Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ) has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80) who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and eosinophil cationic protein.This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients.NCT01402141.
Project description:Introduction:Histamine is the major mediator of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions upon allergen or hapten contact. Reduced histamine degradation capacity was associated with atopic eczema as well as with non-immunological histamine intolerance. Higher blood serum histamine level concomitant with decreased intestinal diamine oxidase activity were observed in patients with food allergy. Aim:To evaluate the relationship between patients' blood diamine oxidase (DAO) activity/histamine status and their reactivity to time-resolved histamine skin prick test in respect to vulnerability to allergic diseases. Material and methods:Fifty-three patients were examined with skin prick tests (SPT) and patch tests for suspected presence of either IgE- or non-IgE-mediated allergy. All individuals were skin prick tested with histamine and the resolution of the wheal was monitored for 50 min. Blood DAO activity and histamine concentration were measured with a radio-extraction radioimmunoassay. Results:Time-resolved histamine skin prick testing revealed presence of wheals which were 35% larger in diameter in 47% of examined subjects at 20 min of the test. These patients exhibited significantly compromised time-course wheal resolution (wheal ? 3 mm at 50 min) compared to a group of patients with the normal-rate of wheal resolution (wheal = 0 mm at 50 min). Within a group of subjects exhibiting impaired wheal resolution, 61% of patients were diagnosed allergic compared to 50% in a group of patients with a normal rate of wheal resolution. Finally, allergic patients were characterized by a significantly lower DAO activity and higher histamine content compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions:The results of this study indicate that patients with IgE- or non-IgE-mediated allergy are likely to have low DAO blood activity and may concomitantly suffer from histamine intolerance. Furthermore, our results suggest that allergic patients are more likely to develop an excessive SPT reaction. Our results emphasize caution in interpretation of the SPT results in allergic patients with diagnosed histamine intolerance or histamine/DAO activity imbalance.
Project description:There are several methods to read skin prick test results in type-I allergy testing. A commonly used method is to characterize the wheal size by its 'average diameter'. A more accurate method is to scan the area of the wheal to calculate the actual size. In both methods, skin prick test (SPT) results can be corrected for histamine-sensitivity of the skin by dividing the results of the allergic reaction by the histamine control. The objectives of this study are to compare different techniques of quantifying SPT results, to determine a cut-off value for a positive SPT for histamine equivalent prick -index (HEP) area, and to study the accuracy of predicting cashew nut reactions in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) tests with the different SPT methods.Data of 172 children with cashew nut sensitisation were used for the analysis. All patients underwent a DBPCFC with cashew nut. Per patient, the average diameter and scanned area of the wheal size were recorded. In addition, the same data for the histamine-induced wheal were collected for each patient. The accuracy in predicting the outcome of the DBPCFC using four different SPT readings (i.e. average diameter, area, HEP-index diameter, HEP-index area) were compared in a Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot.Characterizing the wheal size by the average diameter method is inaccurate compared to scanning method. A wheal average diameter of 3 mm is generally considered as a positive SPT cut-off value and an equivalent HEP-index area cut-off value of 0.4 was calculated. The four SPT methods yielded a comparable area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84, 0.85, 0.83 and 0.83, respectively. The four methods showed comparable accuracy in predicting cashew nut reactions in a DBPCFC.The 'scanned area method' is theoretically more accurate in determining the wheal area than the 'average diameter method' and is recommended in academic research. A HEP-index area of 0.4 is determined as cut-off value for a positive SPT. However, in clinical practice, the 'average diameter method' is also useful, because this method provides similar accuracy in predicting cashew nut allergic reactions in the DBPCFC.Trial number NTR3572.
Project description:The effects of acute stress on allergic symptoms are little understood. The intention of this clinical study was to study the effects of acute stress and related mediators in allergic rhinitis (AR), taking the wheal and flare reaction in skin prick testing (SPT) as a readout.19 healthy and 21 AR patients were first subjected to SPTs with grass pollen-, birch pollen- and house dust mite allergen extracts, histamine and negative control. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a standardized Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by SPT on the contralateral forearm. Stress responders were identified based on the salivary cortisol levels and State-subscale of State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Blood samples were collected before and after TSST and adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, oxytocin, platelet activating factor and prostaglandin D2 were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA).SPT results of 14/21 allergics and 11/19 healthy who responded with stress after TSST were evaluated. No significant differences regarding SPT to allergens or histamine before and after the stress test could be calculated at the group level. But, the wheal and flare sizes after TSST increased or decreased substantially in several individuals, and unmasked sensitization in one "healthy" person, which could not be correlated with any mediator tested. The most significant finding, however, was that, independent of TSST, the baseline levels of oxytocin and noradrenaline were significantly higher in allergics.High baseline levels of noradrenaline points toward higher stress levels in allergic patients, which might be counterregulated by elevated oxytocin. Moreover, our data indicate that acute stress may have a significant influence on SPT fidelity in susceptible individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder characterized by precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, and fibrous dysplasia. Its cause is an activating mutation in the GNAS gene, encoding a subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gsalpha (Gs?). The action of any mediator that signals via Gs? and cyclic AMP can be up regulated in MAS. We had observed gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and anaphylaxis in McCune Albright patients. OBJECTIVE:As histamine is known to signal via histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptors, which couple with stimulatory G proteins, we attempted to mechanistically link histamine responsiveness to the activating GNAS mutation. We hypothesized that responsiveness to histamine skin testing would differ between MAS patients and healthy controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS:After obtaining informed consent, we performed a systematic review of histamine responsiveness and allergic manifestations in 11 MAS patients and 11 sex-matched, Tanner-stage matched controls. We performed skin prick testing, quantifying the orthogonal diameters of wheals and erythema. We also quantitated G protein mRNA expression. RESULTS:The peak wheal and flare responses to histamine were significantly higher in MAS patients compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that MAS patients may be at risk for exaggerated histamine responsiveness compared to unaffected controls.
Project description:Inhalant allergen sensitization is one of the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of allergic respiratory diseases. However, the sensitization is determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Thus, testing panels of inhalant allergens may differ among geographical areas. Here we aimed to determine 10 common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies and to examine the variation between different geographical locations.A total of 28,954 patient records were retrieved for retrospective analysis, from 12 referral allergy clinics located in 9 different areas. Inclusion criteria were Korean adults (?18 years old) who underwent the inhalant allergen skin prick test for suspected history of respiratory allergy. The primary outcome was inhalant allergen skin prick response. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Positive skin prick responses to allergens were defined as allergen-to-histamine wheal ratio ?1. Based on skin test results, the most prevalent aeroallergens were determined.The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization was 45.3%. Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were the most commonly sensitized allergens. Other common inhalant allergens were cat epithelium (8.1%), birch (7.7%), mugwort (6.9%), alder (6.7%), hazel (6.7%), beech (6.7%), oak (6.6%), and Tyrophagus putres (6.2%), in decreasing order frequency. These 10 inhalant allergens explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization in the study participants. However, distinct patterns of the 10 inhalant sensitization were observed in patients living in Chungnam and Jeju. American cockroach, Gernam cockroach, and Trichophyton metagrophytes were unique in Chungnam. Orchard, Japanese cedar, and Velvet were unique in Jeju.The present analysis suggests a panel of 10 most common inhalant allergens in Korean adult patients with suspected respiratory allergies, which explained 90% of inhalant allergen sensitization. This panel can be utilized as a practical and convenient tool for primary practice and epidemiological surveys of respiratory allergic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although almond specific IgE-mediated food allergies have traditionally been equated with other tree nut allergies, outcomes of oral food challenges to almond and the utility of clinical testing to predict IgE-mediated almond hypersensitivity are not well known. OBJECTIVE:To describe almond oral challenge outcomes and assess the predictive value of clinical testing. METHODS:A total of 603 almond challenges performed for 590 patients, aged 1 to 66 years, were analyzed from Massachusetts General Hospital allergy practices. Reactions were graded using the Niggemann and Beyer allergic reaction grading system and the Sampson 2006 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases anaphylaxis definition. RESULTS:Almond challenges included 545 passes (92%), 15 (3%) indeterminates, and 30 (5%) failures, in contrast with 31% challenge failures for other foods. Most reactions were mild; 21 (4%) had grade 2/3 allergic symptoms, and 3 (0.5%) had anaphylaxis. Median almond specific IgE level was 0.89 kU/L (range, <0.35 to >100 kU/L), median skin prick test wheal diameter was 4.0 mm (range, 0-28 mm), and 475 subjects (81%) were sensitized to almond. Failure was associated with higher almond specific IgE level (P < .001), larger almond skin prick test wheal diameter (P = .001), higher peanut IgE level (P = .003), and a history of almond reaction (P < .029). Almond specific IgE level, almond skin prick test wheal diameter, and age at challenge combined demonstrated good predictive value for grade 2/3 allergic reactions by receiver-operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve, 0.83). CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of failed almond challenges (5%) was low in contrast with other allergens, suggesting that some almond challenges may be safely conducted with higher patient-to-staff ratios or potentially introduced at home. Although reactions are usually uncommon and mild, anaphylaxis is possible with high almond sensitization.
Project description:Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 - 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ?3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.
Project description:Although there is concern that food allergy reactions may negatively affect the natural history of food allergy, the impact of reactions on food-specific IgE (sIgE) levels or skin prick test (SPT) wheal size is unknown.To measure the effects of allergic reactions on SPT wheal size and sIgE concentrations to milk, egg, and peanut.Participants included 512 infants with likely milk or egg allergy enrolled in a multicenter observational study. Changes in sIgE level and SPT wheal size to milk, egg, and peanut were measured before and after oral food challenge (OFC) or accidental exposure for 377 participants.The median age of the cohort at the time of analysis was 8.5 years (67% males). There were no statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size after positive OFC to milk, egg, or peanut (n = 20-27 for each food). Change in sIgE level and SPT wheal size was measured after 446 and 453 accidental exposure reactions, respectively. The median change in sIgE level was a decrease of 0.33 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after milk and 0.34 kU(A)/L (P < .01) after egg reactions, but no other statistically significant changes in sIgE level or SPT wheal size were observed for milk, egg, or peanut. When we limited the analysis to only those participants who had diagnostic testing done within 6 months of an accidental exposure reaction, we found that peanut SPT wheal size increased by 1.75 mm (P < .01), but a significant increase was not noted when all participants with testing done within 12 months were considered.The results suggest that reactions from OFCs and accidental exposure are not associated with increases in sensitization among children allergic to milk, egg, or peanut.
Project description:Within a large prospective study, the Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2) LEN) has collected skin prick test (SPT) data throughout Europe to make recommendations for SPT in clinical settings.To improve clinical interpretation of SPT results for inhalant allergens by providing quantitative decision points.The GA(2) LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated.Depending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella) to 87-89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size ? 3 mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. The 80% PPV varied from 3 to 10 mm depending on the allergen.These 'reading keys' for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance. A SPT form with the standard allergens including mm decision points for each allergen is offered for clinical use.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies directed at IgE demonstrate clinical efficacy in subjects with peanut allergy, but previous studies have not addressed the kinetics of the clinical response or the role of mast cells and basophils in the food-induced allergic response.We sought to determine the kinetics of the clinical response to omalizumab and whether clinical improvement is associated with either mast cell or basophil suppression.Subjects with peanut allergy were treated with omalizumab for 6 months and assessed for clinical and cellular responses. At baseline, subjects had a double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenge (OFC), skin prick test titration (SPTT), and basophil histamine release (BHR) to peanut. BHR was repeated at week 2 and then weekly until it decreased to less than 20% of baseline values. The OFCs and SPTTs were repeated after the BHR reduction (or at week 8 if BHR did not decrease) and again at 6 months.Fourteen subjects enrolled in the study. At the second food challenge, there was a significant increase in the threshold dose of peanut inducing allergic symptoms (80 to 6500 mg, P < .01). Peanut-induced BHR was either completely suppressed (n = 5) or 10-fold more allergen was required to induce maximal BHR (n = 9), and SPTT responses were not significantly changed from baseline. After 6 months of omalizumab, further changes in the OFC threshold dose or BHR were not observed, but a significant suppression in SPTTs was identified.The clinical response to omalizumab occurs early in treatment when the basophil, but not the mast cell, is suppressed, supporting a role for the basophil in acute food reactions.