ABSTRACT: Unlike invasive aspergillosis, the prognosis and outcome of hematologic malignancy patients who develop invasive mucormycosis have not significantly improved over the past decade as a majority of patients who develop the infection still die 12 weeks after diagnosis. However, early recognition and treatment of invasive mucormycosis syndromes, as well as individualized approaches to treatment and secondary prophylaxis, could improve the odds of survival, even in the most persistently immunosuppressed patient receiving chemotherapy and/or of stem cell transplantation. Herein, we describe the subtle clinical and radiographic clues that should alert the hematologist to the possibility of mucormycosis, and aggressive and timely treatment approaches that may limit the spread of infection before it becomes fatal. Hematology patients with this opportunistic infection require integrated care across several disciplines and frequently highly individualized and complex sequence of decision-making. We also offer perspectives for the use of 2 antifungals, amphotericin B products and posaconazole, with activity against Mucorales. The availability of posaconazole in an oral formulation that can be administered safely for prolonged periods makes it an attractive agent for long-term primary and secondary prophylaxis. However, serum drug concentration monitoring may be required to minimize breakthrough infection or relapsing mucormycosis associated with inadequate blood concentrations.
Project description:Mucormycosis is a highly lethal fungal infection especially in immunocompromised individuals.In order to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of mucormycosis in renal transplant recipients we searched publications of mucormycosis cases in renal transplant recipients in PUBMED database up to December 2015.A total of 174 cases in renal transplant recipients were included in this review. Most of the cases (76%) were male. Major underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (43.1%). Rhinocerebral was the most common site of infection (33.3%). Rhizopus species was the most frequent fungus (59.1%) in patients with pathogen identified to species level. The mortality rates of disseminated mucormycosis (76.0%) and graft renal (55.6%) were higher than infection in other sites. The overall survival in patients received surgical debridement combined with amphotericin B/posaconazole (70.2%) was higher than those who received antifungal therapy alone (32.4%), surgery alone (36.4%) or without therapy (0%) (p < 0.001). The overall survivals in patients receiving posaconazole and lipid amphoterincin B were higher than that receiving deoxycholate formulation (92.3% and 73.4% vs 47.4%).Mucormycosis is a severe infection in renal transplant recipients. Surgical debridement combined with antifungals, especially liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole, can significantly improve patient's overall survival.
Project description:Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection almost uniformly affecting diabetics in ketoacidosis or other forms of acidosis and/or immunocompromised patients. Inhalation of Mucorales spores provides the most common natural route of entry into the host. In this study, we developed an intratracheal instillation model of pulmonary mucormycosis that hematogenously disseminates into other organs using diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) or cyclophosphamide-cortisone acetate-treated mice. Various degrees of lethality were achieved for the DKA or cyclophosphamide-cortisone acetate-treated mice when infected with different clinical isolates of Mucorales. In both DKA and cyclophosphamide-cortisone acetate models, liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) or posaconazole (POS) treatments were effective in improving survival, reducing lungs and brain fungal burdens, and histologically resolving the infection compared with placebo. These models can be used to study mechanisms of infection, develop immunotherapeutic strategies, and evaluate drug efficacies against life-threatening Mucorales infections.
Project description:Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improving the outcome of mucormycosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of quantitative PCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for early diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples (n = 450) from 374 patients with pneumonia and immunosuppressive conditions were analyzed using a combination of 3 quantitative PCR assays targeting the main genera involved in mucormycosis in France (Rhizomucor, Mucor/Rhizopus, and Lichtheimia). Among these 374 patients, 24 patients had at least one bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample with a positive PCR; 23/24 patients had radiological criteria for invasive fungal infections according to consensual criteria; 10 patients had probable or proven mucormycosis, and 13 additional patients had other invasive fungal infections (4 probable aspergillosis, 1 proven fusariosis, and 8 possible invasive fungal infections). Only 2/24 patients with a positive PCR result on a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample had a positive Mucorales culture. PCR was also positive on serum in 17/24 patients. In most cases, a positive PCR result was first detected using sera (15/17). However, a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was the earliest and/or the only biological test revealing mucormycosis in 4 patients with a final diagnosis of probable or proven mucormycosis, 3 patients with probable aspergillosis, and one patient with a possible invasive fungal infection. Mucorales PCR performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid could provide additional support for earlier administration of Mucorales-directed antifungal therapy, thus improving the outcome of lung mucormycosis cases.
Project description:The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles. Polyenes including lipid formulations pose a problem with infusion-related side effects, electrolyte imbalance, and nephrotoxicity. Echinocandins are ineffective against mucorales and are approved as salvage therapy for refractory IA. Given that all available antifungal agents have limitations, there has been an unmet need for a broad-spectrum anti-mold agent with a favorable profile. Following phase III clinical trials that started in 2006, isavuconazole (ISZ) seems to fit this profile. It is the first novel triazole agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of both IA and mucormycosis. This review provides a brief overview of the salient features of ISZ, its favorable profile with regard to spectrum of antifungal activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, drug interactions and tolerability, clinical efficacy, and side effects.
Project description:Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. Here we sequence 30 fungal genomes, and perform transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains and with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion, to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing to pathogenesis. Analysis of the host transcriptional response to Mucorales reveals platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) signaling as part of a core response to divergent pathogenic fungi; inhibition of PDGFRB reduces Mucorales-induced damage to host cells. The unique presence of CotH invasins in all invasive Mucorales, and the correlation between CotH gene copy number and clinical prevalence, are consistent with an important role for these proteins in mucormycosis pathogenesis. Our work provides insight into the evolution of this medically and economically important group of fungi, and identifies several molecular pathways that might be exploited as potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Mucormycosis is difficult to diagnose. Samples from suspected cases often fail to grow Mucorales in microbiologic cultures. We identified all hematologic malignancy and stem cell transplant patients diagnosed with proven mucormycosis between 2001 and 2009 at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Seminested PCR targeting Mucorales 18S ribosomal DNA and sequencing were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Of 29 cases of mucormycosis, 27 had tissue samples available for PCR and sequencing. Mucorales PCR was positive in 22. Among 12 culture-positive cases, 10 were PCR positive and sequencing was concordant with culture results to the genus level in 9. Among 15 culture-negative cases, PCR was positive and sequencing allowed genus identification in 12. Mucorales PCR is useful for confirmation of the diagnosis of mucormycosis and for further characterization of the infection in cases where cultures are negative.
Project description:Primary gastric mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal fungal infection due to the invasion of Mucorales into the gastric mucosa. It may result in high mortality due to increased risk of complications in immunocompromised patients. Common predisposing risk factors to develop gastric mucormycosis are prolonged uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with or without diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), solid organ or stem cell transplantation, underlying hematologic malignancy, and major trauma. Abdominal pain, hematemesis, and melena are common presenting symptoms. The diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis can be overlooked due to the rarity of the disease. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and management of the disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Radiological imaging findings are nonspecific to establish the diagnosis, and gastric biopsy is essential for histological confirmation of mucormycosis. Prompt treatment with antifungal therapy is the mainstay of treatment with surgical resection reserved in cases of extensive disease burden or clinical deterioration. We presented a case of acute gastric mucormycosis involving the body of stomach in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal disease, admitted with acute onset of abdominal pain. Complete resolution of lesion was noted with 16 weeks of medical treatment with intravenous amphotericin B and posaconazole.
Project description:We report the case of a 71 years old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who developed a rapidly progressing multi-fungal infection including mucormycosis of the central nervous system (CNS) during treatment with ibrutinib. On autopsy mucorales species were demonstrated intravascularly by histomorphology of several organs and lymph nodes and were characterized as Rhizomucor pusillus by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) - analysis. In addition, invasive pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus was found and also confirmed by PCR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of a multi-fungal sepsis and invasive CNS-infection with mucorales species under ibrutinib. Knowing the risk for invasive fungal disease in patients under ibrutinib, identifying the pathogen and early initiation of specific treatment is crucial for a good clinical outcome especially in mucormycosis.
Project description:Mucormycosis is a fatal fungal disease caused by several organisms within the order Mucorales. In recent years, traumatic injury has emerged as a novel risk factor for mucormycosis. Current antifungal therapy is ineffective, expensive, and typically requires extensive surgical debridement. There is thus a pressing need for safe prophylactic treatment that can be rapidly and easily applied to high-risk patients, such as those with major trauma injuries. Acetic acid has been used as a topical treatment for burn wounds for centuries and has proven activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that acetic acid is also highly effective against major pathogenic groups of Mucorales, even at very low concentrations (0.3%). This antifungal effect is not seen with other acids, such as hydrochloric and lactic acid, suggesting that acetic acid activity against Mucorales spores is not solely evoked by low environmental pH. In agreement with this, we demonstrate that the antifungal activity of acetic acid arises from a combination of its ability to potently lower intracellular pH and from pH-independent toxicity. Thus, dilute acetic acid may offer a low-cost, safe, prophylactic treatment for patients at risk of invasive mucormycosis following traumatic injury.
Project description:Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the Mucoraceae family. The genera most commonly responsible are Mucor or Rhizopus. The disease occurs mostly in association with diabetic ketoacidosis. Mucormycosis has an extremely high death rate even when aggressive surgery is done. Death rates range from 25-85% depending on the body area involved. A case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a 65-year-old diabetic male patient typically presenting as headache, especially in parietal and frontal lobes, with nose and left eye discharge. After clinical and laboratory examination, mucormycosis was diagnosed, and Rhizopus oryzae was isolated. Systemic therapy with amphotericin B administered intravenously then replaced by posaconazole by a combination of aggressive surgery. The patient was treated and followed up for one year. We emphasize the importance of early detection and aggressive treatment in the management of this fatal disease.