Antioxidant-enriched diet does not delay the progression of age-related hearing loss.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been linked to noise- and drug-induced as well as age-related hearing loss. Antioxidants can attenuate the decline of cochlear structure and function after exposure to noise or drugs, but it is debated as to whether they can protect from age-related hearing loss. In a long-term longitudinal study, 10-month-old female CBA/J mice were placed on either a control or antioxidant-enriched diet and monitored through 24 months of age. Supplementation with vitamins A, C, and E, L-carnitine, and ?-lipoic acid significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of inner ear tissues. However, by 24 months of age, the magnitude of hearing loss was equal between the two groups. Likewise, there were no significant differences in hair cell loss or degeneration of spiral ganglion cells. We conclude that dietary manipulations can alter cochlear antioxidant capacity but do not ameliorate age-related sensorineural hearing loss in the CBA/J mouse.
Project description:Regular exercise significantly slowed age-related hearing loss (AHL) and cochlear degeneration in a well- established murine model. Overall design: We examined the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running on age-related hearing loss in CBA/CaJ mice, a well-established model of AHL. The CBA/CaJ mouse strain displays late-onset age-related hearing loss by 18-20 months of age and is a widely used model of AHL
Project description:Accelerated age-related hearing loss disrupts high-frequency hearing in inbred CD-1 mice. The p.Ala88Val (A88V) mutation in the gene coding for the gap-junction protein connexin30 (Cx30) protects the cochlear basal turn of adult CD-1Cx30A88V/A88V mice from degeneration and rescues hearing. Here we report that the passive compliance of the cochlear partition and active frequency tuning of the basilar membrane are enhanced in the cochleae of CD-1Cx30A88V/A88V compared to CBA/J mice with sensitive high-frequency hearing, suggesting that gap junctions contribute to passive cochlear mechanics and energy distribution in the active cochlea. Surprisingly, the endocochlear potential that drives mechanoelectrical transduction currents in outer hair cells and hence cochlear amplification is greatly reduced in CD-1Cx30A88V/A88V mice. Yet, the saturating amplitudes of cochlear microphonic potentials in CD-1Cx30A88V/A88V and CBA/J mice are comparable. Although not conclusive, these results are compatible with the proposal that transmembrane potentials, determined mainly by extracellular potentials, drive somatic electromotility of outer hair cells.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Like many aging disorders of the nervous system, damage from free radicals linked to production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) may play key roles in disease progression. The efficacy of the antioxidant systems, e.g., glutathione and thioredoxin, is an important factor in pathophysiology of the aging nervous system. In this investigation, relations between the expression of antioxidant-related genes in the auditory portion of the inner ear - cochlea, and age-related hearing loss was explored for CBA/CaJ mice. Forty mice were classified into four groups according to age and degree of hearing loss. Cochlear mRNA samples were collected and cDNA generated. Using Affymetrix® GeneChip, the expressions of 56 antioxidant-related gene probes were analyzed to estimate the differences in gene expression between the four subject groups. The expression of Glutathione peroxidase 6, Gpx6; Thioredoxin reductase 1, Txnrd1; Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh1; and Heat shock protein 1, Hspb1; were significantly different, or showed large fold-change differences between subject groups. The Gpx6, Txnrd1 and Hspb1 gene expression changes were validated using qPCR. The Gpx6 gene was upregulated while the Txnrd1 gene was downregulated with age/hearing loss. The Hspb1 gene was found to be downregulated in middle-aged animals as well as those with mild presbycusis, whereas it was upregulated in those with severe presbycusis. These results facilitate development of future interventions to predict, prevent or slow down the progression of presbycusis.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. Degeneration of the organ of Corti and atrophy of the lateral wall of the cochlear duct (or scala media) in the inner ear are the two primary causes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of mRNA/protein targets, are important regulators of cellular senescence and aging. We examined the change of miRNA gene expression profiles in the lateral wall of the cochlear duct in two mouse strains during aging The totoal RNA was extracted from the lateral wall of cochlear duct from CBA/J and C57BL/6J mice at different ages. The expression profile of miRNAs was examined by miR microarray GeneChip.
Project description:Inbred strain variants of the Cdh23 gene have been shown to influence the onset and progression of age-related hearing loss (AHL) in mice. In linkage backcrosses, the recessive Cdh23 allele (ahl) of the C57BL/6J strain, when homozygous, confers increased susceptibility to AHL, while the dominant allele (Ahl+) of the CBA/CaJ strain confers resistance. To determine the isolated effects of these alleles on different strain backgrounds, we produced the reciprocal congenic strains B6.CBACa-Cdh23(Ahl)(+) and CBACa.B6-Cdh23(ahl) and tested 15-30 mice from each for hearing loss progression. ABR thresholds for 8 kHz, 16 kHz, and 32 kHz pure-tone stimuli were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age and compared with age-matched mice of the C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ parental strains. Mice of the C57BL/6N strain, which is the source of embryonic stem cells for the large International Knockout Mouse Consortium, were also tested for comparisons with C57BL/6J mice. Mice of the C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N strains exhibited identical hearing loss profiles: their 32 kHz ABR thresholds were significantly higher than those of CBA/CaJ and congenic strain mice by 6 months of age, and their 16 kHz thresholds were significantly higher by 12 months. Thresholds of the CBA/CaJ, the B6.CBACa-Cdh23(Ahl)(+), and the CBACa.B6-Cdh23(ahl) strain mice differed little from one another and only slightly increased throughout the 18-month test period. Hearing loss, which corresponded well with cochlear hair cell loss, was most profound in the C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NJ strains. These results indicate that the CBA/CaJ-derived Cdh23(Ahl)(+) allele dramatically lessens hearing loss and hair cell death in an otherwise C57BL/6J genetic background, but that the C57BL/6J-derived Cdh23(ahl) allele has little effect on hearing loss in an otherwise CBA/CaJ background. We conclude that although Cdh23(ahl) homozygosity is necessary, it is not by itself sufficient to account for the accelerated hearing loss of C57BL/6J mice.
Project description:Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferases (BHMTs) are methionine cycle enzymes that remethylate homocysteine; hence, their malfunction leads to hyperhomocysteinemia. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have revealed a correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia and hearing loss. Here, we have studied the expression of methionine cycle genes in the mouse cochlea and the impact of knocking out the Bhmt gene in the auditory receptor. We evaluated age-related changes in mouse hearing by recording auditory brainstem responses before and following exposure to noise. Also, we measured cochlear cytoarchitecture, gene expression by RNA-arrays and quantitative RT-PCR, and metabolite levels in liver and plasma by HPLC. Our results indicate that there is an age-dependent strain-specific expression of methionine cycle genes in the mouse cochlea and a further regulation during the response to noise damage. Loss of Bhmt did not cause an evident impact in the hearing acuity of young mice, but it produced higher threshold shifts and poorer recovery following noise challenge. Hearing loss was associated with increased cochlear injury, outer hair cell loss, altered expression of cochlear methionine cycle genes, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Our results suggest that BHMT plays a central role in the homeostasis of cochlear methionine metabolism and that Bhmt2 up-regulation could carry out a compensatory role in cochlear protection against noise injury in the absence of BHMT.-Partearroyo, T., Murillo-Cuesta, S., Vallecillo, N., Bermúdez-Muñoz, J. M., Rodríguez-de la Rosa, L., Mandruzzato, G., Celaya, A. M., Zeisel, S. H., Pajares, M. A., Varela-Moreiras, G., Varela-Nieto, I. Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase deficiency causes increased susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss associated with plasma hyperhomocysteinemia.
Project description:Mitochondria modulate cellular calcium homeostasis by the combined action of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a selective calcium entry channel, and the sodium calcium exchanger (NCLX), which extrudes calcium from mitochondria. In this study, we investigated MCU and NCLX in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) using adult CBA/J mice and noise-induced alterations of inner hair cell (IHC) synapses in MCU knockout mice. Following noise exposure, immunoreactivity of MCU increased in cochlear sensory hair cells of the basal turn, while immunoreactivity of NCLX decreased in a time- and exposure-dependent manner. Inhibition of MCU activity via MCU siRNA pretreatment or the specific pharmacological inhibitor Ru360 attenuated noise-induced loss of sensory hair cells and synaptic ribbons, wave I amplitudes, and NIHL in CBA/J mice. This protection was afforded, at least in part, through reduced cleavage of caspase 9 (CC9). Furthermore, MCU knockout mice on a hybrid genetic CD1 and C57/B6 background showed resistance to noise-induced seizures compared to wild-type littermates. Owing to the CD1 background, MCU knockouts and littermates suffer genetic high frequency hearing loss, but their IHCs remain intact. Noise-induced loss of IHC synaptic connections and reduction of auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude were recovered in MCU knockout mice. These results suggest that cellular calcium influx during noise exposure leads to mitochondrial calcium overload via MCU and NCLX. Mitochondrial calcium overload, in turn, initiates cell death pathways and subsequent loss of hair cells and synaptic connections, resulting in NIHL.
Project description:In order to elucidate molecular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and dexamethasone therapy in the cochlea (inner ear), transcriptome of cochlear samples was analyzed after induction of hearing loss by exposure to intense noise in mice. Dexamethasone was intraperitoneally injected immediately following the noise trauma. Cochlear transcriptome was analyzed at 12h and 24h following the noise trauma and dexamethasone administration. Overall design: The samples included cochlear RNA from 1) Baseline, neither noise exposure nor dexamethasone, 2) Noise only, 3) 12h after noise and dexamethasone administration (Dex12h), 4) 12h after noise and control saline (Control12h), 5) 24h after noise and dexamethasone administration (Dex24h), and 6) 24h after noise and control saline (Control24h) groups (6 mice for each group).
Project description:Various organ failure induced by chronic intake of GeO2 is one of the well known disease related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The 0.15% GeO2 treated CBA mice shows severe hearing loss in 4M. Here we analyzed cochlear gene expression of 6 months old CBA mice using microarrays treated with normal chow or that containing 0.15% GeO2 for four months. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis confirmed that severe age-related hearing loss occured in GeO2 treated mice, whereas no hearing loss occured in normal chow treated mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis identified genes correlated with GeO2-induced mithochodrial dysfunction genes and revealed that 28 genes encoding components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were significantly down-regulated. These observations provide evidence that GeO2-induced hearing loss is associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the cochlea of CBA mice. To determine the effects of GeO2, each control sample (n=5) was compared to each GeO2-intoxicated (n=5), generating a total of 25 pairwise comparisons. Using DAVIS and EASE, the identified genes were assign to GO: Biological Process categories of Gene Ontology Consortium. Furthermore, we used EASE to determine the total number of genes that were assigned to each biological process category, and to perform Fisher exact test. Quality control measures were not used. No replicates were done. Dye swap was not used.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is characterized by a decline of auditory function, such as increased hearing thresholds and poor frequency resolution. The primary pathology of AHL includes the hair cells, stria vascularis, and afferent spiral ganglion neurons as well as the central auditory pathways. A growing body of evidence in animal studies has suggested that cumulative effect of oxidative stress could induce damage to macromolecules such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and that the resulting accumulation of mtDNA mutations/deletions and decline of mitochondrial function play an important role in inducing apoptosis of the cochlear cells, thereby the development of AHL. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated four categories of risk factors of AHL in humans: cochlear aging, environment such as noise exposure, genetic predisposition, and health co-morbidities such as cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis. Genetic investigation has identified several putative associating genes, including those related to antioxidant defense and atherosclerosis. Exposure to noise is known to induce excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea, and cumulative oxidative stress can be enhanced by relatively hypoxic situations resulting from the impaired homeostasis of cochlear blood supply due to atherosclerosis, which could be accelerated by genetic and co-morbidity factors. Antioxidant defense system may also be influenced by genetic backgrounds. These may explain the large variations of the onset and extent of AHL among elderly subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Annual Reviews 2013".