111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. METHODS:F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, ?H2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 ?g, 6 MBq/?g) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. RESULTS:Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 ?M, 6 MBq/?g) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in ?H2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 ?g, 6 MBq/?g) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). CONCLUSION:111In-BnDTPA-F3 is internalized into 231-H2N cells and translocates to the nucleus. 111In-BnDTPA-F3 has a potent cytotoxic effect in vitro and an anti-tumor effect in mice bearing 231-H2N xenografts despite modest total tumor accumulation.
Project description:The surface overexpression of nucleolin provides an anchor for the specific attachment of biomolecules to cancer and angiogenic endothelial cells. The peptide F3 is a high-affinity ligand of the nucleolin receptor (NR) that has been investigated as a carrier to deliver biologically active molecules to tumors for both therapeutic and imaging applications. A site-specific PEGylated F3 derivative was radiolabeled with [<sup>18</sup> F]Al-F. The binding affinity and cellular distribution of the compound was assessed in tumor (H2N) and tumor endothelial (2H-11) cells. Specific uptake via the NR was demonstrated by the siRNA knockdown of nucleolin in both cell lines. The partition and the plasma stability of the compound were assessed at 37°C. The enzyme-mediated site-specific modification of F3 to give NODA-PEG-F3 (NP-F3) was achieved. Radiolabeling with [<sup>18</sup> F]Al-F gave <sup>18</sup> F-NP-F3. <sup>18</sup> F-NP-F3 demonstrated high affinity for cancer and tumor endothelial cells. The siRNA knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a binding affinity reduction of 50% to 60%, confirming cell surface binding via the NR. NP-F3 was stable in serum for 2 h. <sup>18</sup> F-NP-F3 is reported as the first <sup>18</sup> F-labeled F3 derivative. It was obtained in a site-specific, high-yield, and efficient manner and binds to surface NR in the low nanomolar range, suggesting it has potential as a tumor and angiogenesis tracer.
Project description:PURPOSE:The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS:Chromatin structure was altered in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N human breast cancer cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, or hypertonic treatment. The extent and duration of chromatin structural changes were evaluated using the micrococcal nuclease assay. DNA damage (?H2AX assay) and clonogenic survival were evaluated after exposure to (111)In-DTPA-hEGF, an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical, or IR. The intracellular distribution of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF after chromatin modification was investigated in cell fractionation experiments. RESULTS:Chromatin remained condensed for up to 20 minutes after NaCl and in a relaxed state 24 hours after SAHA treatment. The number of ?H2AX foci per cell was greater in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (0.5 Gy) plus SAHA (1 ?M) compared with IR alone (16 ± 0.6 and 14 ± 0.3 vs. 12 ± 0.4 and 11 ± 0.2, respectively). More ?H2AX foci were observed in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells exposed to (111)In-DTPA-hEGF (6 MBq/?g) plus SAHA vs. (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.7 vs. 9 ± 0.4 and 7 ± 0.3, respectively). 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced the DNA damage caused by IR and (111)In-DTPA-hEGF. Clonogenic survival was reduced in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (6 Gy) plus SAHA (1 ?M) vs. IR alone (0.6% ± 0.01 and 0.3% ± 0.2 vs. 5.8% ± 0.2 and 2% ± 0.1, respectively) and after (111)In-DTPA-hEGF plus SAHA compared to (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (21% ± 0.4% and 19% ± 4.6 vs. 33% ± 2.3 and 32% ± 3.7). SAHA did not affect (111)In-DTPA-hEGF nuclear localization. Hypertonic treatment resulted in fewer ?H2AX foci per cell after IR and (111)In-DTPA-hEGF compared to controls but did not significantly alter clonogenic survival. CONCLUSIONS:Chromatin structure affects DNA damage and cell survival after exposure to Auger electron radiation.
Project description:BACKROUND:Radiolabeled OTSA101, a monoclonal antibody targeting synovial sarcoma (SS) developed by OncoTherapy Science, was used to treat relapsing SS metastases following a theranostic procedure: in case of significant 111In-OTSA101 tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution, patient was randomly treated with 370/1110 MBq 90Y-OTSA101. Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry integrating time-activity curves in VOI was performed on 111In-OTSA101 repeated SPECT/CT. Estimated absorbed doses (AD) in normal tissues were compared to biological side effects and to the admitted maximal tolerated absorbed dose (MTD) in normal organs. Results in the tumors were also compared to disease evolution. RESULTS:Biodistribution and tracer quantification were analyzed on repeated SPECT/CT acquisitions performed after injection of 111In-OTSA101 in 19/20 included patients. SPECT images were warped to a common coordinates system with deformable registration. Volumes of interest (VOI) for various lesions and normal tissues were drawn on the first CT acquisition and reported to all the SPECT images. Tracer quantification and residence time of 111In-OTSA101 in VOI were used to evaluate the estimated absorbed doses per MBq of 90Y-OTSA101 by means of Monte Carlo simulations (GATE). A visual scale analysis was applied to assess tumor uptake (grades 0 to 4) and results were compared to the automated quantification. Results were then compared to biological side effects reported in the selected patients treated with 90Y-OTSA101 but also to disease response to treatment. After screening, 8/20 patients were treated with 370 or 1110 MBq 90Y-OTSA101. All demonstrated medullary toxicity, only one presented with transient grade 3 liver toxicity due to disease progression, and two patients presented with transient grade 1 renal toxicity. Median absorbed doses were the highest in the liver (median, 0.64 cGy/MBq; [0.27 -1.07]) being far lower than the 20 Gy liver MTD, and the lowest in bone marrow (median, 0.09 cGy/MBq; [0.02 -0.18]) being closer to the 2 Gy bone marrow MTD. Most of the patients demonstrated progressive disease on RECIST criteria during patient follow-up. 111In-OTSA101 tumors tracer uptake visually appeared highly heterogeneous in inter- and intra-patient analyses, independently of tumor sizes, with variable kinetics. The majority of visual grades corresponded to the automated computed ones. Estimated absorbed doses in the 95 supra-centimetric selected lesions ranged from 0.01 to 0.71 cGy per injected MBq (median, 0.22 cGy/MBq). The maximal tumor AD obtained was 11.5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS:3D dosimetry results can explain the observed toxicity and tumors response. Despite an intense visual 111In-OTSA101 liver uptake, liver toxicity was not the dose limiting factor conversely to bone marrow toxicity. Even though tumors 111In-OTSA101 avidity was visually obvious for treated patients, the low estimated tumors AD obtained by 3D dosimetry explain the lack of tumor response.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive tumor and the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, development of more effective therapy is needed. We previously reported that 89Zr-labeled TSP-A01, an antibody against transferrin receptor (TfR), is highly accumulated in a pancreatic cancer xenograft, but not in major normal organs. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 90Y-TSP-A01 in pancreatic cancer mouse models.<h4>Methods</h4>TfR expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2) was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. 111In-labeled anti-TfR antibodies (TSP-A01, TSP-A02) were evaluated in vitro by cell binding assay with the three cell lines and by competitive inhibition assay with MIAPaCa-2. In vivo biodistribution was evaluated in mice bearing BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 xenografts. Tumor volumes of BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 were sequentially measured after 90Y-TSP-A01 injection and histological analysis of tumors was conducted.<h4>Results</h4>MIAPaCa-2 cells showed the highest TfR expression, followed by AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. 111In-TSP-A01 and 111In-TSP-A02 bound specifically to the three cell lines according to TfR expression. The dissociation constants for TSP-A01, DOTA-TSP-A01, TSP-A02, and DOTA-TSP-A02 were 0.22, 0.28, 0.17, and 0.22 nM, respectively. 111In-TSP-A01 was highly accumulated in tumors, especially in MIAPaCa-2, but this was not true of 111In-TSP-A02. The absorbed dose for 90Y-TSP-A01 was estimated to be 8.3 Gy/MBq to BxPC-3 and 12.4 Gy/MBq to MIAPaCa-2. MIAPaCa-2 tumors treated with 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01 had almost completely disappeared around 3 weeks after injection and regrowth was not observed. Growth of BxPC-3 tumors was inhibited by 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01, but the tumor size was not reduced.<h4>Conclusion</h4>90Y-TSP-A01 treatment achieved an almost complete response in MIAPaCa-2 tumors, whereas it merely inhibited the growth of BxPC-3 tumors. 90Y-TSP-A01 is a promising RIT agent for pancreatic cancer, although further investigation is necessary to improve the efficacy for the radioresistant types like BxPC-3.
Project description:PURPOSE:Endosialin/tumor endothelial marker-1 (TEM1) is an attractive theranostic target expressed by the microenvironment of a wide range of tumors, as well as by sarcoma and neuroblastoma cells. We report on the radiolabeling and preclinical evaluation of the scFv78-Fc, a fully human TEM1-targeting antibody fragment cross-reactive with mouse TEM1. PROCEDURES:The scFv78-Fc was conjugated with the chelator p-SCN-Bn-CHX-A"-DTPA, followed by labeling with indium-111. The number of chelators per molecule was estimated by mass spectrometry. A conventional saturation assay, extrapolated to infinite antigen concentration, was used to determine the immunoreactive fraction of the radioimmunoconjugate. The radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was assessed in immunodeficient mice grafted with Ewing's sarcoma RD-ES and neuroblastoma SK-N-AS human TEM1-positive tumors. The full biodistribution studies were preceded by a dose-escalation experiment based on the simultaneous administration of the radiopharmaceutical with increasing amounts of unlabeled scFv78-Fc. Radiation dosimetry extrapolations to human adults were obtained from mouse biodistribution data according to established methodologies and additional assumptions concerning the impact of the tumor antigenic sink in the cross-species translation. RESULTS:[111In]CHX-DTPA-scFv78-Fc was obtained with a radiochemical purity >?98 % after 1 h incubation at 42 °C and ultrafiltration. It showed good stability in human serum and >?70 % immunoreactive fraction. Biodistribution data acquired in tumor-bearing mice confirmed fast blood clearance and specific tumor targeting in both xenograft models. The radiopharmaceutical off-target uptake was predominantly abdominal. After a theoretical injection of [111In]CHX-DTPA-scFv78-Fc to the reference person, the organs receiving the highest absorbed dose would be the spleen (0.876 mGy/MBq), the liver (0.570 mGy/MBq) and the kidneys (0.298 mGy/MBq). The total body dose and the effective dose would be 0.058 mGy/MBq and 0.116 mSv/MBq, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:[111In]CHX-DTPA-scFv78-Fc binds specifically to endosialin/TEM1 in vitro and in vivo. Dosimetry estimates are in the range of other monoclonal antibodies radiolabeled with indium-111. [111In]CHX-DTPA-scFv78-Fc could be potentially translated into clinic.
Project description:Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is associated with worse prognosis in different cancer types. The wild-type protective antigen (PA-WT) of the binary anthrax lethal toxin was modified to form a pore in cell membranes only when cleaved by MMPs (to form PA-L1). Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is then able to translocate through these pores. Here, we used a 111In-radiolabeled form of LF with the PA/LF system for noninvasive in vivo imaging of MMP activity in tumor tissue by SPECT. Methods: MMP-mediated activation of PA-L1 was correlated to anthrax receptor expression and MMP activity in a panel of cancer cells (HT1080, MDA-MB-231, B8484, and MCF7). Uptake of 111In-radiolabeled PA-L1, 111In-PA-WTK563C, or 111In-LFE687A (a catalytically inactive LF mutant) in tumor and normal tissues was measured using SPECT/CT imaging in vivo. Results: Activation of PA-L1 in vitro correlated with anthrax receptor expression and MMP activity (HT1080 > MDA-MB-231 > B8484 > MCF7). PA-L1-mediated delivery of 111In-LFE687A was demonstrated and was corroborated using confocal microscopy with fluorescently labeled LFE687A Uptake was blocked by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001. In vivo imaging showed selective accumulation of 111In-PA-L1 in MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts (5.7 ± 0.9 percentage injected dose [%ID]/g) at 3 h after intravenous administration. 111In-LFE687A was selectively delivered to MMP-positive MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue by MMP-activatable PA-L1 (5.98 ± 0.62 %ID/g) but not by furin-cleavable PA-WT (1.05 ± 0.21 %ID/g) or a noncleavable PA variant control, PA-U7 (2.74 ± 0.24 %ID/g). Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that radiolabeled forms of mutated anthrax lethal toxin hold promise for noninvasive imaging of MMP activity in tumor tissue.
Project description:While radiolabelled antibodies have found great utility as PET and SPECT imaging agents in oncological investigations, a notable shortcoming of these agents is their propensity to accumulate non-specifically within tumour tissue. The degree of this non-specific contribution to overall tumour uptake is highly variable and can ultimately lead to false conclusions. Therefore, in an effort to obtain a reliable measure of inter-individual differences in non-specific tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies, we demonstrate that the use of dual-isotope imaging overcomes this issue, enables true quantification of epitope expression levels, and allows non-invasive in vivo immunohistochemistry. The approach involves co-administration of (i) an antigen-targeting antibody labelled with zirconium-89 (89Zr), and (ii) an isotype-matched non-specific control IgG antibody labelled with indium-111 (111In). As an example, the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab was radiolabelled with 89Zr, and co-administered intravenously together with its 111In-labelled non-specific counterpart to mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts with differing HER2 expression levels (MDA-MB-468 [HER2-negative], MDA-MB-231 [low-HER2], MDA-MB-231/H2N [medium-HER2], and SKBR3 [high-HER2]). Simultaneous PET/SPECT imaging using a MILabs Vector4 small animal scanner revealed stark differences in the intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab and [111In]In-IgG, highlighting regions of HER2-mediated uptake and non-specific uptake, respectively. Normalisation of the tumour uptake values and tumour-to-blood ratios obtained with [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab against those obtained with [111In]In-IgG yielded values which were most strongly correlated (R?=?0.94; P?=?0.02) with HER2 expression levels for each breast cancer type determined by Western blot and in vitro saturation binding assays, but not non-normalised uptake values. Normalised intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab correlated well with intratumoural heterogeneity HER2 expression.
Project description:Tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC). A murine mAb Ts29.2 specific for human TSPAN8 provided significant efficiency for immunotherapy in CRC pre-clinical models. We therefore evaluate the feasability of targeting TSPAN8 in CRC with radiolabeled Ts29.2. Staining of tissue micro-arrays with Ts29.2 revealed that TSPAN8 espression was restricted to a few human healthy tissues. DOTA-Ts29.2 was radiolabeled with 111In or 177Lu with radiochemical purities >95%, specific activity ranging from 300 to 600 MBq/mg, and radioimmunoreactive fractions >80%. The biodistribution of [111In]DOTA-Ts29.2 in nude mice bearing HT29 or SW480 CRC xenografts showed a high specificity of tumor localization with high tumor/blood ratios (HT29: 4.3; SW480-TSPAN8: 3.9 at 72h and 120h post injection respectively). Tumor-specific absorbed dose calculations for [177Lu]DOTA-Ts29.2 was 1.89 Gy/MBq, establishing the feasibility of using radioimmunotherapy of CRC with this radiolabeled antibody. A significant inhibition of tumor growth in HT29 tumor-bearing mice treated with [177Lu]DOTA-Ts29.2 was observed compared to control groups. Ex vivo experiments revealed specific DNA double strand breaks associated with cell apoptosis in [177Lu]DOTA-Ts29.2 treated tumors compared to controls. Overall, we provide a proof-of-concept for the use of [111In/177Lu]DOTA-Ts29.2 that specifically target in vivo aggressive TSPAN8-positive cells in CRC.
Project description:The spatial distribution of radiopharmaceuticals that emit short-range high linear-energy-transfer electrons greatly affects the absorbed dose and their biological effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heterogeneous radionuclide distribution on tumor control probability (TCP) in a micrometastases model. Methods: Cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-468, SQ20B and 231-H2N were grown as spheroids to represent micrometastases. The intracellular distribution of a representative radiopeptide (111In-labelled epidermal growth factor, EGF) and radioimmunotherapeutic (111In-labelled Trastuzumab) was determined in cell internalization experiments. The intratumoral distribution was evaluated by microautoradiography of spheroids. ?H2AX staining was performed on spheroid sections to correlate DNA damage with radionuclide distribution. Experimental surviving fractions (SFexp ) were obtained using clonogenic assays. A random closed-packed algorithm, which models the random packing behavior of cells and reflects variation in the radii of cells and nuclei, was used to simulate 3-D spheroids. Calculated survival fractions (SFcal ) were generated using an iterative modelling method based on Monte Carlo determined absorbed dose with the PENELOPE code and were compared to (SFexp ). Radiobiological parameters deduced from experimental results and MC simulations were used to predict the TCP for a 3-D spheroid model. Results: Calculated SFs were in good agreement with experimental data, particularly when an increased value for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was applied to self-dose deposited by sources located in the nucleus and when radiobiological parameters were adjusted to account for dose protraction. Only in MDA-MB-468 spheroids treated with 111In-EGF was a TCP>0.5 achieved, indicating that for this cell type the radiopeptide would be curative when targeting micrometastases. This is attributed to the relative radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-468 cells, high nuclear uptake of the radiopeptide and uniform distribution of radioactivity throughout the spheroid. Conclusion: It is imperative to include biological endpoints when evaluating the distribution of radionuclides in models emulating micrometastatic disease. The spatial distribution of radioactivity is a clear determinant of biological effect and TCP as demonstrated in this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:111In-DOTA-butylamino-NorBIRT (DANBIRT) is a novel radioligand which binds to Leukocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), expressed on inflammatory cells. This study evaluated 111In-DANBIRT for the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:ApoE-/- mice, fed an atherogenic diet up to 20 weeks (n = 10), were imaged by SPECT/CT 3 hours post injection of 111In-DANBIRT (~ 200 pmol, ~ 40 MBq). Focal spots of 111In-DANBIRT were visible in the aortic arch of all animals, with an average Target-to-Background Ratio (TBR) of 1.7 ± 0.5. In vivo imaging results were validated by ex vivo SPECT/CT imaging, with a TBR up to 11.5 (range 2.6 to 11.5). Plaques, identified by Oil Red O lipid-staining on excised arteries, co-localized with 111In-DANBIRT uptake as determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Subsequent histological processing and in vitro autoradiography confirmed 111In-DANBIRT uptake at plaque areas containing CD68 expressing macrophages and LFA-1 expressing inflammatory cells. Ex vivo incubation of a human carotid endarterectomy specimen with 111In-DANBIRT (~ 950 nmol, ~ 190 MBq) for 2 hours showed heterogeneous plaque uptake on SPECT/CT, after which immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated co-localization of 111In-DANBIRT uptake and CD68 and LFA-1 expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate the potential of radiolabeled DANBIRT as a relevant imaging radioligand for non-invasive evaluation of atherosclerotic inflammation.