ABSTRACT: A third serotype of human parechovirus (HPeV) has been recently isolated from stool specimens of a young Japanese child with transient paralysis. We report 3 additional cases of neonatal sepsis caused by HPeV-3 in the fall of 2001 in Canadian infants 7-27 days old. All children were hospitalized with high fever, erythematous rash, and tachypnea for a median of 5 days. The viruses isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates grew slowly on tertiary monkey kidney cells and were successfully passaged on Vero cells. The predicted amino acid identity of the VP0-VP3-VP1 region of the three viruses was 74.6%-74.8%, 73.4%-73.6%, and 97.0%-97.1% when compared to HPeV-1, -2, and -3 prototype strains, respectively. Although different, our isolates were closely related; amino acid identity was 99.6%-100% for the last 3 proteins.
Project description:Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together with molecular methods facilitate comprehensive viral diagnosis. To establish the HPeV immunofluorescence assay, an antibody against HPeV capsid protein VP0 was generated by using antigenic epitope prediction data. The specificity of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was demonstrated on immunofluorescence assay, showing that this antibody was specific for HPeV but not enteroviruses. A total of 74 HPeV isolates, 7 non?polio-enteroviruses and 12 HPeV negative cell culture supernatant were used for evaluating the efficiency of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody. The sensitivity of HPeV detection by the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was consistent with 5'untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR analysis. This study established comprehensive methods for HPeV detection that include viral culture and observation of cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR and genotyping. The methods were incorporated into our routine clinical practice for viral diagnosis. In conclusion, this study established a protocol for enterovirus and HPeV virus identification that combines conventional and molecular methods and would be beneficial for HPeV diagnosis.
Project description:Parechoviruses are human pathogens that cause diseases ranging from gastrointestinal disorders to encephalitis. Unlike those of most picornaviruses, parechovirus capsids are composed of only three subunits: VP0, VP1, and VP3. Here, we present the structure of a human parechovirus 1 (HPeV-1) virion determined to a resolution of 3.1 Å. We found that interactions among pentamers in the HPeV-1 capsid are mediated by the N termini of VP0s, which correspond to the capsid protein VP4 and the N-terminal part of the capsid protein VP2 of other picornaviruses. In order to facilitate delivery of the virus genome into the cytoplasm, the N termini of VP0s have to be released from contacts between pentamers and exposed at the particle surface, resulting in capsid disruption. A hydrophobic pocket, which can be targeted by capsid-binding antiviral compounds in many other picornaviruses, is not present in HPeV-1. However, we found that interactions between the HPeV-1 single-stranded RNA genome and subunits VP1 and VP3 in the virion impose a partial icosahedral ordering on the genome. The residues involved in RNA binding are conserved among all parechoviruses, suggesting a putative role of the genome in virion stability or assembly. Therefore, putative small molecules that could disrupt HPeV RNA-capsid protein interactions could be developed into antiviral inhibitors.Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are pathogens that cause diseases ranging from respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders to encephalitis. Recently, there have been outbreaks of HPeV infections in Western Europe and North America. We present the first atomic structure of parechovirus HPeV-1 determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure explains why HPeVs cannot be targeted by antiviral compounds that are effective against other picornaviruses. Furthermore, we found that the interactions of the HPeV-1 genome with the capsid resulted in a partial icosahedral ordering of the genome. The residues involved in RNA binding are conserved among all parechoviruses, suggesting an evolutionarily fixed role of the genome in virion assembly. Therefore, putative small molecules disrupting HPeV RNA-capsid protein interactions could be developed into antiviral inhibitors.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeV), members of the Parechovirus genus of Picornaviridae, are frequent pathogens but have been comparatively poorly studied, and little is known of their diversity, evolution, and molecular biology. To increase the amount of information available, we have analyzed 7 HPeV strains isolated in California between 1973 and 1992. We found that, on the basis of VP1 sequences, these fall into two genetic groups, one of which has not been previously observed, bringing the number of known groups to five. While these correlate partly with the three known serotypes, two members of the HPeV2 serotype belong to different genetic groups. In view of the growing importance of molecular techniques in diagnosis, we suggest that genotype is an important criterion for identifying viruses, and we propose that the genetic groups we have defined should be termed human parechovirus types 1 to 5. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of two of the Californian isolates, representing two types, confirmed the identification of a new genetic group and suggested a role for recombination in parechovirus evolution. It also allowed the identification of a putative HPeV1 cis-acting replication element, which is located in the VP0 coding region, as well as the refinement of previously predicted 5' and 3' untranslated region structures. Thus, the results have significantly improved our understanding of these common pathogens.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are picornaviruses with a highly-ordered RNA genome contained within icosahedrally-symmetric capsids. Ordered RNA structures have recently been shown to interact with capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 and facilitate virus assembly in HPeV1. Using an assay that combines reversible cross-linking, RNA affinity purification and peptide mass fingerprinting (RCAP), we mapped the RNA-interacting regions of the capsid proteins from the whole HPeV1 virion in solution. The intrinsically-disordered N-termini of capsid proteins VP1 and VP3, and unexpectedly, VP0, were identified to interact with RNA. Comparing these results to those obtained using recombinantly-expressed VP0 and VP1 confirmed the virion binding regions, and revealed unique RNA binding regions in the isolated VP0 not previously observed in the crystal structure of HPeV1. We used RNA fluorescence anisotropy to confirm the RNA-binding competency of each of the capsid proteins' N-termini. These findings suggests that dynamic interactions between the viral RNA and the capsid proteins modulate virus assembly, and suggest a novel role for VP0.
Project description:PURPOSE:Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) are causative agents of a sepsis-like illness in neonates and of infections of the central nervous system in young children. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of HPeV3 and EV infection in young children with a sepsis-like illness or with meningitis in Jinju, Korea. METHODS:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 267 patients (age range, 1 day to 5 years) and assessed for HPeV and EV by performing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Amplification products of the VP3/VP1 region of HPeV and of the VP1 region of EV were sequenced to identify the virus type. RESULTS:HPeV and EV were detected in 3.4% and 7.5% of the total CSF samples assessed, respectively. The age distribution of EV-positive patients (median age, 1.4 months) had a significantly broader range than that of HPeV-positive patients (median age, 7.8 months). The peak seasons for HPeV and EV infection were spring and summer, respectively. The clinical symptoms for HPeV and EV infection were similar, and fever was the most common symptom. Pleocytosis was detected in 22.2% of HPeV-positive patients and 35.5% of EV-positive patients. The VP3/VP1 gene sequence of the nine Korean strains clustered most closely with the Japanese strain (AB759202). CONCLUSION:The data indicate that HPeV infection is predominant in young infants (<6 months) and that meningitis without pleocytosis was caused by both HPeV and EV infection in children.
Project description:Since it was first recognized in 2004 that human parechoviruses (HPeV) are a significant cause of central nervous system and neonatal sepsis, their clinical importance, primarily in children, has started to emerge. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is the only treatment available in such life-threatening cases and has given moderate success. Direct inhibition of parechovirus infection using monoclonal antibodies is a potential treatment. We have developed two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HPeV1 and HPeV2, namely, AM18 and AM28, which also cross-neutralize other viruses. Here, we present the mapping of their epitopes using peptide scanning, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence-based thermal shift assays, electron cryomicroscopy, and image reconstruction. We determined by peptide scanning and surface plasmon resonance that AM18 recognizes a linear epitope motif including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid on the C terminus of capsid protein VP1. This epitope is normally used by the virus to attach to host cell surface integrins during entry and is found in 3 other viruses that AM18 neutralizes. Therefore, AM18 is likely to cause virus neutralization by aggregation and by blocking integrin binding to the capsid. Further, we show by electron cryomicroscopy, three-dimensional reconstruction, and pseudoatomic model fitting that ordered RNA interacts with HPeV1 VP1 and VP3. AM28 recognizes quaternary epitopes on the capsid composed of VP0 and VP3 loops from neighboring pentamers, thereby increasing the RNA accessibility temperature for the virus-AM28 complex compared to the virus alone. Thus, inhibition of RNA uncoating probably contributes to neutralization by AM28.Human parechoviruses can cause mild infections to severe diseases in young children, such as neonatal sepsis, encephalitis, and cardiomyopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is the only treatment available in such life-threatening cases. In order to develop more targeted treatment, we have searched for human monoclonal antibodies that would neutralize human parechoviruses 1 and 2, associated with mild infections such as gastroenteritis and severe infections of the central nervous system, and thus allow safe treatment. In the current study, we show how two such promising antibodies interact with the virus, modeling the atomic interactions between the virus and the antibody to propose how neutralization occurs. Both antibodies can cause aggregation; in addition, one antibody interferes with the virus recognizing its target cell, while the other, recognizing only the whole virus, inhibits the genome uncoating and replication in the cell.
Project description:Using Vero cells, we isolated a virus (NII561-2000) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a 1-year-old girl with Reye syndrome. The determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae. Neutralization test showed that the NII561-2000 virus had distinct antigenicity to HPeV-1, HPeV-2, and HPeV-3, and that the sequence was distinct from these types as well as from HPeV-4 and HPeV-5. Thus, we propose the virus (NII561-2000) as the prototype of HPeV-6. We isolated 10 NII561-2000-related viruses, 14 HPeV-1, 16 HPeV-3, and 1 HPeV-4 of 41 HPeVs from various clinical samples collected in Niigata, Japan. Clinical symptoms of the persons infected with the NII561-2000-related viruses were infectious gastroenteritis, rash, upper respiratory tract infection, and paralysis, in addition to Reye syndrome in the 1-year-old girl.
Project description:Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to human parainfluenza virus 1, anellovirus, bocavirus, coxsackievirus A4, human parechovirus (HPeV), and alphaflexivirus were recovered from these samples. Complete genomes of one anellovirus, one coxsackievirus A4, three parechoviruses were determined from these libraries. The anellovirus (MW267851) phylogenetically clustered with an unpublished anellovirus (MK212032) from respiratory sample of a Vietnamese patient, forming a separate branch neighboring to strains within the genus Betatorquevirus. The genome of coxsackievirus A4 (MW267852) shares the highest sequence identity of 96.4% to a coxsackievirus A4 (MN964079) which was identified in clinical samples from children with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Two (MW267853 and MW267854) of the three parechoviruses belong to HPeV-1 and the other one (MW267855) belongs to HPeV-6. Recombination analysis indicated that an HPeV-1 (MW267854) identified in this study is a putative recombinant occurred between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3. Whether these viruses have association with specific respiratory disease calls for further investigation.
Project description:We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype. Since K251176-02 could not be neutralized with antibodies against known HPeV serotypes 1-3, it should be classified as a fourth HPeV serotype.
Project description:Using a simple metagenomic approach, we identified a divergent human parechovirus (HPeV) in the stool of a child in Pakistan. Genomic characterization showed this virus was distinct enough from reported HPeV types to qualify as candidate prototype for the seventh HPeV type.