Productive replication and evolution of HIV-1 in ferret cells.
ABSTRACT: A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5?/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5? gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G?A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1 animal model.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in macaque cells is restricted mainly by antiviral cellular APOBEC3, TRIM5?/TRIM5CypA, and tetherin proteins. For basic and clinical HIV-1/AIDS studies, efforts to construct macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) have been made by us and others. Although rhesus macaques are commonly and successfully used as infection models, no HIV-1 derivatives suitable for in vivo rhesus research are available to date. In this study, to obtain novel HIV-1mt clones that are resistant to major restriction factors, we altered Gag and Vpu of our best HIV-1mt clone described previously. First, by sequence- and structure-guided mutagenesis, three amino acid residues in Gag-capsid (CA) (M94L/R98S/G114Q) were found to be responsible for viral growth enhancement in a macaque cell line. Results of in vitro TRIM5? susceptibility testing of HIV-1mt carrying these substitutions correlated well with the increased viral replication potential in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with different TRIM5 alleles, suggesting that the three amino acids in HIV-1mt CA are involved in the interaction with TRIM5?. Second, we replaced the transmembrane domain of Vpu of this clone with the corresponding region of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgsn166 Vpu. The resultant clone, MN4/LSDQgtu, was able to antagonize macaque but not human tetherin, and its Vpu effectively functioned during viral replication in a macaque cell line. Notably, MN4/LSDQgtu grew comparably to SIVmac239 and much better than any of our other HIV-1mt clones in rhesus macaque PBMCs. In sum, MN4/LSDQgtu is the first HIV-1 derivative that exhibits resistance to the major restriction factors in rhesus macaque cells.
Project description:Antiviral restriction factors are an integral part of the host innate immune system that protects cells from viral pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Studies of the interactions between restriction factors and HIV have greatly advanced our understanding of both the viral life cycle and basic cell biology, as well as provided new opportunities for therapeutic intervention of viral infection. Here we review the recent developments towards establishing the structural and biochemical bases of HIV inhibition by, and viral countermeasures of, the restriction factors TRIM5, MxB, APOBEC3, SAMHD1, and BST2/tetherin.
Project description:We have constructed two human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) derivatives, CXCR4 tropic and CCR5 tropic, that replicate in rhesus macaques. They are genetically engineered to be resistant to macaque restriction factors against HIV-1, including TRIM5?, APOBEC3, and tetherin proteins. The two HIV-1 variants described here are fundamental clones aiming for rhesus infection studies of HIV-1.
Project description:Because of evolutionary pressures imposed through episodic colonization by retroviruses, many mammals express factors, such as TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3 proteins, that directly restrict retroviral replication. TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 genes. Moreover, these antiretroviral factors have been shown to act against a variety of retroviruses, including gammaretroviruses. Endogenous retroviruses can provide a 'fossil record' of extinct retroviruses and perhaps evidence of ancient TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiviral activity. Here, we investigate whether TRIM5 and APOBEC3 proteins restricted the replication of two groups of gammaretroviruses that were endogenized in the past few million years. These endogenous retroviruses appear quite widespread in the genomes of old world primates but failed to colonize the human germline. Our analyses suggest that TRIM5alpha proteins did not pose a major barrier to the cross-species transmission of these two families of gammaretroviruses, and did not contribute to their extinction. However, we uncovered extensive evidence for inactivation of ancient gammaretroviruses through the action of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Interestingly, the identities of the cytidine deaminases responsible for inactivation appear to have varied in both a virus and host species-dependent manner. Overall, sequence analyses and reconstitution of ancient retroviruses from remnants that have been preserved in the genomes of modern organisms offer the opportunity to probe and potentially explain the evolutionary history of host defenses against retroviruses.
Project description:Host restriction factor TRIM5 inhibits retroviral transduction in a species-specific manner by binding to and destabilizing the retroviral capsid lattice before reverse transcription is completed. However, the restriction mechanism may not be that simple since TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, the proteasome, autophagy, and TAK1-dependent AP-1 signaling have been suggested to contribute to restriction. Here, we show that, among a panel of seven primate and Carnivora TRIM5 orthologues, each of which has potential for potent retroviral restriction activity, all activated AP-1 signaling. In contrast, TRIM family paralogues most closely related to TRIM5 did not. While each primate species has a single TRIM5 gene, mice have at least seven TRIM5 homologues that cluster into two groups, Trim12a, -b, and -c and Trim30a, -b, -c, and -d. The three Trim12 proteins activated innate immune signaling, while the Trim30 proteins did not, though none of the murine Trim5 homologues restricted any of a panel of cloned retroviruses. To determine if any mouse TRIM5 homologues had potential for restriction activity, each was fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The three Trim12-CypA fusions all activated AP-1 and restricted HIV-1 transduction, whereas the Trim30-CypA fusions did neither. AP-1 activation and HIV-1 restriction by the Trim12-CypA fusions were inhibited by disruption of TAK1. Overall then, these experiments demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between TRIM5 retroviral restriction activity and the ability to activate TAK1-dependent innate immune signaling.The importance of retroviruses for the evolution of susceptible host organisms cannot be overestimated. Eight percent of the human genome is retrovirus sequence, fixed in the germ line during past infection. Understanding how metazoa protect their genomes from mutagenic retrovirus infection is therefore of fundamental importance to biology. TRIM5 is a cellular protein that protects host genome integrity by disrupting the retroviral capsid as it transports viral nucleic acid to the host cell nucleus. Previous data suggest that innate immune signaling contributes to TRIM5-mediated restriction. Here, we show that activation of innate immune signaling is conserved among primate and carnivore TRIM5 orthologues and among 3 of the 7 mouse Trim5 homologues and that such activity is required for TRIM5-mediated restriction activity.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses provide molecular fossils for studying the ancient evolutionary history of retroviruses. Here, we report our independent discovery and analysis of endogenous lentiviral insertions (Mustelidae endogenous lentivirus [MELV]) within the genomes of weasel family (Mustelidae). Genome-scale screening identified MELV elements in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) genome (MELVmpf). MELVmpf exhibits a typical lentiviral genomic organization. Phylogenetic analyses position MELVmpf basal to either primate lentiviruses or feline immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, we verified the presence of MELV insertions in the genomes of several species of the Lutrinae and Mustelinae subfamilies but not the Martinae subfamily, suggesting that the invasion of MELV into the Mustelidae genomes likely took place between 8.8 and 11.8 Ma. The discovery of MELV in weasel genomes extends the host range of lentiviruses to the Caniformia (order Carnivora) and provides important insights into the prehistoric diversity of lentiviruses.
Project description:The lack of a primate model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus is an impediment to AIDS research; existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 strains are capable of high levels of replication in vitro in pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) lymphocytes. Importantly, infection of pig-tailed macaques with stHIV-1 results in acute viremia, approaching the levels observed in HIV-1-infected humans, and an ensuing persistent infection for several months. stHIV-1 replication was controlled thereafter, at least in part, by CD8+ T cells. We demonstrate the potential utility of this HIV-1-based animal model in a chemoprophylaxis experiment, by showing that a commonly used HIV-1 therapeutic regimen can provide apparently sterilizing protection from infection following a rigorous high-dose stHIV-1 challenge.
Project description:Tripartite motif-containing protein 5? (TRIM5?) is considered to be a potential target for cell-based gene modification therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In the present study, we used a relevant rhesus macaque model of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) to evaluate the effect of TRIM5? restriction on clinical outcome. For macaques expressing a restrictive TRIM5 genotype, the disease outcomes of those infected with the wild-type TRIM-sensitive SIVsm strain and those infected with a virus with escape mutations in the capsid were compared. We found that TRIM5? restriction significantly delayed disease progression and improved the survival rate of SIV-infected macaques, supporting the feasibility of exploiting TRIM5? as a target for gene therapy against HIV-1. Furthermore, we also found that preservation of memory CD4 T cells was associated with protection by TRIM5? restriction, suggesting memory CD4 T cells or their progenitor cells as an ideal target for gene modification. Despite the significant effect of TRIM5? restriction on survival, SIV escape from TRIM5? restriction was also observed; therefore, this may not be an effective stand-alone strategy and may require combination with other targets.Recent studies suggest that it may be feasible not only to suppress viral replication with antiviral drugs but also potentially to eliminate or "cure" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. One approach being explored is the use of gene therapy to introduce genes that can restrict HIV replication, including a restrictive version of the host factor TRIM5?. TRIM5 was identified as a factor that restricts HIV replication in macaque cells. The rhesus gene is polymorphic, and some alleles are restrictive for primary SIVsm isolates, although escape mutations arise late in infection. Introduction of these escape mutations into the parental virus conferred resistance to TRIM5 on macaques. The present study evaluated these animals for long-term outcomes and found that TRIM5? restriction significantly delayed disease progression and improved the survival rate of SIV-infected macaques, suggesting that this could be a valid gene therapy approach that could be adapted for HIV.
Project description:Animal cells harbour multiple innate effector mechanisms that inhibit virus replication. For the pathogenic retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), these include widely expressed restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 proteins, TRIM5-?, BST2 (refs 4, 5) and SAMHD1 (refs 6, 7), as well as additional factors that are stimulated by type 1 interferon (IFN). Here we use both ectopic expression and gene-silencing experiments to define the human dynamin-like, IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2, also known as MXB) protein as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and as a key effector of IFN-?-mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection. MX2 suppresses infection by all HIV-1 strains tested, has equivalent or reduced effects on divergent simian immunodeficiency viruses, and does not inhibit other retroviruses such as murine leukaemia virus. The Capsid region of the viral Gag protein dictates susceptibility to MX2, and the block to infection occurs at a late post-entry step, with both the nuclear accumulation and chromosomal integration of nascent viral complementary DNA suppressed. Finally, human MX1 (also known as MXA), a closely related protein that has long been recognized as a broadly acting inhibitor of RNA and DNA viruses, including the orthomyxovirus influenza A virus, does not affect HIV-1, whereas MX2 is ineffective against influenza virus. MX2 is therefore a cell-autonomous, anti-HIV-1 resistance factor whose purposeful mobilization may represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.
Project description:Expression of cell-intrinsic antiviral factors suppresses HIV-1 replication. We hypothesized that cellular activation modulates host restriction and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. We measured the gene expression of 34 antiviral factors in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Cellular activation induced expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?), bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2)/tetherin, and certain apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme 3 (APOBEC3) family members. Expression of RTF1, RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (PAF1), TRIM11, TRIM26, and BST-2/tetherin correlated with decreased HIV-1 infectivity. This report demonstrates synchronous effects of activation-induced antiviral genes on HIV-1 infectivity, providing candidates for pharmacological manipulation.