Clinical predictors of inflammatory bowel disease in a genetically well-defined Caucasian population.
ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are multifactorial conditions of unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to examine the combined gene-environment interactions influencing IBD susceptibility in a well-defined Caucasian cohort in rural mid-America.Patients were diagnosed to have CD or UC using conventional radiologic, endoscopic, and/or histopathologic findings. Histological diagnosis was made by a single specialist gastrointestinal pathologist with a particular interest in IBD. Information regarding cigarette smoke exposure was obtained by administration of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (BRFSS) to all patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and genotyping were performed for 11 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in NOD2, IL23r, OCTN1 genes along with IGR.Our cohort consists of 1196 patients: 435 controls, 485 CD patients, and 276 UC patients. Only patients with genotype data for at least 7 of 11 SNPs were included in our data analysis. The control groups for all 11 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. In genotype-association SNP analysis, all NOD2 SNPs (rs5743293, rs2066844, rs2066845) and the IL23r SNP (rs11465804) showed a significant association to IBD (p < 0.03). A multiple gene-interaction analysis showed an association between NOD2 and IL23r with UC (p = 0.04). There were no associations between any OCTN1 and IGR SNPs and IBD in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, "current" or "former" smoking status, family history of IBD, and NOD2 SNP minor alleles were associated with CD.IBD remains to be challenging to properly diagnose, characterize, and treat. Our study proposes a combined genetic, phenotypic, and environmental approach in an attempt to better understand IBD. Previously demonstrated associations between OCTN1 and IGR and IBD were not confirmed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The IL23R gene has been identified as a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the North American population. The aim of our study was to test this association in a large German IBD cohort and to elucidate potential interactions with other IBD genes as well as phenotypic consequences of IL23R variants. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 2670 Caucasian individuals including 833 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 456 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 1381 healthy unrelated controls was analyzed for 10 IL23R SNPs. Genotyping included the NOD2 variants p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg, and p.Leu1007fsX1008 and polymorphisms in SLC22A4/OCTN1 (1672 C-->T) and SLC22A5/OCTN2 (-207 G-->C). RESULTS: All IL23R gene variants analyzed displayed highly significant associations with CD. The strongest association was found for the SNP rs1004819 [P = 1.92x10(-11); OR 1.56; 95 % CI (1.37-1.78)]. 93.2% of the rs1004819 TT homozygous carriers as compared to 78% of CC wildtype carriers had ileal involvement [P = 0.004; OR 4.24; CI (1.46-12.34)]. The coding SNP rs11209026 (p.Arg381Gln) was protective for CD [P = 8.04x10(-8); OR 0.43; CI (0.31-0.59)]. Similar, but weaker associations were found in UC. There was no evidence for epistasis between the IL23R gene and the CD susceptibility genes CARD15 and SLC22A4/5. CONCLUSION: IL23R is an IBD susceptibility gene, but has no epistatic interaction with CARD15 and SLC22A4/5. rs1004819 is the major IL23R variant associated with CD in the German population, while the p.Arg381Gln IL23R variant is a protective marker for CD and UC.
Project description:To investigate genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) in order to determine which factors predispose to development of perianal disease in Crohn's patients.Seven-hundred and ninety-five Caucasian individuals (317 CD patients and 478 controls without inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) were prospectively enrolled into a clinical/genetic database. Demographic and clinical data, as well as peripheral blood leukocyte DNA were obtained from all patients. The following were evaluated: three NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms: R702W, G908R, and 1007insC; five IL-23r risk alleles: rs1004819, rs10489629, rs2201841, rs11465804, and rs11209026; a well-characterized single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the IBD5 risk haplotype (OCTN1) and two peripheral tag SNPs (IGR2060 and IGR3096).PCD occurred in 147 (46%) of CD patients. There was no significant difference in the age at disease diagnosis between non-PCD and PCD patients (33 vs. 29 years, respectively). PCD patients were more likely to have disease located in the colon and ileocolic regions (79 PCD vs. 57% non-PCD; n = 116 vs. n = 96; p < 0.001), whereas patients with non-PCD were more likely to have Crohn's within the terminal ileum and upper gastrointestinal tract (43% non-PCD vs. 21% PCD; n = 73 vs. n = 31; p < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of patients with PCD required a permanent ileostomy (n = 50) compared to only 4% of non-PCD patients (n = 6; p < 0.05). Mutations in CARD15/NOD2 and IL-23r were risk factors for CD overall; however, in contrast to prior reports, in this patient population, OCTN1 and IGR variations within the IBD5 haplotype were not significant predictors of PCD.Colon/ileocolic CD location appears to be a significant predictor of perianal manifestations of CD. Patients with PCD are more likely to require permanent fecal diversion. We did not identify any genetic variations or combination of clinical findings and genetic variations within the CARD15/NOD2, IL-23r, and OCTN1 genes or IGR that were predictive of PCD.
Project description:AIM:To investigate gene variants in a large Italian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort, and to analyze the correlation of sub-phenotypes (including age at diagnosis) and epistatic interaction with other IBD genes. METHODS:Total of 763 patients with Crohn's disease (CD, 189 diagnosed at age < 19 years), 843 with ulcerative colitis (UC, 179 diagnosed < 19 years), 749 healthy controls, and 546 healthy parents (273 trios) were included in the study. The rs2241880 [autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1)], rs11209026 and rs7517847 [interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R)], rs2066844, rs2066845, rs2066847 (CARD15), rs1050152 (OCTN1), and rs2631367 (OCTN2) gene variants were genotyped. RESULTS:The frequency of G allele of ATG16L1 SNP (Ala197Thr) was increased in patients with CD compared with controls (59% vs 54% respectively) (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.08-1.45, P = 0.003), but not in UC (55%). The frequency of A and G (minor) alleles of Arg381Gln, rs11209026 and rs7517847 variants of IL23R were reduced significantly in CD (4%, OR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.87, P = 0.005; 28%, OR = 0.64, CI = 0.55-0.75, P < 0.01), compared with controls (6% and 38%, respectively). The A allele (but not G) was also reduced significantly in UC (4%, OR = 0.69, CI = 0.5-0.94, P = 0.019). No association was demonstrated with sub-phenotypes and interaction with CARD15, and OCTN1/2 genes, although both gene variants were associated with pediatric-onset disease. CONCLUSION:The present study confirms the association of IL23R polymorphisms with IBD, and ATG16L1 with CD, in both adult- and pediatric-onset subsets in our study population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is gaining interest. With the advent of novel therapies, personalized treatment in IBD is a future goal. We wondered whether IBD-associated SNPs are able to predict response to anti-TNF? treatment. METHODS:Data on treatment use and primary response, loss of response and side effects to anti-TNF? treatments were retrieved for 570 IBD patients. rs13361189 (IRGM), rs10210302 (ATG16L1), rs2066844, rs2066845, rs2066847 (NOD2), rs35873774 (XBP1), rs11175593 (LRRK2), rs11465804 (IL23R), rs2301436 (CCR6), rs744166 (STAT3) and rs4821544 (NCF4) SNP status were determined. RESULTS:No associations were found between genetic variants of the LRRK2, CCR6, IL23R and NCF4 genes and response to anti-TNF?. For NOD2 and XBP1 associations were found, however, these associations were not strong enough to survive multiple testing corrections. Strikingly, patients carrying the ATG16L1 T300A variant were more likely to be treated with adalimumab, even after correction for disease phenotype, disease behavior and age (p = 0.004, OR 2.8, CI 1.6-5.0). CONCLUSIONS:Genetic polymorphisms in the known IBD-associated gene ATG16L1 correlate with requirement of treatment, suggesting a different IBD disease phenotype in these patients. Further investigation will need to elucidate the implications of these findings and identify the underlying disease characteristics.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the frequency of NOD2, IL23R and ATG16L1 genetic variants in a case-control panel for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from Lithuania. METHODS:One hundred and eighty unrelated IBD patients [57 Crohn's disease (CD) and 123 ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 186 healthy controls were genotyped for the following known genetic susceptibility variants: NOD2 - Arg702Trp (rs2066844), Gly908Arg (rs2066845) and Leu1007insC (rs2066847), as well as IL23R - Arg381Gln (rs11209026) and ATG16L1 - Thr300Ala (rs2241880). RESULTS:The effect that carriership of at least one NOD2 risk allele predisposes to CD was replicated in the Lithuanian population (41.1% CD vs 16.9% controls, P = 2 x 10(-4), OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.81-6.72). In the allelic single marker analysis, Leu1007insC was strongly associated with CD (21.4% CD vs 4.7% controls, P = 3.687 x 10(-8), OR = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.85-10.75). Neither the other two NOD2 variants, nor the known variants in IL23R and ATG16L1 were found to be risk factors for CD, UC or IBD. However, our relatively small study population was underpowered to demonstrate such weak to moderate disease associations. CONCLUSION:The results support a strong association between CD susceptibility and the Leu1007insC variant in NOD2 in the Lithuanian study population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are common, complex disorders in which genetic and environmental factors are believed to interact leading to chronic inflammatory responses against the gut microbiota. Earlier genetic studies performed in mostly adult population of European descent identified 163 loci affecting IBD risk, but most have relatively modest effect sizes, and altogether explain only ~20% of the genetic susceptibility. Pediatric onset represents about 25% of overall incident cases in IBD, characterized by distinct disease physiology, course and risks. The goal of this study is to compare the allelic architecture of early onset IBD with adult onset in population of European descent.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a fine mapping association study of early onset IBD using high-density Immunochip genotyping on 1008 pediatric-onset IBD cases (801 Crohn's disease; 121 ulcerative colitis and 86 IBD undetermined) and 1633 healthy controls. Of the 158 SNP genotypes obtained (out of the 163 identified in adult onset), this study replicated 4% (5 SNPs out of 136) of the SNPs identified in the Crohn's disease (CD) cases and 0.8% (1 SNP out of 128) in the ulcerative colitis (UC) cases. Replicated SNPs implicated the well known NOD2 and IL23R. The point estimate for the odds ratio (ORs) for NOD2 was above and outside the confidence intervals reported in adult onset. A polygenic liability score weakly predicted the age of onset for a larger collection of CD cases (p< 0.03, R2= 0.007), but not for the smaller number of UC cases.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The allelic architecture of common susceptibility variants for early onset IBD is similar to that of adult onset. This immunochip genotyping study failed to identify additional common variants that may explain the distinct phenotype that characterize early onset IBD. A comprehensive dissection of genetic loci is necessary to further characterize the genetic architecture of early onset IBD.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) distribution of NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R), OCTN1 1672C/T and OCTN2-207G/C in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:A total of 61 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 151 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 200 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped. Genotyping was performed by sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP) or by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. RESULTS:Among the subjects in our study groups, including patients with CD, UC and healthy controls, none had OCTN and CARD15 variants and very rare IBD family history was found in our patients with the percentage of 0 (0/61 with CD) and 1.3% (2/151 with UC). CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that although OCTN or CARD15 variation is associated with susceptibility to IBD in Western populations, these might be rare and may not be associated with susceptibility to IBD in Chinese patients.
Project description:A common genotypic basis for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is implied by overlapping clinical characteristics, epidemiological studies, and association of genes with both UC and CD. We evaluated the overlap between CD and UC genetic loci stratified by pathogenetic pathways and by disease location.The allele frequencies of six UC-associated and 34 CD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in a Canadian IBD cohort (n = 2374). Differences between CD, UC, colon-only CD, ileal CD, and controls were analyzed controlling for ethnicity, age of diagnosis, and gender.In all, 21 of 34 CD-associated SNPs had similar allele frequencies in UC (n = 1230) and CD (n = 1144). Three of six UC-associated SNPs had significantly different frequencies in CD (n = 1144). Most of the divergence in allele frequency among CD and UC was noted in NOD2/autophagy pathway SNPs, while most SNPs with similar frequencies were in IL-22/23 Th17, adaptive immunity, and barrier pathways. Colon-only CD (n = 228) was compared with healthy controls: three of six UC SNPs (in MST1, HLA-DRA, and IL-23R) and 11 of 34 CD SNPs: in IRGM, NOD2 (rs2066845), CCNY, MST1, IL23R, PTPN22, C11orf30, ZNF365, PTPN2, PSMG1, and rs1456893 were significantly associated. In all, 29 of 34 CD SNPs had similar allele frequencies in colonic CD compared with ileal CD (n = 366). All UC SNPs had similar frequencies in UC and colonic CD.Our results suggest that CD and UC share common genetic associations related to impaired adaptive immunity and diverge in pathways of foreign antigen processing. Colon-only CD overlaps extensively with UC and considerably with ileal CD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Osteopontin represents a multifunctional molecule playing a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Its expression is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to analyze the association of osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) gene variants in a large cohort of IBD patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genomic DNA from 2819 Caucasian individuals (n?=?841 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), n?=?473 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and n?=?1505 healthy unrelated controls) was analyzed for nine OPN SNPs (rs2728127, rs2853744, rs11730582, rs11739060, rs28357094, rs4754?=?p.Asp80Asp, rs1126616?=?p.Ala236Ala, rs1126772 and rs9138). Considering the important role of osteopontin in Th17-mediated diseases, we performed analysis for epistasis with IBD-associated IL23R variants and analyzed serum levels of the Th17 cytokine IL-22. For four OPN SNPs (rs4754, rs1126616, rs1126772 and rs9138), we observed significantly different distributions between male and female CD patients. rs4754 was protective in male CD patients (p?=?0.0004, OR?=?0.69). None of the other investigated OPN SNPs was associated with CD or UC susceptibility. However, several OPN haplotypes showed significant associations with CD susceptibility. The strongest association was found for a haplotype consisting of the 8 OPN SNPs rs2728127-rs2853744-rs11730582-rs11439060-rs28357094-rs112661-rs1126772-rs9138 (omnibus p-value?=?2.07×10??). Overall, the mean IL-22 secretion in the combined group of OPN minor allele carriers with CD was significantly lower than that of CD patients with OPN wildtype alleles (p?=?3.66×10??). There was evidence for weak epistasis between the OPN SNP rs28357094 with the IL23R SNP rs10489629 (p?=?4.18×10?²) and between OPN SNP rs1126616 and IL23R SNP rs2201841 (p?=?4.18×10?²) but none of these associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified OPN haplotypes as modifiers of CD susceptibility, while the combined effects of certain OPN variants may modulate IL-22 secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies identified PTPN2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2) as susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the exact role of PTPN2 in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and its phenotypic effect are unclear. We therefore performed a detailed genotype-phenotype and epistasis analysis of PTPN2 gene variants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genomic DNA from 2131 individuals of Caucasian origin (905 patients with CD, 318 patients with UC, and 908 healthy, unrelated controls) was analyzed for two SNPs in the PTPN2 region (rs2542151, rs7234029) for which associations with IBD were found in previous studies in other cohorts. Our analysis revealed a significant association of PTPN2 SNP rs2542151 with both susceptibility to CD (p?=?1.95×10??; OR 1.49 [1.34-1.79]) and UC (p?=?3.87×10?², OR 1.31 [1.02-1.68]). Moreover, PTPN2 SNP rs7234029 demonstrated a significant association with susceptibility to CD (p?=?1.30×10?³; OR 1.35 [1.13-1.62]) and a trend towards association with UC (p?=?7.53×10?²; OR 1.26 [0.98-1.62]). Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed an association of PTPN2 SNP rs7234029 with a stricturing disease phenotype (B2) in CD patients (p?=?6.62×10?³). Epistasis analysis showed weak epistasis between the ATG16L1 SNP rs2241879 and PTPN2 SNP rs2542151 (p?=?0.024) in CD and between ATG16L1 SNP rs4663396 and PTPN2 SNP rs7234029 (p?=?4.68×10?³) in UC. There was no evidence of epistasis between PTPN2 and NOD2 and PTPN2 and IL23R. In silico analysis revealed that the SNP rs7234029 modulates potentially the binding sites of several transcription factors involved in inflammation including GATA-3, NF-?B, C/EBP, and E4BP4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm the association of PTPN2 variants with susceptibility to both CD and UC, suggesting a common disease pathomechanism for these diseases. Given recent evidence that PTPN2 regulates autophagosome formation in intestinal epithelial cells, the potential link between PTPN2 and ATG16L1 should be further investigated.