The muscle specific domain of mouse N-CAM: structure and alternative splicing patterns.
ABSTRACT: The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is an important mediator of calcium independent cell-cell interactions. Variations in the primary structure of the protein are due to alternative splicing of pre-mRNA in the region encoding the extracellular, trans-membrane and cytoplasmic domains. In order to identify the patterns of exon usage during development of skeletal muscle and brain of the mouse, a coupled reverse-transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the murine homologues of the muscle-specific domain (MSD), located between exons 12 and 13 in human N-CAM mRNA. The cDNAs produced have been cloned and sequenced, or analysed directly. The amplification reactions were shown to maintain the concentration ratios of the initial cDNAs. The results indicate that the mouse homologue to exon MSD1a is under tissue and developmental regulation that is independent of exons MSD1b and MSD1c. The inclusion of the triplet exon AAG is also regulated in a cell- and stage-specific manner, which is independent of the other alternatively spliced exons of this domain.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is detected in chicken brain as three polypeptides of 180 kDa, 140 kDa, and 120 kDa that arise from a single gene by alternative splicing. Heart tissue, however, contains components of 150 kDa, 140 kDa, and 130 kDa; neither the differences in molecular mass among these components nor the difference between neural and cardiac N-CAM could be accounted for by variations in glycosylation alone. A cDNA clone isolated from an embryonic chicken heart library, [lambda N101B, 1.8 kilobases (kb)] contained a 93-base-pair (bp) insert not found in neural N-CAM cDNAs. In the N-CAM gene this sequence mapped within a large region between exons 12 and 13 and was derived from four exons (12A-D) of 15, 33, 42, and 3 bp. Exons 12C and 12D together coded for 15 amino acids very similar to the second half of the muscle-specific insert (MSD1) found in N-CAM cDNA from human muscle cell cultures [Dickson, G., Gower, H. J., Barton, C. H., Prentice, H. M., Elsom, V. L., Moore, S. E., Cox, R. D., Quinn, C., Putt, W. & Walsh, F. S. (1987) Cell 50, 1119-1130]; the sequences of 12A and 12B, however, were much less similar to the corresponding region of the MSD1 sequence. Two oligonucleotides, one specific to exons 12A plus 12B and one specific to exon 12C both recognized mRNA species of 6.4 kb, 4.3 kb, and 3.0 kb in chicken cardiac and skeletal muscle and no mRNA species in smooth muscle or brain. The 3' end of clone lambda N101B contained a sequence coding for a potential phosphatidylinositol linkage signal as does the smallest form of brain N-CAM. In heart cell membranes only the 130-kDa N-CAM polypeptide was released by phospholipase C, suggesting that this form of N-CAM is encoded by clone lambda N101B. The other heart N-CAM species (150 kDa and 140 kDa) may be transmembrane forms that include the 12A-D (and possibly other) inserts. Tissue-specific forms of N-CAM can thus be formed by alternative use of multiple small exons that may alter the conformation of the extracellular region of the molecule. Differential use or switching of these small exons in conjunction with the differential expression of larger exons specifying regions associated with the cell membrane and cytoplasmic domains may signal key events in embryogenesis and histogenesis.
Project description:Cell-CAM105 (also named C-CAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in intercellular adhesion of rat hepatocytes. It has four extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain and therefore is a member of the Ig supergene family. We have characterized multiple cDNAs of the C-CAM genes in rat intestine. Sequence analyses showed that rat intestine contained not only the previously reported L-form and S-form C-CAMs (renamed C-CAM1 and C-CAM2 respectively) but also a new isoform, C-CAM3. The C-CAM3 transcript codes for a polypeptide with a truncated C-terminus that lacks 65 amino acids from the previously reported C-CAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Unlike C-CAM1, C-CAM3 did not mediate cell adhesion when expressed in insect cells using the baculoviral expression system. Thus the extra 65 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of C-CAM1 are important for adhesion phenotype when expressed in insect cells. Although C-CAM1 and C-CAM2 are encoded by different genes, sequence analysis suggests that C-CAM3 is probably derived from alternative splicing of the C-CAM1 gene. To examine this possibility, we have determined the exon organization of the C-CAM1 gene. C-CAM3 differed from C-CAM1 by the presence of a single unspliced intron which contained a stop codon immediately after the regular splice junction. As a result, translation of C-CAM3 terminates at the point where C-CAM1 and C-CAM3 sequences diverge. To investigate the expression of C-CAM1, C-CAM2 and C-CAM3 in different tissues, we used an RNAase-protection assay to simultaneously assess the levels of expression of these transcripts. Using total RNA prepared from various tissues, we showed that expression of C-CAM3 was tissue-specific, and the C-CAM3 transcript accounted for about 25% of the transcripts derived from the C-CAM1 gene. However, further analysis revealed that C-CAM3 transcript was not present in cytosolic RNA, rather it was enriched in nuclear RNA prepared from hepatocytes. Although C-CAM3 cDNA contains the polyadenylation signal and is polyadenylated, these results indicate that C-CAM3 is probably an incomplete spliced product of C-CAM1 gene.
Project description:Channels of the C-type transient receptor potential (TRPC) are involved in agonist-stimulated and capacitative calcium entry. There are seven TRPCs, all of which have a Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain in their C termini. We now tested binding of CaM to TRPC N termini and show that only that of TRPC2 binds CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Four TRPC2 cDNAs have been reported: a (also clone 14), b (also clone 17), alpha, and beta. Sequences responsible for CaM binding in TRPC2 a and b are absent from the alpha and beta isoforms. The alpha and beta cDNAs of TRPC2 were reported as alternative forms, when recloning of TRPC2 a and b proved impossible. Here we analyzed total RNA samples from brain and testis for presence of TRPC2 a and b and describe the splicing patterns responsible for their formation, as well as those leading to the alpha and beta forms of TRPC2. We re-assert existence of RNA encoding the TRPC2 a and b, encoded in 21 exons with an initiator ATG in exon 2 for TRPC2a and in exon 4 for TRCP2b. The analysis of alpha and beta TRPC2 cDNAs indicates that although the TRPC2 beta mRNA may exist, the TRPC2 alpha cDNA is derived from an incompletely processed TRPC2a mRNA: It includes in its presumed 5'-untranslated sequence, 713 nt of TRPC2a cDNA fused to 291 nt of an incompletely excised intron. While encoding an active channel in the mouse, the human TRPC2 appears to be a pseudogene. We searched for the human gene in the data bank and located approximately one-half of it in a chromosomal region syntenic to that of the mouse, with similar intron-exon structure. We conclude that the human TRPC2 gene may never have been an active gene because of incomplete ancestral duplication or, if it was complete at one point, that it became inactive upon loss of chromosomal sequences.
Project description:Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) is present in a membrane-bound form that phosphorylates synapsin I on neuronal synaptic vesicles and the ryanodine receptor at skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), but it is unclear how this soluble enzyme is targeted to membranes. We demonstrate that alphaKAP, a non-kinase protein encoded by a gene within the gene of alpha-CaM kinase II, can target the CaM kinase II holoenzyme to the SR membrane. Our results indicate that alphaKAP (i) is anchored to the membrane via its N-terminal hydrophobic domain, (ii) can co-assemble with catalytically competent CaM kinase II isoforms and target them to the membrane regardless of their state of activation, and (iii) is co-localized and associated with rat skeletal muscle CaM kinase II in vivo. alphaKAP is therefore the first demonstrated anchoring protein for CaM kinase II. CaM kinase II assembled with alphaKAP retains normal enzymatic activity and the ability to become Ca2+-independent following autophosphorylation. A new variant of beta-CaM kinase II, termed betaM-CaM kinase II, is one of the predominant CaM kinase II isoforms associated with alphaKAP in skeletal muscle SR.
Project description:Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is expressed by muscle and involved in muscle-neuron and muscle-muscle cell interactions. The expression in muscle is regulated during myogenesis and by the state of innervation. In aged muscle, both neurogenic and myogenic degenerative processes occur. We here report quantitative and qualitative changes in NCAM protein and mRNA forms during aging in normal rat skeletal muscle. Determination of the amount of NCAM by e.l.i.s.a. showed that the level decreased from perinatal to adult age, followed by a considerable increase in 24-month-old rat muscle. Thus NCAM concentration in aged muscle was sixfold higher than in young adult muscle. In contrast with previous reports, NCAM polypeptides of 200, 145, 125 and 120 kDa were observed by immunoblotting throughout postnatal development and aging, the relative proportions of the individual NCAM polypeptides remaining virtually unchanged at all ages examined. However, changes in the extent of sialylation of NCAM were demonstrated. Even though the relative amounts of the various NCAM polypeptides were unchanged during aging, distinct changes in NCAM mRNA classes were observed. Three NCAM mRNA classes of 6.7, 5.2 and 2.9 kb were present in perinatal and young adult skeletal muscle, whereas only the 5.2 and 2.9 kb mRNA classes could be demonstrated in aged muscle. This indicates that metabolism of the various NCAM polypeptides is individually regulated during aging. Alternative splicing of NCAM mRNA in skeletal muscle was studied by Northern blotting using DNA oligonucleotide probes specifically hybridizing to selected exons or exon combinations. Exon VASE, which has previously been shown to be present in both brain and heart NCAM mRNA, was virtually absent from skeletal muscle at all ages studied. In contrast, the majority of NCAM mRNA in postnatal skeletal muscle was shown to contain extra exons inserted between exons 12 and 13. Of the various possible exon combinations at this splice site, the combinations 12-a-AAG-13 and 12-a-b seemed to be prevalent in postnatal skeletal muscle. No significant change in the relative proportion of these two exon combinations occurred during aging. The observed upregulation of NCAM protein in aged muscle supports the assumption that an increasing proportion of muscle fibres are denervated in aged muscle. Selective upregulation of the 5.2 and 2.9 kb mRNA forms have previously been demonstrated in muscle cell lines and in primary cultures of muscle cells during formation of myotubes in vitro, and this switch in NCAM mRNA classes has been suggested to correlate with myogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:The Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)beta has morphogenic functions in neurons not shared by the alpha isoform. CaMKIIbeta contains three exons (v1, v3, and v4) not present in the CaMKIIalpha gene, and two of these exons (v1 and v4) are subject to differential alternative splicing. We show here that CaMKIIbeta, but not alpha, mediated bundling of F-actin filaments in vitro. Most importantly, inclusion of exon v1 was required for CaMKIIbeta association with the F-actin cytoskeleton within cells. CaMKIIbetae, which is the dominant variant around birth and lacks exon v1 sequences, failed to associate with F-actin. By contrast, CaMKIIbeta', which instead lacks exon v4, associated with F-actin as full-length CaMKIIbeta. Previous studies with CaMKIIbeta mutants have indicated a role of nonstimulated kinase activity in enhancing dendritic arborization. Here, we show that F-actin-targeted CaMKIIbeta, but not alpha, was able to phosphorylate actin in vitro even by nonstimulated basal activity in absence of Ca(2+)/CaM. In rat pancreatic islets and in skeletal muscle, the actin-associated CaMKIIbeta' and betaM were the predominant variants, respectively. Thus, cytoskeletal targeting may mediate functions of CaMKIIbeta variants also outside the nervous system.
Project description:C-CAM is a Ca(2+)-independent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Addition of chemical cross-linkers to isolated rat liver plasma membranes, intact epithelial cells and purified preparations of C-CAM stabilized one major C-CAM-containing product whose apparent molecular mass was approximately twice that of the C-CAM monomer. The failure to detect additional proteins after cleavage of the cross-linked species demonstrated that C-CAM exists as non-covalently linked dimers both in solution and on the cell surface. Dimerization occurred to the same extent in adherent monolayers and in single cell populations, indicating that dimer formation was the result of cis-interactions within the membranes of individual cells. Using isoform-specific anti-peptide antibodies, both C-CAM1 and C-CAM2 were found to be involved in dimerization, forming predominantly homo-dimeric species. Both calmodulin and Ca2+ ionophore modulated the level of dimer formation, suggesting a role for regulated self-association in the functional activity of C-CAM.
Project description:The c-ski locus extends a minimum of 65 kb in the chicken genome and is expressed as multiple mRNAs resulting from alternative exon usage. Four exons comprising approximately 1.5 kb of cDNA sequence have been mapped within the chicken c-ski locus. However, c-ski cDNAs include almost 3 kb of sequence for which the exon structure was not defined. From our studies using the polymerase chain reaction and templates of RNA and genomic DNA, it is clear that c-ski cDNAs are encoded by a minimum of eight exons. A long 3' untranslated region is contiguous in the genome with the distal portion of the ski open reading frame such that exon 8 is composed of both coding and noncoding sequences. Exons 2 and 3 are separated by more than 25 kb of genomic sequence. In contrast, exons 3 through 8, representing more than half the length of c-ski cDNA sequences, are closely linked within 10 kb in the chicken genome.
Project description:In contrast with the complex series of splicing choices that generate the various membrane-associated isoforms of the neural cell-adhesion molecule alternative splicing of 5' exons does not contribute to additional molecular diversity. A single regulatory unit in genomic DNA, mapping to a 5 kb restriction-endonuclease-HindIII fragment, controls the expression of all major RNA size classes. DNA sequence analysis of a 2 kb fragment spanning the two major identified transcriptional initiation sites (194 and 188 bp from the ATG codon) and translation start codon indicates that the regulatory unit does not possess classical TATA or CCAAT motifs. The region of the putative promoter exhibits a GC-rich content and a high frequency of the dinucleotide CpG, both characteristics of a HTF(HpaII tiny fragments)-island. Introduction of deletion-mutant chimaeric-gene constructs into human and rodent N-CAM-expressing cell lines defines an active promoter region of 467 bp (-144 to -611 bp from the ATG codon). This region of genomic DNA contains consensus sites for the interaction of known transcriptional factors.
Project description:AIM:To identify the new alternative splicing variants of human CYP2D6 in human extratumoral liver tissue with RT-PCR and sequencing. METHODS:Full length of human CYP2D6 cDNAs was amplificated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a human extratumoral liver tissue and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The cDNA was sequenced. Exons from 1 to 4 of human CYP2D6 cDNAs were also amplificated by RT-PCR from extratumoral liver tissues of 17 human hepatocellular carcinomas. Some RT-PCR products were sequenced. Exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6 gene were amplified by PCR from extratumoral liver tissue DNA. Two PCR products from extratumoral liver tissues expressing skipped mRNA were partially sequenced. RESULTS:One of the CYP2D6 cDNAs had 470 nucleotides from 79 to 548 (3' portion of exons 1 to 5' portion of exon 4), and was skipped. Exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6 cDNA were assayed with RT-PCR in 17 extratumoral liver tissues. Both wild type and skipped mRNAs were expressed in 4 samples, only wild type mRNA was expressed in 5 samples, and only skipped mRNA was expressed in 8 samples. Two more variants were identified by sequencing the RT-PCR products of exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6 cDNA. The second variant skipped 411 nucleotides from 175 to 585. This variant was identified in 4 different liver tissues by sequencing the RT-PCR products. We sequenced partially 2 of the PCR products amplified of CYP2D6 exon 1 to exon 4 from extratumoral liver tissue genomic DNA that only expressed skipped mRNA by RT-PCR. No point mutations around exon 1, intron 1, and exon 4, and no deletion in CYP2D6 gene were detected. The third variant was the skipped exon 3 , and 153 bp was lost. CONCLUSION:Three new alternative splicing variants of CYP2D6 mRNA have been identified. They may not be caused by gene mutation and may lose CYP2D6 activity and act as a down-regulator of CYP2D6.