Fosfomycin enhances the active transport of tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of mucins present in bronchiectatic airways predispose patients to bacterial infections and reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies by directly inactivating antibiotics. Consequently, new antibiotics that are not inhibited by mucins are needed to treat chronic respiratory infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In these studies, we demonstrate that fosfomycin synergistically enhances the activity of tobramycin in the presence of mucin. The bactericidal killing of a novel 4:1 (wt/wt) combination of fosfomycin-tobramycin (FTI) is superior (>9 log(10) CFU/ml) relative to its individual components fosfomycin and tobramycin. Additionally, FTI has a mutation frequency resulting in an antibiotic resistance >3 log(10) lower than for fosfomycin and 4 log(10) lower than for tobramycin for P. aeruginosa. Mechanistic studies revealed that chemical adducts are not formed, suggesting that the beneficial effects of the combination are not due to molecular modification of the components. FTI displayed time-kill kinetics similar to tobramycin and killed in a concentration-dependent fashion. The bactericidal effect resulted from inhibition of protein biosynthesis rather than cell wall biosynthesis. Studies using radiolabeled antibiotics demonstrated that tobramycin uptake was energy dependent and that fosfomycin enhanced the uptake of tobramycin in P. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, mutants resistant to fosfomycin and tobramycin were auxotrophic for specific carbohydrates and amino acids, suggesting that the resistance arises from mutations in specific active transport mechanisms. Overall, these data demonstrate that fosfomycin enhances the uptake of tobramycin, resulting in increased inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately bacterial killing.
Project description:The antibacterial activity of fosfomycin-tobramycin combination was studied by time-kill assay in eight Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates belonging to the fosfomycin wild-type population (MIC = 64 ?g/ml) but with different tobramycin susceptibilities (MIC range, 1 to 64 ?g/ml). The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and mutant selection window (MSW) were determined in five of these strains (tobramycin MIC range, 1 to 64 ?g/ml) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions simulating environments that are present in biofilm-mediated infections. Fosfomycin-tobramycin was synergistic and bactericidal for the isolates with mutations in the mexZ repressor gene, with a tobramycin MIC of 4 ?g/ml. This effect was not observed in strains displaying tobramycin MICs of 1 to 2 ?g/ml due to the strong bactericidal effect of tobramycin alone. Fosfomycin presented higher MPC values (range, 2,048 to >2,048 ?g/ml) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions than did tobramycin (range, 16 to 256 ?g/ml). Interestingly, the association rendered narrow or even null MSWs in the two conditions. However, for isolates with high-level tobramycin resistance that harbored aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases, time-kill assays showed no synergy, with wide MSWs in the two environments. glpT gene mutations responsible for fosfomycin resistance in P. aeruginosa were determined in fosfomycin-susceptible wild-type strains and mutant derivatives recovered from MPC studies. All mutant derivatives had changes in the GlpT amino acid sequence, which resulted in a truncated permease responsible for fosfomycin resistance. These results suggest that fosfomycin-tobramycin can be an alternative for infections due to P. aeruginosa since it has demonstrated synergistic and bactericidal activity in susceptible isolates and those with low-level tobramycin resistance. It also prevents the emergence of resistant mutants in either aerobic or anaerobic environments.
Project description:There has been a resurgence of interest in aerosolization of antibiotics for treatment of patients with severe pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. A combination formulation of amikacin-fosfomycin is currently undergoing clinical testing although the exposure-response relationships of these drugs have not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to describe the individual and combined antibacterial effects of simulated epithelial lining fluid exposures of aerosolized amikacin and fosfomycin against resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs of 16 mg/liter and 64 mg/liter) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MICs of 2 mg/liter and 64 mg/liter) using a dynamic hollow-fiber infection model over 7 days. Targeted peak concentrations of 300 mg/liter amikacin and/or 1,200 mg/liter fosfomycin as a 12-hourly dosing regimens were used. Quantitative cultures were performed to describe changes in concentrations of the total and resistant bacterial populations. The targeted starting inoculum was 108 CFU/ml for both strains. We observed that neither amikacin nor fosfomycin monotherapy was bactericidal against P. aeruginosa while both were associated with rapid amplification of resistant P. aeruginosa strains (about 108 to 109 CFU/ml within 24 to 48 h). For K. pneumoniae, amikacin but not fosfomycin was bactericidal. When both drugs were combined, a rapid killing was observed for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (6-log kill within 24 h). Furthermore, the combination of amikacin and fosfomycin effectively suppressed growth of resistant strains of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae In conclusion, the combination of amikacin and fosfomycin was effective at maximizing bacterial killing and suppressing emergence of resistance against these clinical isolates.
Project description:Although antibiotics from different classes are frequently prescribed in combination to prevent the development of resistance amongst Cystic Fibrosis (CF) respiratory pathogens, there is a lack of data as to the efficacy of this approach. We have previously shown that a 4:1 (w/w) combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin (F:T) has excellent activity against CF pathogens with increased activity under physiologically relevant anaerobic conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether F:T could delay or prevent the onset of resistance compared to either fosfomycin or tobramycin alone under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The frequency of spontaneous mutants arising following exposure to fosfomycin, tobramycin and F:T was determined for clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosfomycin, tobramycin and F:T on the induction of resistance was also investigated, with the stability of resistance and fitness cost associated with resistance assessed if it developed. P. aeruginosa and MRSA isolates had a lower frequency of spontaneous mutants to F:T compared to fosfomycin and tobramycin under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. There was a maximum two-fold increase in F:T MICs when P. aeruginosa and MRSA isolates were passaged in sub-inhibitory F:T for 12 days. In contrast, sequential resistance to fosfomycin and tobramycin developed quickly (n = 3 days for both) after passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations. Once developed, both fosfomycin and tobramycin resistance was stable and not associated with a biological fitness cost to either P. aeruginosa or MRSA isolates. The results of this study suggest that F:T may prevent the development of resistance compared to fosfomycin or tobramycin alone under aerobic and physiologically relevant anaerobic conditions. F:T may be a potential treatment option in CF patients chronically colonised by MRSA and/or P. aeruginosa.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Fosfomycin/tobramycin for inhalation (FTI), a unique, broad-spectrum antibiotic combination, may have therapeutic potential for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate safety and efficacy of FTI (160/40 mg or 80/20 mg), administered twice daily for 28 days versus placebo, in patients greater than or equal to 18 years of age, with CF, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) airway infection, and FEV(1) greater than or equal to 25% and less than or equal to 75% predicted.<h4>Methods</h4>This double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study assessed whether FTI/placebo maintained FEV(1) % predicted improvements achieved following a 28-day, open-label, run-in course of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI).<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>A total of 119 patients were randomized to FTI (160/40 mg: n = 41; 80/20 mg: n = 38) or placebo (n = 40). Mean age was 32 years and mean FEV(1) was 49% predicted at screening. Relative improvements in FEV(1) % predicted achieved by the AZLI run-in were maintained in FTI groups compared with placebo (160/40 mg vs. placebo: 6.2% treatment difference favoring FTI, P = 0.002 [primary endpoint]; 80/20 mg vs. placebo: 7.5% treatment difference favoring FTI, P < 0.001). The treatment effect on mean PA sputum density was statistically significant for the FTI 80/20 mg group versus placebo (-1.04 log(10) PA colony-forming units/g sputum difference, favoring FTI; P = 0.01). Adverse events, primarily cough, were consistent with CF disease. Respiratory events, including dyspnea and wheezing, were less common with FTI 80/20 mg than FTI 160/40 mg. No clinically significant differences between groups were reported for laboratory values.<h4>Conclusions</h4>FTI maintained the substantial improvements in FEV(1) % predicted achieved during the AZLI run-in and was well tolerated. FTI is a promising antipseudomonal therapy for patients with CF.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is refractory to a variety of current antimicrobial therapeutic regimens. Complicating treatment for such infections is the ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms, as well as several innate and acquired resistance mechanisms. Previous studies suggest iron plays a role in resistance to antimicrobial therapy, including the efficacy of an FDA-approved iron chelator, deferasirox (DSX), or Gallium, an iron analog, in potentiating antibiotic-dependent killing of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Here, we show that iron-replete conditions enhance resistance of P. aeruginosa nonbiofilm growth against tobramycin and tigecycline. Interestingly, the mechanism of iron-enhanced resistance to each of these antibiotics is distinct. Whereas pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake is important for optimal resistance to tigecycline, it does not enhance tobramycin resistance. In contrast, heme supplementation results in increased tobramycin resistance, while having no significant effect on tigecycline resistance. Thus, nonsiderophore bound iron plays an important role in resistance to tobramycin, while pyoverdine increases the ability of P. aeruginosa to resist tigecycline treatment. Lastly, we show that iron increases the minimal concentration of tobramycin, but not tigecycline, required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms. Moreover, iron depletion blocks the previous observed induction of biofilm formation by subinhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, suggesting iron and tobramycin signal through overlapping regulatory pathways to affect biofilm formation. These data further support the role of iron in P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, providing yet another compelling case for targeting iron acquisition for future antimicrobial drug development.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients. Novel in vitro biofilm models which reliably predict the therapeutic success of antimicrobial therapies against biofilm bacteria should be implemented. The activity of fosfomycin, tobramycin, and the fosfomycin-tobramycin combination against 6 susceptible P. aeruginosa strains isolated from respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis patients was tested by using two in vitro biofilm models: a closed system (Calgary device) and an open model based on microfluidics (BioFlux). All but one of the isolates formed biofilms. The fosfomycin and tobramycin minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) were 1,024 to >1,024 ?g/ml and 8 to 32 ?g/ml, respectively. According to fractional inhibitory concentration analysis, the combination behaved synergistically against all the isolates except the P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain. The dynamic formation of the biofilm was also studied with the BioFlux system, and the MIC and MBIC of each antibiotic were tested. For the combination, the lowest tobramycin concentration that was synergistic with fosfomycin was used. The captured images were analyzed by measuring the intensity of the colored pixels, which was proportional to the biofilm biomass. A statistically significant difference was found when the intensity of the inoculum was compared with the intensity of the microchannel in which the MBIC of tobramycin, fosfomycin, or their combination was used (P < 0.01) but not when the MIC was applied (P > 0.01). Fosfomycin-tobramycin was demonstrated to be synergistic against cystic fibrosis P. aeruginosa strains in the biofilm models when both the Calgary and the microfluidic BioFlux systems were tested. These results support the clinical use of this combination.
Project description:Chitosan oligosaccharides were modified with N-diazeniumdiolates to yield biocompatible nitric oxide (NO) donor scaffolds. The minimum bactericidal concentrations and MICs of the NO donors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Differential antibacterial activities were primarily the result of NO scavenging by oxygen under aerobic environments and not changes in bacterial physiology. Bacterial killing was also tested against nonmucoid and mucoid biofilms and compared to that of tobramycin. Smaller NO payloads were required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Under oxygen-free environments, the NO treatment was 10-fold more effective at killing biofilms than tobramycin. These results demonstrate the potential utility of NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides under both aerobic and anaerobic environments.
Project description:Aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) was recently approved by the FDA for treating cystic fibrosis (CF) patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we investigated the effect of aztreonam alone or in combination with tobramycin on P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on CF airway epithelial cells.P. aeruginosa biofilms, produced by laboratory strains or clinical isolates, were formed on confluent CF airway cells before treatment overnight with aztreonam or tobramycin alone or in combination. Alternatively, antibiotics were added 1 h after bacterial inoculation to assess their ability to impair biofilm formation at 5 h. Bacterial cfu remaining after treatment were then determined by plate counting.In the absence of antibiotics, all strains developed biofilms that disrupted CF airway epithelial monolayers overnight. Tobramycin reduced the cfu of all strains grown as biofilms. Aztreonam reduced the cfu of some strains by ?1 log unit without preserving the integrity of cystic fibrosis airway cell monolayers, while decreasing the biofilms of other clinical isolates by ?4 log units and protecting the monolayers from being compromised. The combination of aztreonam and tobramycin reduced the cfu of two strains by an additional 0.5 and 2 log units, respectively. Of all the mechanisms explored, Psl exopolysaccharide production might explain the variations in biofilm tolerance to aztreonam in some of the strains.Effects of aztreonam on P. aeruginosa biofilms in the in vitro co-culture model are strain-dependent. The simultaneous application of aztreonam and tobramycin may be beneficial for a subset of CF patients by eliminating susceptible P. aeruginosa strains.
Project description:Concomitant use of oral azithromycin and inhaled tobramycin occurs in approximately half of US cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent data suggest that this combination may be antagonistic.Test the hypothesis that azithromycin reduces the clinical benefits of tobramycin by analyses of clinical trial data, in vitro modeling of P. aeruginosa antibiotic killing, and regulation of the MexXY efflux pump.Ongoing administration of azithromycin associates with reduced ability of inhaled tobramycin, as compared with aztreonam, to improve lung function and quality of life in a completed clinical trial. In users of azithromycin FEV1 (L) increased 0.8% during a 4-week period of inhaled tobramycin and an additional 6.4% during a subsequent 4-week period of inhaled aztreonam (P<0.005). CFQ-R respiratory symptom score decreased 1.8 points during inhaled tobramycin and increased 8.3 points during subsequent inhaled aztreonam (P<0.001). A smaller number of trial participants not using azithromycin had similar improvement in lung function and quality of life scores during inhaled tobramycin and inhaled aztreonam. In vitro, azithromycin selectively reduced the bactericidal effects tobramycin in cultures of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, while up regulating antibiotic resistance through MexXY efflux.Azithromycin appears capable of reducing the antimicrobial benefits of tobramycin by inducing adaptive bacterial stress responses in P. aeruginosa, suggesting that these medications together may not be optimal chronic therapy for at least some patients.
Project description:In this study, we examined the in vitro effect of tobramycin-efflux pump inhibitor (TOB-EPI) conjugates in combinations with fluoroquinolones, rifampicin and fosfomycin on the growth of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely-drug resistant (XDR) <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. The TOB-EPI conjugates include tobramycin covalently linked to 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) (<b>1</b>), paroxetine (PAR) (<b>2</b>) and a dibasic peptide analogue of MC-04,124 (DBP) (<b>3</b>). Potent synergism was found for combinations of TOB-NMP (<b>1</b>), TOB-PAR (<b>2</b>) or TOB-DBP (<b>3</b>) with either fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin), rifampicin or fosfomycin against a panel of multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) <i>P. aeruginosa</i> clinical isolates. In the presence of ≤8 mg/L (6.1?7.2 µM) (≤¼ × MIC<sub>adjuvant</sub>) concentration of the three conjugates, the MIC<sub>80</sub> of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and fosfomycin were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, the MIC<sub>80</sub> of rifampicin (0.25?0.5 mg/L) and fosfomycin (8?16 mg/L) were reduced below their interpretative susceptibility breakpoints. Our data confirm the ability of TOB-NMP (<b>1</b>), TOB-PAR (<b>2</b>) and TOB-DBP (<b>3</b>) conjugates to strongly synergize with moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and fosfomycin against MDR/XDR <i>P. aeruginosa</i>. These synergistic combinations warrant further studies as there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to treat drug-resistant <i>P. aeruginosa</i> infections.