Anatomical and functional correlates of human hippocampal volume asymmetry.
ABSTRACT: Hemispheric asymmetry of the human hippocampus is well established, but poorly understood. We studied 110 healthy subjects with 3-Tesla MRI to explore the anatomical and functional correlates of the R>L volume asymmetry. We found that the asymmetry is limited to the anterior hippocampus (hemisphere×region interaction: F(1,109)=42.6, p<.001). Anterior hippocampal volume was correlated strongly with the volumes of all four cortical lobes. In contrast, posterior hippocampal volume was correlated strongly only with occipital lobe volume, moderately with the parietal and temporal lobe volumes and not with the frontal lobe volume. The degree of R>L anterior hippocampal volume asymmetry predicted performance on a measure of basic cognitive abilities. This provides evidence for regional specificity and functional implications of the well-known hemispheric asymmetry of hippocampal volume. We suggest that the developmental profile, genetic mechanisms and functional implications of R>L anterior hippocampal volume asymmetry in the human brain deserve further study.
Project description:Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder affecting the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe (MTL). Although prior studies have analyzed whole-brain network distortions in TLE patients, the functional network architecture of the MTL at the subregion level has not been examined. In this study, we utilized high-resolution 7T T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state BOLD-fMRI to characterize volumetric asymmetry and functional network asymmetry of MTL subregions in unilateral medically refractory TLE patients and healthy controls. We subdivided the TLE group into mesial temporal sclerosis patients (TLE-MTS) and MRI-negative nonlesional patients (TLE-NL). Using an automated multi-atlas segmentation pipeline, we delineated 10 MTL subregions per hemisphere for each subject. We found significantly different patterns of volumetric asymmetry between the two groups, with TLE-MTS exhibiting volumetric asymmetry corresponding to decreased volumes ipsilaterally in all hippocampal subfields, and TLE-NL exhibiting no significant volumetric asymmetries other than a mild decrease in whole-hippocampal volume ipsilaterally. We also found significantly different patterns of functional network asymmetry in the CA1 subfield and whole hippocampus, with TLE-NL patients exhibiting asymmetry corresponding to increased connectivity ipsilaterally and TLE-MTS patients exhibiting asymmetry corresponding to decreased connectivity ipsilaterally. Our findings provide initial evidence that functional neuroimaging-based network properties within the MTL can distinguish between TLE subtypes. High-resolution MRI has potential to improve localization of underlying brain network disruptions in TLE patients who are candidates for surgical resection.
Project description:Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies (anti-GAD65) have been found in patients with late-onset chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). No prior neuroimaging studies have addressed how they affect hippocampal volume and shape and how they relate to cognitive abnormalities. We aimed to investigate both brain structure and function in patients with isolated TLE and high anti-GAD65 levels (RIA ≥ 2000 U/ml) compared to 8 non-immune mesial TLE (niTLE) and 8 healthy controls (HC). Hippocampal subfield volume properties were correlated with the duration of the disease and cognitive test scores. The affected hippocampus of GAD-TLE patients showed no volume changes to matched HC whereas niTLE volumes were significantly smaller. Epilepsy duration in GAD-TLE patients correlated negatively with volumes in the presubiculum, subiculum, CA1, CA2-3, CA4, molecular layer and granule cell-molecular layer of the dentate nucleus. We found differences by advanced vertex-wise shape analysis in the anterior hippocampus of the left GAD-TLE compared to HC whereas left niTLE showed bilateral posterior hippocampus deformation. Verbal deficits were similar in GAD-TLE and niTLE but did not correlate to volume changes. These data might suggest a distinct expression of hippocampal structural and functional abnormalities based on the immune response.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Lack of illness awareness or anosognosia occurs in both schizophrenia and right hemisphere lesions due to stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury. In the latter conditions, anosognosia is thought to arise from unilateral hemispheric dysfunction or interhemispheric disequilibrium, which provides an anatomical model for exploring illness unawareness in other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.<h4>Methods</h4>Both voxel-based morphometry using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) and a deformation-based morphology analysis of hemispheric asymmetry were performed on 52 treated schizophrenia subjects, exploring the relationship between illness awareness and gray matter volume. Analyses included age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates.<h4>Results</h4>Hemispheric asymmetry analyses revealed illness unawareness was significantly associated with right < left hemisphere volumes in the anteroinferior temporal lobe (t = 4.83, P = 0.051) using DARTEL, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (t = 5.80, P = 0.003) and parietal lobe (t = 4.3, P = 0.050) using the deformation-based approach. Trend level associations were identified in the right medial prefrontal cortex (t = 4.49, P = 0.127) using DARTEL. Lack of illness awareness was also strongly associated with reduced total white matter volume (r = 0.401, P < 0.01) and illness severity (r = 0.559, P < 0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results suggest a relationship between anosognosia and hemispheric asymmetry in schizophrenia, supporting previous volume-based MRI studies in schizophrenia that found a relationship between illness unawareness and reduced right hemisphere gray matter volume. Functional imaging studies are required to examine the neural mechanisms contributing to these structural observations.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Epidemiologic evidence suggests the natural history of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is complicated, yet little is known about the hippocampus from the nontertiary center perspective.<h4>Methods</h4>In a community-based cohort, individuals with nonsyndromic focal epilepsy with onset <16 years and controls had research MRI scans. Hippocampal (HC) volumes were manually measured, corrected for total brain volume, and converted to Z scores (Z(HC)) based on the controls' values. Volumes in cases and controls were compared.<h4>Results</h4>Average volumes were not significantly different in cases with unknown cause (n = 117) relative to controls (n = 63). The group with structural and other conditions (n = 23) had significantly smaller volumes. Asymmetry (larger/smaller HC) did not vary among the 3 groups. Hippocampal variances were significantly larger in each epilepsy group relative to controls. In the unknown cause group, 25 (21%) had extreme() values: 15 (13%) with Z(HC) >1.96; 10 (9%) with Z(HC) <-1.96. By contrast, 2/63 (3%) controls had extreme values (p = 0.001). Within the unknown cause group, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases were more likely to have extreme hippocampal volumes than non-TLE (31% vs 15%, p = 0.03). Extreme volumes were generally interpreted as normal visually. These anomalies were not associated with seizure remission or pharmacoresistance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Classic mesial TLE with hippocampal sclerosis is an uncommon finding in the general population. Volume anomalies, both large and small, are often bilateral. The significance of these findings is unclear; however, speculations regarding preexisting hippocampal pathology (e.g., dysplasia) as a factor in TLE and other neocortical epilepsies have been made by others.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Asymmetry of the hippocampus is regarded as an important clinical finding, but limited data on hippocampal asymmetry are available for the general population. Here we present hippocampal asymmetry data from the Dallas Heart Study determined by automated methods and its relationship to age, sex, and ethnicity.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo MR imaging was performed in 2082 DHS-2 participants. The MR images were analyzed by using 2 standard automated brain-segmentation programs, FSL-FIRST and FreeSurfer. Individuals with imaging errors, self-reported stroke, or major structural abnormalities were excluded. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the significance of the findings across age, sex, and ethnicity.<h4>Results</h4>At the 90th percentile, FSL-FIRST demonstrated hippocampal asymmetry of 9.8% (95% CI, 9.3%-10.5%). The 90th percentile of hippocampal asymmetry, measured by the difference in right and left hippocampi volume and the larger hippocampus, was 17.9% (95% CI, 17.0%-19.1%). Hippocampal asymmetry increases with age (P=.0216), men have greater asymmetry than women as shown by FSL-FIRST (P=.0036), but ethnicity is not significantly correlated with asymmetry. To confirm these findings, we used FreeSurfer. FreeSurfer showed asymmetry of 4.4% (95% CI, 4.3%-4.7%) normalized to total volume and 8.5% (95% CI, 8.3%-9.0%) normalized by difference/larger hippocampus. FreeSurfer also showed that hippocampal asymmetry increases with age (P=.0024) and that men had greater asymmetry than women (P=.03).<h4>Conclusions</h4>There is a significant degree of hippocampal asymmetry in the population. The data provided will aid in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy and other neurologic disease.
Project description:Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 males, 12 females). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age.
Project description:Previous studies in psychosis patients have shown hippocampal volume deficits across anterior and posterior regions or across subfields, but subfield specific changes in volume along the hippocampal long axis have not been examined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that volume changes exist across the hippocampus in chronic psychosis but only the anterior CA region is affected in early psychosis patients. We analyzed structural MRI data from 179 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder (94 chronic psychosis; 85 early psychosis) and 167 heathy individuals demographically matched to the chronic and early psychosis samples respectively (82 matched to chronic patients; 85 matched to early patients). We measured hippocampal volumes using Freesurfer 6-derived automated segmentation of both anterior and posterior regions and the CA, dentate gyrus, and subiculum subfields. We found a hippocampal volume deficit in both anterior and posterior regions in chronic psychosis, but this deficit was limited to the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis patients. This volume change was more pronounced in the anterior CA subfield of early psychosis patients than in the dentate gyrus or subiculum. Our findings support existing models of psychosis implicating initial CA dysfunction with later progression to other hippocampal regions and suggest that the anterior hippocampus may be an important target for early interventions.
Project description:Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus.
Project description:Hippocampal atrophy is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but sensitivity and specificity of hippocampal volumetry are limited. Neuropathological studies have shown that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to AD; hippocampal subfield volumetry may thus prove to be more accurate than global hippocampal volumetry to detect AD.CA1, subiculum and other subfields were manually delineated from 40 healthy controls, 18 AD, 17 amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and 8 semantic dementia (SD) patients using a previously developed high resolution MRI procedure. Non-parametric group comparisons and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted. Complementary analyses were conducted to evaluate differences of hemispheric asymmetry and anterior-predominance between AD and SD patients and to distinguish aMCI patients with or without ?-amyloid deposition as assessed by Florbetapir-TEP.Global hippocampi were atrophied in all three patient groups and volume decreases were maximal in the CA1 subfield (22% loss in aMCI, 27% in both AD and SD; all p < 0.001). In aMCI, CA1 volumetry was more accurate than global hippocampal measurement to distinguish patients from controls (areas under the ROC curve = 0.88 and 0.76, respectively; p = 0.05) and preliminary analyses suggest that it was independent from the presence of ?-amyloid deposition. In patients with SD, whereas the degree of CA1 and subiculum atrophy was similar to that found in AD patients, hemispheric and anterior-posterior asymmetry were significantly more marked than in AD with greater involvement of the left and anterior hippocampal subfields.The findings suggest that CA1 measurement is more sensitive than global hippocampal volumetry to detect structural changes at the pre-dementia stage, although the predominance of CA1 atrophy does not appear to be specific to AD pathophysiological processes.
Project description:Both animal and human studies have identified a critical role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning. In humans mainly functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used. To extend these findings to volumetric properties, 58 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with contextual stimuli. Ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and contingency as well as skin conductance responses (SCRs) were used as indicators of conditioning. Twenty-nine participants with the smallest hippocampal volumes were compared with 29 persons with the largest hippocampal volumes. Persons with larger hippocampal volume (especially on the right side) learned to discriminate between two conditioned contexts, whereas those with small hippocampal volumes did not, as indicated by SCRs. Further analyses showed that these results could not be explained by amygdalar volumes. In contrast, the participant answers on the self-report measures were not significantly influenced by hippocampal or amygdalar, but by total brain volume, suggesting a role of cortical structures in these more cognitive evaluation processes. Reanalysis of the self-report data using partial hippocampal volumes revealed a significant influence of the posterior but not anterior subvolumes, which is in accordance with theories and empirical findings on hippocampal functioning. This study shows the relevance of hippocampal volume for contextual fear conditioning in healthy volunteers and may have important implications for anxiety disorders.