Transcript and protein profiling analysis of OTA-induced cell death reveals the regulation of the toxicity response process in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic isocoumarin derivative produced by various species of mould which mainly grow on grain, coffee, and nuts. Recent studies have suggested that OTA induces cell death in plants. To investigate possible mechanisms of OTA phytotoxicity, both digital gene expression (DGE) transcriptomic and two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic analyses were used, through which 3118 genes and 23 proteins were identified as being up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold in Arabidopsis leaf in response to OTA treatment. First, exposure of excised Arabidopsis thaliana leaves to OTA rapidly causes the hypersensitive reponse, significantly accelerates the increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and enhances antioxidant enzyme defence responses and xenobiotic detoxification. Secondly, OTA stimulation causes dynamic changes in transcription factors and activates the membrane transport system dramatically. Thirdly, a concomitant persistence of compromised photosynthesis and photorespiration is indicative of a metabolic shift from a highly active to a weak state. Finally, the data revealed that ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules mediate the process of toxicity caused by OTA. Profiling analyses on Arabidopsis in response to OTA will provide new insights into signalling transduction that modulates the OTA phytotoxicity mechanism, facilitate mapping of regulatory networks, and extend the ability to improve OTA tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Jurkat cells were be exposed to N=5 different compounds with immunosuppressive properties, being Cyclosporin A (CsA), cyclophosphamide (CP) +/-S9, ochratoxin A (OTA), and tributyltin oxide (TBTO). Chemical exposure time: 6 hours. Chemical concentration: CV80 or lower
Project description:Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ? 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of porcine circovirus disease, and ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced oxidative stress promotes PCV2 replication. In humans, selenoprotein S (SelS) has antioxidant ability, but it is unclear whether SelS affects viral infection. Here, we stably transfected PK15 cells with pig pCDNA3.1-SelS to overexpress SelS. Selenium (Se) at 2 or 4 μM and SelS overexpression blocked the OTA-induced increases of PCV2 DNA copy number and infected cell numbers. SelS overexpression also increased glutathione (GSH), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase mRNA levels; decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in PCV2-infected PK15 cells, regardless of OTA treatment. Buthionine sulfoximine reversed all of the above SelS-induced changes. siRNA-mediated SelS knockdown decreased Nrf2 mRNA and GSH levels, increased ROS levels, and promoted PCV2 replication in OTA-treated PK15 cells. These data indicate that pig SelS blocks OTA-induced promotion of PCV2 replication by inhibiting the oxidative stress and p38 phosphorylation in PK15 cells.
Project description:Cereals are prone to fungal infection during growth, harvesting, transportation, and/or storage. As a result, cereals such as wheat grains and wheat-derived products may be contaminated with mycotoxins leading to acute and chronic health exposure. The current study investigated the presence of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB), T-2, and HT-2 toxins in samples of wheat grains (n = 50), wheat flour (n = 50), and bread (n = 37) from the main mills in Lebanon using LC-MS/MS. Accuracy ranged from 98-100%, recoveries from 93-105%, and intraday and interday precision were 5-7% and 9-12%, respectively. The tested wheat grains, wheat flour, and bread samples did not contain detectable levels of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and OTB. Four wheat flour samples (8% of flour samples) showed positive OTA levels ranging from 0.6-3.4 μg·kg-1 with an arithmetic mean of 1.9 ± 0.2 μg·kg-1. Only one sample contained an OTA concentration greater than the limit set by the European Union (3 μg·kg-1) for wheat-derived products. This study suggests that mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains, wheat flour, and bread in Lebanon is currently not a serious public health concern. However, surveillance strategies and monitoring programs must be routinely implemented to ensure minimal mycotoxin contamination of wheat-based products.
Project description:Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine, and its biosynthetic pathway has not yet been completely elucidated. Most of the knowledge regarding the genetic and enzymatic aspects of OTA biosynthesis has been elucidated in Penicillium species. In Aspergillus species, only pks genes involved in the initial steps of the pathway have been partially characterized. In our study, the inactivation of a gene encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) in OTA-producing A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 has eliminated the ability of this fungus to produce OTA. This is the first report on the involvement of an nrps gene product in OTA biosynthetic pathway in an Aspergillus species. The absence of OTA and ochratoxin ?, the isocoumaric derivative of OTA, and the concomitant increase of ochratoxin ?, the dechloro analog of ochratoxin ?, were observed in the liquid culture of transformed strain. The data provide the first evidence that the enzymatic step adding phenylalanine to polyketide dihydroisocoumarin precedes the chlorination step to form OTA in A. carbonarius and that ochratoxin ? is a product of hydrolysis of OTA, giving an interesting new insight into the biosynthetic pathway of the toxin.
Project description:We report the transcriptome and miRNAome of human embryonic kidney 293 cells upon the administration of ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN), to compare the individual and combined toxicity of these two mycotoxins. We identified largely differentially expressed miRNAs and corresponding genes, and the correlations between miRNAs and their target genes associated with apoptotic signaling were furthermore analyzed by pmi-RB-REPORT luciferase assay system. We concluded that hsa-miR-1-3p plays an essential role in promoting OTA and CTN-induced renal cytotoxicity. Overall design: Examination of miRNAs with targets and identification of differentially expressed genes in control and mycotoxin-treated human kidney cells.
Project description:Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. There were 42 and 43 significantly differentially expressed proteins identified in response to exposure to OTA for 8 and 24 h, respectively, according to iTRAQ analysis. These proteins were mainly involved in perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, interfering with ATP synthesis and inducing PCD. Digital gene expression data at transcriptional level was consistent with the cell death induced by OTA being PCD. These results indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction was a prerequisite for OTA-induced PCD and the initiation and execution of PCD via a mitochondrial-mediated pathway.
Project description:In this study, human exposure to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A (2'R-OTA, previously named as 14R-Ochratoxin A ) through coffee consumption was assessed. LC-MS/MS and the dried blood spot (DBS) technique were used for the analysis of blood samples from coffee and noncoffee drinkers (n = 50), and food frequency questionnaires were used to document coffee consumption.For the detection of OTA and 2'R-OTA in blood, a new sensitive and efficient sample preparation method based on DBS was established and validated. Using this technique 2'R-OTA was for the first time detected in biological samples. Comparison between coffee drinkers and noncoffee drinkers showed for the first time that 2'R-OTA was only present in blood from the first group while OTA could be found in both groups in a mean concentration of 0.21 μg/L. 2'R-OTA mean concentration was 0.11 μg/L with a maximum concentration of 0.414 μg/L. Thus, in average 2'R-OTA was approx. half the concentration of OTA but in some cases even exceeded OTA levels. No correlation between the amounts of coffee consumption and OTA or 2'R-OTA levels was observed.The results of this study revealed for the first time a high exposure of coffee consumers to 2'R-OTA, a compound formed from OTA during coffee roasting. Since little information is available regarding toxicity and possible carcinogenicity of this compound, further OTA monitoring in blood including 2'R-OTA is advisable.
Project description:Biosensing platforms based on peptide recognition provide a cost-effective and stable alternative to antibody-based capture and discrimination of ochratoxin-A (OTA) vs. ochratoxin-B (OTB) in monitoring bioassays. Attempts to engineer peptides with improved recognition efficacy require thorough structural and thermodynamic characterization of the binding-competent conformations. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches alone do not provide a thorough assessment of a peptide's recognition efficacy. In this study, in-solution binding properties of four different peptides, a hexamer (SNLHPK), an octamer (CSIVEDGK), NFO4 (VYMNRKYYKCCK), and a 13-mer (GPAGIDGPAGIRC), which were previously generated for OTA-specific recognition, were evaluated using an advanced MD simulation approach involving accelerated configurational search and predictive modeling. Peptide configurations relevant to ochratoxin binding were initially generated using biased exchange metadynamics and the dynamic properties associated with the in-solution peptide-ochratoxin binding were derived from Markov State Models. Among the various peptides, NFO4 shows superior in-solution OTA sensing and also shows superior selectivity for OTA vs. OTB due to the lower penalty associated with solvating its bound complex. Advanced MD approaches provide structural and energetic insights critical to the hapten-specific recognition to aid the engineering of peptides with better sensing efficacies.
Project description:Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with possibly carcinogenic and nephrotoxic effects in humans and animals. OTA is often found as a contaminant in agricultural commodities. The aim of the present work was to evaluate OTA-degrading and detoxifying potential of Cupriavidus basilensis ?R16 strain. In vivo administration of OTA in CD1 male mice (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight for 72 hours or 0.5 mg/kg body weight for 21 days) resulted in significant elevation of OTA levels in the blood, histopathological alterations- and transcriptional changes in OTA-dependent genes (annexinA2, clusterin, sulphotransferase and gadd45 and gadd153) in the renal cortex. These OTA-induced changes were not seen in animals that have been treated with culture supernatants in which OTA was incubated with Cupriavidus basilensis ?R16 strain for 5 days. HPLC and ELISA methods identified ochratoxin ? as the major metabolite of OTA in Cupriavidus basilensis ?R16 cultures, which is not toxic in vivo. This study has demonstrated that Cupriavidus basilensis ?R16 efficiently degrade OTA without producing toxic adventitious metabolites.