Cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium.
ABSTRACT: We have cloned the phr gene that encodes DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium by in vivo complementation of Escherichia coli phr gene defect. The S.typhimurium phr gene is 1419 base pairs long and the deduced amino acid sequence has 80% identity with that of E. coli photolyase. We expressed the S.typhimurium phr gene in E.coli by ligating the E.coli trc promoter 5' to the gene, and purified the enzyme to near homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of S.typhimurium photolyase is 54,000 dalton as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which is consistent with the calculated molecular weight of 53,932 dalton from the deduced phr gene product. S.typhimurium photolyase is purple-blue in color with near UV-visible absorption peaks at 384, 480, 580, and 625 nm and a fluorescence peak at 470 nm. From the characteristic absorption and fluorescence spectra and reconstitution experiments, S.typhimurium photolyase appears to contain flavin and methenyltetrahydrofolate as chromophore-cofactors as do the E.coli and yeast photolyases. Thus, S.typhimurium protein is the third folate class photolyase to be cloned and characterized to date. The binding constant of S.typhimurium photolyase to thymine dimer in DNA is kD = 1.6 x 10(-9) M, and the quantum yield of photorepair at 384 nm is 0.5.
Project description:DNA photolyases catalyze the blue light-dependent repair of UV light-induced damage in DNA. DNA photolyases are specific for either cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers or (6-4) photoproducts. PHR2 is a gene that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii encodes a class II DNA photolyase which catalyzes the photorepair of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers. Based on amino acid sequence analysis of PHR2, which indicates the presence of a chloroplast targeting sequence, PHR2 was predicted to encode the chloroplast photolyase of Chlamydomonas. Using a sensitive gene-specific in vivo repair assay, we found that overexpression of PHR2 in Chlamydomonas results in targeting of the protein to not only the chloroplast, but also to the nucleus. Overexpression of PHR2 photolyase in a photoreactivation-deficient mutant, phr1, results in a largely inactive product. The phr1 mutant was found to be deficient in both photorepair of a chloroplast gene, rbcL, and a nuclear gene, rDNA. These results suggest that PHR2 is the structural gene for the photolyase targeted to both the chloroplast and the nucleus, and that the PHR1 gene product is necessary for full activity of PHR2 protein. To our knowledge, the requirement for a second gene for full activity of a DNA photolyase is novel.
Project description:Rice qUVR-10, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ultraviolet-B (UVB) resistance on chromosome 10, was cloned by map-based strategy. It was detected in backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between the japonica variety Nipponbare (UV resistant) and the indica variety Kasalath (UV sensitive). Plants homozygous for the Nipponbare allele at the qUVR-10 locus were more resistant to UVB compared with the Kasalath allele. High-resolution mapping using 1850 F(2) plants enabled us to delimit qUVR-10 to a <27-kb genomic region. We identified a gene encoding the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase in this region. Activity of CPD photorepair in Nipponbare was higher than that of Kasalath and nearly isogenic with qUVR-10 [NIL(qUVR-10)], suggesting that the CPD photolyase of Kasalath was defective. We introduced a genomic fragment containing the CPD photolyase gene of Nipponbare to NIL(qUVR-10). Transgenic plants showed the same level of resistance as Nipponbare did, indicating that the qUVR-10 encoded the CPD photolyase. Comparison of the qUVR-10 sequence in the Nipponbare and Kasalath alleles revealed one probable candidate for the functional nucleotide polymorphism. It was indicated that single-base substitution in the CPD photolyase gene caused the alteration of activity of CPD photorepair and UVB resistance. Furthermore, we were able to develop a UV-hyperresistant plant by overexpression of the photolyase gene.
Project description:Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms.
Project description:Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. Both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed cryA, was identified. Deletion of the cryA gene triggers sexual differentiation under inappropriate culture conditions and results in up-regulation of transcripts encoding regulators of fruiting body formation. CryA is a protein whose N- and C-terminal synthetic green fluorescent protein fusions localize to the nucleus. CryA represses sexual development under UVA (350-370 nm) light both on plates and in submerged culture. Strikingly, CryA exhibits photorepair activity as demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strain as well as overexpression in an A. nidulans uvsBDelta genetic background. This is in contrast to the single deletion cryADelta strain, which does not show increased sensitivity toward UV-induced damage. In A. nidulans, cryA encodes a novel type of cryptochrome/photolyase that exhibits a regulatory function during light-dependent development and DNA repair activity. This represents a paradigm for the evolutionary transition between photolyases and cryptochromes.
Project description:The tufB gene, encoding elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), from the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca was cloned and sequenced. It is preceded by four tRNA genes, the first ever described in myxobacteria. The tRNA synthesized from these genes and the general organization of the locus seem identical to that of Escherichia coli, but differences of potential importance were found in the tRNA sequences and in the intergenic regions. The primary structure of EF-Tu was deduced from the tufB DNA sequence. The factor is composed of 396 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 43.4 kDa, which was confirmed by expression of tufB in maxicells. Sequence comparisons between S.aurantiaca EF-Tu and other bacterial homologues from E.coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Thermus thermophilus displayed extensive homologies (75.9%). Among the variable positions, two Cys residues probably involved in the temperature sensitivity of E.coli and S.typhimurium EF-Tu are replaced in T.thermophilus and S.aurantiaca EF-Tu. Since two or even three tuf genes have been described in other bacterial species, the presence of multiple tuf genes was sought for. Southern and Northern analysis are consistent with two tuf genes in the genome of S.aurantiaca. Primer extension experiments indicate that the four tRNA genes and tufB are organized in a single operon.
Project description:RAD23 can repair yeast DNA lesions through nucleotide excision repair (NER), a mechanism that is dependent on proteasome activity and ubiquitin chains but different from photolyase-depending photorepair of UV-induced DNA damages. However, this accessory NER protein remains functionally unknown in filamentous fungi. In this study, orthologous RAD23 in Beauveria bassiana, an insect-pathogenic fungus that is a main source of fungal insecticides, was found to interact with the photolyase PHR2, enabling repair of DNA lesions by degradation of UVB-induced cytotoxic (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts under visible light, and it hence plays an essential role in the photoreactivation of UVB-inactivated conidia but no role in reactivation of such conidia through NER in dark conditions. Fluorescence-labeled RAD23 was shown to normally localize in the cytoplasm, to migrate to vacuoles in the absence of carbon, nitrogen, or both, and to enter nuclei under various stresses, which include UVB, a harmful wavelength of sunlight. Deletion of the rad23 gene resulted in an 84% decrease in conidial UVB resistance, a 95% reduction in photoreactivation rate of UVB-inactivated conidia, and a drastic repression of phr2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a positive RAD23-PHR2 interaction. Overexpression of phr2 in the ?rad23 mutant largely mitigated the severe defect of the ?rad23 mutant in photoreactivation. Also, the deletion mutant was severely compromised in radial growth, conidiation, conidial quality, virulence, multiple stress tolerance, and transcriptional expression of many phenotype-related genes. These findings unveil not only the pleiotropic effects of RAD23 in B. bassiana but also a novel RAD23-PHR2 interaction that is essential for the photoprotection of filamentous fungal cells from UVB damage.IMPORTANCE RAD23 is able to repair yeast DNA lesions through nucleotide excision in full darkness, a mechanism distinct from photolyase-dependent photorepair of UV-induced DNA damage but functionally unknown in filamentous fungi. Our study unveils that the RAD23 ortholog in a filamentous fungal insect pathogen varies in subcellular localization according to external cues, interacts with a photolyase required for photorepair of cytotoxic (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts in UV-induced DNA lesions, and plays an essential role in conidial UVB resistance and reactivation of UVB-inactivated conidia under visible light rather than in the dark, as required for nucleotide excision repair. Loss-of-function mutations of RAD23 exert pleiotropic effects on radial growth, aerial conidiation, multiple stress responses, virulence, virulence-related cellular events, and phenotype-related gene expression. These findings highlight a novel mechanism underlying the photoreactivation of UVB-impaired fungal cells by RAD23 interacting with the photolyase, as well as its essentiality for filamentous fungal life.
Project description:The low survival of microbial pest control agents exposed to UV is the major environmental factor limiting their effectiveness. Using gene disruption we demonstrated that the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii uses photolyases to remove UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from its DNA. However, this photorepair is insufficient to fix CPD lesions and prevent the loss of viability caused by seven hours of solar radiation. Expression of a highly efficient archaeal (Halobacterium salinarum) CPD photolyase increased photorepair >30-fold in both M. robertsii and Beauveria bassiana. Consequently, transgenic strains were much more resistant to sunlight and retained virulence against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In the field this will translate into much more efficient pest control over a longer time period. Conversely, our data shows that deleting native photolyase genes will strictly contain M. robertsii to areas protected from sunlight, alleviating safety concerns that transgenic hypervirulent Metarhizium spp will spread from mosquito traps or houses. The precision and malleability of the native and transgenic photolyases allows design of multiple pathogens with different strategies based on the environments in which they will be used.
Project description:Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue/UV-A light receptors that evolved from photolyases. In plants, cryptochromes regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. Despite of their involvement in the control of important plant traits, however, most studies on cryptochromes have focused on lower plants and herbaceous crops, and no data on cryptochrome function are available for forest trees. In this study, we isolated a cryptochrome gene, PeCRY1, from Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), and analyzed its structure and function in detail. The deduced PeCRY1 amino acid sequence contained a conserved N-terminal photolyase-homologous region (PHR) domain as well as a C-terminal DQXVP-acidic-STAES (DAS) domain. Secondary and tertiary structure analysis showed that PeCRY1 shares high similarity with AtCRY1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. PeCRY1 expression was upregulated at the mRNA level by light. Using heterologous expression in Arabidopsis, we showed that PeCRY1 overexpression rescued the cry1 mutant phenotype. In addition, PeCRY1 overexpression inhibited hypocotyl elongation, promoted root growth, and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type background seedlings grown under blue light. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between PeCRY1 and AtCOP1 using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc) assay. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of PeCRY1 in the control of photomorphogenesis in poplar.
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants. When a new type cryptochrome was identified, it was assumed that another type of CRYs, cryptochrome-DASH (CRY-DASH), which is categorized as a subfamily of photolyase/cryptochrome family, would possess the DNA photolyase activity. However, CRY-DASH had a weak DNA photolyase activity, but the reason for this is still unclear. To clarify the reason, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a complex of CPD-PHR or CRY-DASH with damaged double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and estimated the binding free energy, ?Gbind, between the protein and the damaged dsDNA by using a molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method. ?Gbind for both proteins were -35 and 57 kcal mol-1, respectively, indicating that the structural stability of CRY-DASH was lower than that of CPD-PHR upon the damaged dsDNA binding. In particular, the number of amino acid residues relevant to the damaged dsDNA binding on the CRY-DASH surface was smaller than that on CPD-PHR. Therefore, the present result suggests that CRY-DASH has a weak DNA photolyase activity because it has a lower binding affinity than CPD-PHR.
Project description:The (6-4) photolyases use blue light to reverse UV-induced (6-4) photoproducts in DNA. This (6-4) photorepair was thought to be restricted to eukaryotes. Here we report a prokaryotic (6-4) photolyase, PhrB from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and propose that (6-4) photolyases are broadly distributed in prokaryotes. The crystal structure of photolyase related protein B (PhrB) at 1.45 Å resolution suggests a DNA binding mode different from that of the eukaryotic counterparts. A His-His-X-X-Arg motif is located within the proposed DNA lesion contact site of PhrB. This motif is structurally conserved in eukaryotic (6-4) photolyases for which the second His is essential for the (6-4) photolyase function. The PhrB structure contains 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine as an antenna chromophore and a [4Fe-4S] cluster bound to the catalytic domain. A significant part of the Fe-S fold strikingly resembles that of the large subunit of eukaryotic and archaeal primases, suggesting that the PhrB-like photolyases branched at the base of the evolution of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. Our study presents a unique prokaryotic (6-4) photolyase and proposes that the prokaryotic (6-4) photolyases are the ancestors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family.