Non-invasive genotyping of Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, and hopQ from asymptomatic children.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood, but little is known about its natural history in asymptomatic children, primarily due to the paucity of non-invasive diagnostic methods. H. pylori strains harboring cagA and specific alleles of hopQ and vacA are associated with increased risk for gastric cancer. Many studies of H. pylori virulence markers in children have the bias that symptomatic subjects are selected for endoscopy, and these children may harbor the most virulent strains. Our aim is to genotype cagA, hopQ, and vacA alleles in stool DNA samples of healthy Colombian children residing in an area with high incidence of gastric cancer, to avoid selection bias resulting from endoscopy.H. pylori status of 86 asymptomatic children was assessed by (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) and PCR. H. pylori 16S rRNA, cagA, hopQ, and vacA genes were amplified from stool DNA samples and sequenced.UBT was positive in 69 (80.2%) of 86 children; in stool DNA analysis, 78.3% were positive by 16S rRNA PCR. cagA, vacA, and hopQ were detected in 66.1%, 84.6%, and 72.3% of stool DNA samples from 16S rRNA-positive children. Of the children's DNA samples, which revealed vacA and hopQ alleles, 91.7% showed vacA s1 and 73.7% showed type I hopQ. Type I hopQ alleles were associated with cagA positivity and vacA s1 genotypes (p < 0.0001).Using stool DNA samples, virulence markers of H. pylori were successfully genotyped in a high percentage of the asymptomatic infected children, revealing a high prevalence of genotypes associated with virulence. Type I hopQ alleles were associated with the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of gastrointestinal pathology. Progression of H. pylori induced gastritis to more severe disease has been found to highly correlate with the array of virulence factors expressed by the pathogen. The objective of this study was twofold: first, to characterize the genetic diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from 41 non-atrophic gastritis patients in Switzerland, an issue that has not been investigated to date. And second, to assess the prevalence and sequence variation of H. pylori virulence factors (cagA, vacA, iceA and dupA) and genes encoding outer membrane proteins (OMPs; babA, babB, sabA, sabB, hopZ, hopQ and oipA) by whole genome sequencing (WGS) using an Illumina MiSeq platform. WGS identified high genetic diversity in the analyzed H. pylori strains. Most H. pylori isolates were assigned to hpEurope (95.0%, 39/41), and the remaining ones (5.0%, 2/41) to hpEastAsia, subpopulation hspEAsia. Analysis of virulence factors revealed that 43.9% of the strains were cagA-positive, and the vacA s1 allele was detected in 56.0% of the isolates. The presence of cagA was found to be significantly associated (P < 0.001) with the presence of vacA s1, babA2 and hopQ allele 1 as well as expression of oipA. Moreover, we found an association between the grade of gastritis and H. pylori abundance in the gastric mucosa, respectively and the presence of cagA, vacA s1 and hopQ allele 1. Among our 41 gastritis patients, we identified seven patients infected with H. pylori strains that carried a specific combination of virulence factors (i.e., cagA, vacA s1 allele and babA2 allele), recently implicated in the development of more severe gastrointestinal pathology, like peptic ulcer disease and even gastric cancer. To this end, WGS can be employed for rapid and detailed characterization of virulence determinants in H. pylori, providing valuable insights into the pathogenic capacity of the bacterium. This could ultimately lead to a higher level of personalized treatment and management of patients suffering from H. pylori associated infections.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori genomes contain about 30 different hop genes, which encode outer membrane proteins. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity in the H. pylori hopQ (omp27) locus, which corresponds to HP1177 in the genome of H. pylori reference strain 26,695. hopQ and its flanking genes were PCR amplified from multiple H. pylori strains, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. This analysis revealed the existence of two different families of hopQ alleles. Type I hopQ alleles are present in the genomes of two fully sequenced H. pylori strains, whereas the existence of type II hopQ alleles has not previously been recognized. Type I and type II hopQ alleles are 75 to 80% identical in nucleotide sequences and encode predicted outer membrane proteins that are 68 to 72% identical in amino acid sequences. PCR-based methods were developed to enable rapid differentiation between type I and type II hopQ alleles. Type I hopQ alleles were found significantly more commonly in cag(+)/type s1-vacA strains from patients with peptic ulcer disease than in cag-negative/s2-vacA strains from patients without ulcer disease (P < 0.001). Determination of hopQ allelic types provides a new method for classification of H. pylori strains. Further studies in multiple populations of patients are indicated to evaluate the usefulness of this approach for distinguishing potentially ulcerogenic H. pylori strains from less virulent strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS:Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p?=?0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI]?=?1.3-2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p?=?0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3-2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. CONCLUSION:Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children.
Project description:AIMS:To determine any associations between the Helicobacter pylori genes babA2, oipA, cagA and the s and m alleles of vacA. In addition, to verify whether these genes work synergistically or independently in causing gastritis, peptic ulcer, and intestinal metaplasia. METHODS:One hundred and sixty seven H pylori positive patients were studied (52 antral gastritis, 41 diffuse gastritis, 41 peptic ulcer, and 33 duodenitis). Helicobacter pylori virulence genes were amplified by means of the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Significant associations were found between babA2 and the other H pylori genes studied. When considered singly, all the genes were associated with disease diagnosis, inflammation, and intestinal metaplasia. Four H pylori groups were defined. Group A: cagA-, s2m2, babA2-; group B: cagA+, s1m1, babA2+; group C: cagA+, s1m2, babA2+; group D: cagA+, s1m2, babA2-. Group A infecting strains were associated with less severe endoscopic and inflammatory conditions, whereas group B strains were associated with the worst endoscopic and inflammatory findings. Intestinal metaplasia was a rare finding in group A infected patients (< 10%), whereas it was frequent in those infected with group B strains (48%). CONCLUSIONS:The H pylori genes cagA, oipA "on", s1 and m1 vacA, and babA2 are associated with each other, possibly as a result of shared selective pressure. When coexpressed by the same H pylori strain, cagA, s1 and m1 vacA, and babA2 work synergistically in worsening inflammation. Infections caused by strains coexpressing cagA, s1m1 vacA, and babA2 are those at higher risk for intestinal metaplasia.
Project description:Gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer are a few of the diverse disease manifestations that have been shown to be associated with infection by Helicobacter pylori. Why some individuals develop more severe forms of disease remains largely unknown. In this study, 225 South Korean strains were genotyped for vacA and then analyzed to determine if particular genotypes varied across disease state, sex, or cagA allele. Of these strains, 206 strains carried an s1/i1/m1 allele, 11 strains carried an s1/i1/m2 allele, and 8 strains carried an s1/i2/m2 allele. By using Fisher's exact test, a statistical association between variations in the cagA and vacA alleles was identified (P = 0.0007), and by using log linear modeling, this variation was shown to affect the severity of disease outcome (P = 0.027). Additionally, we present evidence that variation within the middle region of VacA contributes significantly to the distribution of vacA alleles across gender (P = 0.008) as well as the association with disease outcome (P = 0.011). In this South Korean population, the majority of H. pylori strains carry the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele and the CagA EPIYA-ABD allele. These facts may contribute to the high incidence of gastric maladies, including gastric cancer.
Project description:Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori can predict the development of different gastroduodenal diseases. There are scarce reports in Cuba about H. pylori isolates genotyping. The aim of the present investigation was to identify allelic variation of the virulence genes vacA, cagA, and iceA in sixty-eight patients diagnosed as H. pylori positive by culture. In seven out of 68 patients, strains from both gastric regions were obtained and considered independent. DNA was extracted from all the H. pylori strains and evaluated by PCR-genotyping. The vacA s1 allele, cagA gene, and iceA2 allele were the most prevalent (72.0%, 56.0%, and 57.3%, respectively). Alleles from m-region showed a similar frequency as s1a and s1b subtypes. The presence of multiple H. pylori genotypes in a single biopsy and two gastric region specimens were found. Significant statistical association was observed between iceA2 allele and patients with non-peptic ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (P = 0.037) as well as virulence genotypes (s1, s1m2) and patients over 40 years old (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results demonstrated a high prevalence of H. pylori virulent genotypes in Cuban patients over 40 years old while iceA2 alleles demonstrated a good specificity in patients with NUD.
Project description:The vacuolating cytotoxin and the cytotoxin-associated protein, encoded by vacA and cagA, respectively, are important virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori. Sixty-five H. pylori strains were isolated from dyspeptic patients (19 with peptic ulcer disease, 43 with chronic gastritis, and 3 with gastric cancer) and studied for differences in the vacA and cagA genes and their relationship to VacA and CagA expression, cytotoxin activity, and the clinical outcome of infection. By PCR, fifty-four (83.1%) of 65 strains had the vacA signal sequence genotype s1 and only 10 (15.4%) had the type s2. After primer modification, the vacA middle-region types m1 and m2 were detected in 24 (36.9%) and 41 (63.1%) strains, respectively. The combinations s1-m2 (31 [47.7%]) and s1-m1 (23 [35.4%]) occurred more frequently than s2-m2 (10 [15.4%]) (P = 0.01). No strain with the combination s2-m1 was found. All 19 patients with peptic ulcers harbored type s1 strains, in contrast to 32 (74.4%) of 43 patients with gastritis (P = 0.02). The vacA genotype s1 was associated with the presence of cagA (P < 0.0001), VacA expression (P < 0.0001), and cytotoxin activity (P = 0.003). The cagA gene was detectable in 48 (73.8%) of 65 isolates and present in 16 (84.2%) of 19 ulcer patients and 29 (67.4%) of 43 patients with gastritis (P = 0.17). The vacA genotypes of German H. pylori isolates are identical to those previously reported. H. pylori strains of vacA type s1 are associated with the occurrence of peptic ulceration and the presence of cagA, cytotoxin activity, and VacA expression.
Project description:cagA-positive and vacA s1 and m1 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (GC). We determined these genotypes using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens harvested from infected individuals and compared genotype distributions in two Colombian populations residing in geographic regions with a high and low incidence of GC.DNA from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies from 107 adults was amplified using primers specific for cagA, for the cag'empty site', for the s and m alleles of vacA, and for H. pylori 16S rRNA.H. pylori infection was detected by molecular assays in 97 (90.7%) biopsies. Complete genotyping of cagA and vacA was achieved in 94 (96.9%) cases. The presence of cagA was detected in 78 of 97 cases (80.4%); when considered separately, cagA and vacA s regions were not significantly associated with a particular geographic area. The vacA m1 allele and s1m1 genotypes were more common in the area of high risk for GC (p = .037 and p = .044, respectively), while the vacA m2 allele and s2m2 genotypes were more prevalent in the low-risk area. The prevalence of the combination of cagA-positive, vacA s1m1 genotypes was 84.3% and 60.5% for high and low risk areas, respectively (p = .011).H. pylori cagA and vacA genotyping from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies permitted reliable typability and discrimination. The more virulent cagA-positive s1m1 strains, as well as vacA m1 genotype, were more prevalent in high risk than in low risk areas, which may contribute to the difference in GC risk between those two regions.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is known to be a causative agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in human. Diverse genotypes of H. pylori strains have different virulence potency and geographic distribution.The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes in patients referred to Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, Iran.In this cross-sectional study, biopsy samples were collected consecutively from 153 patients with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer dyspepsia (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in the gastroenterology department of Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province, the west of Iran. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 83 patients (3 with GC, 27 with PUD, and 53 with NUD) by histology, rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial isolate and was further confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as H. pylori, and characterized based on cagA and vacA genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.In this study, vacA genotypes s1/m2, s1/m1, s2/m2 and s2/m1 were determined in 43.4%, 19.3%, 13.2% and 6% of the isolated H. pylori, respectively. The vacAs1 genotype was detected in 52 (62.6%) isolates, of which the vacAs1a genotype was detected in 45.2, 40.7, and 66.6% of the isolates from patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype was determined in 73 (87.9%) isolates and 10 (12.1%) were negative. The frequency rates of cagA gene were 84.9, 92.6 and 100% in isolates of patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype is strongly associated with s1a/m2 and s1a/m1 vacA genotypes.The most predominant VacA genotypes in our areas were s1/m2 and s1/m1, which regard as the genotypes with more virulence intensity. The H. pylori vacAs1a, cagA genotypes have a significant relationship with the presence of PUD and GC in Iranian patients with dyspepsia.
Project description:Virulence-associated genes and neutral DNA markers of Helicobacter pylori strains from the Santhal and Oroan ethnic minorities of West Bengal, India, were studied. These people have traditionally been quite separate from other Indians and differ culturally, genetically, and linguistically from mainstream Bengalis, whose H. pylori strains have been characterized previously. H. pylori was found in each of 49 study participants, although none had peptic ulcer disease, and was cultured from 31 of them. All strains carried the cag pathogenicity island and potentially toxigenic s1 alleles of vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) and were resistant to at least 8 micro g of metronidazole per ml. DNA sequence motifs in vacA mid-region m1 alleles, cagA, and an informative insertion or deletion motif next to cagA from these strains were similar to those of strains from ethnic Bengalis. Three mobile elements, IS605, IS607, and ISHp608, were present in 29, 19, and 10%, respectively, of Santhal and Oroan strains, which is similar to their prevalence in Bengali H. pylori. Thus, there is no evidence that the gene pools of H. pylori of these ethnic minorities differ from those of Bengalis from the same region. This relatedness of strains from persons of different ethnicities bears on our understanding of H. pylori transmission between communities and genome evolution.