc)). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and microvessel density [MVD]), cell differentiation (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA-IX]), hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1? [HIF-1?]), cell proliferation (glucose transporter 1 [Glut-1] and MIB-1), proliferation index, and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers in F98 gliomas. VEGF, CA-IX, Glut-1, HIF-1?, and cleaved caspase 3 were assessed in U87 gliomas.Animal survival was found to be significantly increased (P < .001 for F98, P < .01 for U87) in the group that received OKN-007 treatment compared with the untreated groups. After MRI detection of F98 gliomas, OKN-007, administered orally, was found to decrease tumor growth (P < .05). U87 glioma volumes were found to significantly decrease (P < .05) after OKN-007 treatment, compared with untreated animals. OKN-007 administration resulted in significant decreases in tumor hypoxia (HIF-1? [P < .05] in both F98 and U87), angiogenesis (MVD [P < .05], but not VEGF, in F98 or U87), and cell proliferation (Glut-1 [P < .05 in F98, P < .01 in U87] and MIB-1 [P < .01] in F98) and caused a significant increase in apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3 [P < .001 in F98, P < .05 in U87]), compared with untreated animals.OKN-007 may be considered as a promising therapeutic addition or alternative for the treatment of aggressive human gliomas.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of tumor cells that exhibit stem cell-like properties and contribute in treatment failure. To clarify the expression and prognostic significance of several CSC markers in non-small cell lung cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 368 patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 226) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 142). We correlated the expression of six CSC markers - CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), octamer binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), and Nanog - with clinicopathologic and molecular variables and survival outcomes. In adenocarcinoma, CD133, ALDH1 and CD44 expression was associated with low pathologic stage and absence of lymphovascular invasion, while Nanog expression correlated with high histologic grade, lymphatic invasion and increased expression of Snail-1, a transcription factor associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CSC marker expression was also associated with histologic subtypes in adenocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that high Nanog expression was an independent factor associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma. CSC markers had no prognostic value in squamous cell carcinoma. These results suggest that Nanog is an independent negative prognostic factor that may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. We designed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for intracranial delivery of secreted, soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) to GBM tumors in mice and combined it with the TRAIL-sensitizing cardiac glycoside, lanatoside C (lan C). We applied this combined therapy to two different GBM models using human U87 glioma cells and primary patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in orthotopic GBM xenograft models in mice. In U87 cells, conditioned medium from AAV2-sTRAIL expressing cells combined with lan C induced 80% cell death. Similarly, lan C sensitized primary GBM spheres to sTRAIL causing over 90% cell death. In mice bearing intracranial U87 tumors treated with AAVrh.8-sTRAIL, administration of lan C caused a decrease in tumor-associated Fluc signal, while tumor size increased within days of stopping the treatment. Another round of lan C treatment re-sensitized GBM tumor to sTRAIL-induced cell death. AAVrh.8-sTRAIL treatment alone and combined with lanatoside C resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and longer survival of mice bearing orthotopic invasive GBM brain tumors. In summary, AAV-sTRAIL combined with lanatoside C induced cell death in U87 glioma cells and patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in vivo leading to an increased in overall mice survival.