Selective small molecule inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG).
ABSTRACT: The poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) post-translational modification is essential for diverse cellular functions, including regulation of transcription, response to DNA damage, and mitosis. Cellular PAR is predominantly synthesized by the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 is a critical node in the DNA damage response pathway, and multiple potent PARP-1 inhibitors have been described, some of which show considerable promise in the clinic for the treatment of certain cancers. Cellular PAR is efficiently degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), an enzyme for which no potent, readily accessible, and specific inhibitors exist. Herein we report the discovery of small molecules that effectively inhibit PARG in vitro and in cellular lysates. These potent PARG inhibitors can be produced in two chemical steps from commercial starting materials and have complete specificity for PARG over the other known PAR glycohydrolase (ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3, ARH3) and over PARP-1 and thus will be useful tools for studying the biochemistry of PAR signaling.
Project description:Post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has diverse essential functions in the cellular response to DNA damage as it contributes to avid DNA damage detection and assembly of the cellular repair machinery but extensive modification eventually also induces cell death. While there are 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes, there is only one poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene encoding several PARG isoforms located in different subcellular compartments. To investigate the recruitment of PARG isoforms to DNA repair sites we locally introduced DNA damage by laser microirradiation. All PARG isoforms were recruited to DNA damage sites except for a mitochondrial localized PARG fragment. Using PARP knock out cells and PARP inhibitors, we showed that PARG recruitment was only partially dependent on PARP-1 and PAR synthesis, indicating a second, PAR-independent recruitment mechanism. We found that PARG interacts with PCNA, mapped a PCNA binding site and showed that binding to PCNA contributes to PARG recruitment to DNA damage sites. This dual recruitment mode of the only nuclear PARG via the versatile loading platform PCNA and by a PAR dependent mechanism likely contributes to the dynamic regulation of this posttranslational modification and ensures the tight control of the switch between efficient DNA repair and cell death.
Project description:Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury.
Project description:Important cellular processes are regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This protein modification is catalyzed mainly by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 in response to DNA damage. Cytosolic PARP isoforms have been described, whereas the presence of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism in mitochondria is controversial. PAR is degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Recently, ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3) was also shown to catalyze PAR-degradation in vitro. PARG is encoded by a single, essential gene. One nuclear and three cytosolic isoforms result from alternative splicing. The presence and origin of a mitochondrial PARG is still unresolved. We establish here the genetic background of a human mitochondrial PARG isoform and investigate the molecular basis for mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. In common with a cytosolic 60-kDa human PARG isoform, the mitochondrial protein did not catalyze PAR degradation because of the absence of exon 5-encoded residues. In mice, we identified a transcript encoding an inactive cytosolic 52-kDa PARG lacking the mitochondrial targeting sequence and a substantial portion of exon 5. Thus, mammalian PARG genes encode isoforms that do not catalyze PAR degradation. On the other hand, embryonic fibroblasts from ARH3(-/-) mice lack most of the mitochondrial PAR degrading activity detected in wild-type cells, demonstrating a potential involvement of ARH3 in PAR metabolism.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosylation) of proteins following DNA damage is well studied and the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors as therapeutic agents is an exciting prospect for the treatment of many cancers. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) has endo- and exoglycosidase activities which can cleave glycosidic bonds, rapidly reversing the action of PARP enzymes. Like addition of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by PARP, removal of PAR by PARG is also thought to be required for repair of DNA strand breaks and for continued replication at perturbed forks. Here we use siRNA to show a synthetic lethal relationship between PARG and BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, FAM175A (ABRAXAS) and BARD1. In addition, we demonstrate that MCF7 cells depleted of these proteins are sensitive to Gallotannin and a novel and specific PARG inhibitor PDD00017273. We confirm that PARG inhibition increases endogenous DNA damage, stalls replication forks and increases homologous recombination, and propose that it is the lack of homologous recombination (HR) proteins at PARG inhibitor-induced stalled replication forks that induces cell death. Interestingly not all genes that are synthetically lethal with PARP result in sensitivity to PARG inhibitors, suggesting that although there is overlap, the functions of PARP and PARG may not be completely identical. These data together add further evidence to the possibility that single treatment therapy with PARG inhibitors could be used for treatment of certain HR deficient tumours and provide insight into the relationship between PARP, PARG and the processes of DNA repair.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism participates in several biological processes such as DNA damage signaling and repair, which is a thoroughly studied function. PAR is synthesized by Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and hydrolyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). In contrast to human and other higher eukaryotes, Trypanosoma brucei contains only one PARP and PARG. Up to date, the function of these enzymes has remained elusive in this parasite. The aim of this work is to unravel the role that PAR plays in genotoxic stress response.The optimal conditions for the activity of purified recombinant TbPARP were determined by using a fluorometric activity assay followed by screening of PARP inhibitors. Sensitivity to a genotoxic agent, H2O2, was assessed by counting motile parasites over the total number in a Neubauer chamber, in presence of a potent PARP inhibitor as well as in procyclic transgenic lines which either down-regulate PARP or PARG, or over-express PARP. Triplicates were carried out for each condition tested and data significance was assessed with two-way Anova followed by Bonferroni test. Finally, PAR influence was studied in cell death pathways by flow cytometry.Abolition of a functional PARP either by using potent inhibitors present or in PARP-silenced parasites had no effect on parasite growth in culture; however, PARP-inhibited and PARP down-regulated parasites presented an increased resistance against H2O2 treatment when compared to their wild type counterparts. PARP over-expressing and PARG-silenced parasites displayed polymer accumulation in the nucleus and, as expected, showed diminished resistance when exposed to the same genotoxic stimulus. Indeed, they suffered a necrotic death pathway, while an apoptosis-like mechanism was observed in control cultures. Surprisingly, PARP migrated to the nucleus and synthesized PAR only after a genomic stress in wild type parasites while PARG occurred always in this organelle.PARP over-expressing and PARG-silenced cells presented PAR accumulation in the nucleus, even in absence of oxidative stress. Procyclic death pathway after genotoxic damage depends on basal nuclear PAR. This evidence demonstrates that the polymer may have a toxic action by itself since the consequences of an exacerbated PARP activity cannot fully explain the increment in sensitivity observed here. Moreover, the unusual localization of PARP and PARG would reveal a novel regulatory mechanism, making them invaluable model systems.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) regulates a number of important cellular processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the primary enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer in vivo. Here we report crystal structures of the mouse PARG (mPARG) catalytic domain, its complexes with ADP-ribose (ADPr) and a PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, as well as four PARG catalytic residues mutants. With these structures and biochemical analysis of 20 mPARG mutants, we provide a structural basis for understanding how the PAR polymer is recognized and hydrolyzed by mPARG. The structures and activity complementation experiment also suggest how the N-terminal flexible peptide preceding the PARG catalytic domain may regulate the enzymatic activity of PARG. This study contributes to our understanding of PARG catalytic and regulatory mechanisms as well as the rational design of PARG inhibitors.
Project description:Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates processes involved in genome stability. Breakdown of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is catalysed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), whose endo-glycohydrolase activity generates PAR fragments. Here we present the crystal structure of PARG incorporating the PAR substrate. The two terminal ADP-ribose units of the polymeric substrate are bound in exo-mode. Biochemical and modelling studies reveal that PARG acts predominantly as an exo-glycohydrolase. This preference is linked to Phe902 (human numbering), which is responsible for low-affinity binding of the substrate in endo-mode. Our data reveal the mechanism of poly-ADP-ribosylation reversal, with ADP-ribose as the dominant product, and suggest that the release of apoptotic PAR fragments occurs at unusual PAR/PARG ratios.
Project description:The formation of ADP-ribose polymers on target proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases serves a variety of cell signaling functions. In addition, extensive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a dominant cause of cell death in ischemia-reperfusion, trauma, and other conditions. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) degrades the ADP-ribose polymers formed on acceptor proteins by PARP-1 and other PARP family members. PARG exists as multiple isoforms with differing subcellular localizations, but the functional significance of these isoforms is uncertain.Primary mouse astrocytes were treated with an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) targeted to exon 1 of full-length PARG to suppress expression of this nuclear-specific PARG isoform. The antisense-treated cells showed down-regulation of both nuclear PARG immunoreactivity and nuclear PARG enzymatic activity, without significant alteration in cytoplasmic PARG activity. When treated with the genotoxic agent MNNG to induced PARP-1 activation, the antisense-treated cells showed a delayed rate of nuclear PAR degradation, reduced nuclear condensation, and reduced cell death.These results support a preferentially nuclear localization for full-length PARG, and suggest a key role for this isoform in the PARP-1 cell death pathway.
Project description:There is mounting evidence of androgen receptor signaling inducing genome instability and changing DNA repair capacity in prostate cancer cells. Expression of genes associated with base excision repair (BER) is increased with prostate cancer progression and correlates with poor prognosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are key enzymes in BER that elongate and degrade PAR polymers on target proteins. While PARP inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials and are a promising therapy for prostate cancer patients with TMPRSS2-ERG fusions and mutations in DNA repair genes, PARG inhibitors have not been evaluated. We show that PARG is a direct androgen receptor (AR) target gene. AR is recruited to the PARG locus and induces PARG expression. Androgen ablation combined with PARG inhibition synergistically reduces BER capacity in independently derived LNCaP and LAPC4 prostate cancer cell lines. A combination of PARG inhibition with androgen ablation or with the DNA damaging drug, temozolomide, significantly reduces cellular proliferation and increases DNA damage. PARG inhibition alters AR transcriptional output without changing AR protein levels. Thus, AR and PARG are engaged in reciprocal regulation suggesting that the success of androgen ablation therapy can be enhanced by PARG inhibition in prostate cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maintenance of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers at homoeostatic levels by PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) is central in cell functioning and survival. Yet the pharmacological relevance of PARG inhibitors is still debated. Gallotannin, a complex mixture of hydrolysable tannins from oak gall, inhibits PARG but which of its constituents is responsible for the inhibition and whether the pharmacodynamic properties are due to its antioxidant properties, has not yet been established. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A structure-activity relationship study was conducted on different natural and synthetic tannins/galloyl derivatives as potential PARG inhibitors, using a novel in vitro enzymic assay. Cytotoxicity was assayed in cultured HeLa cells. KEY RESULTS: Mono-galloyl glucose compounds were potent inhibitors of PARG, with activities similar to that of ADP-(hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol, the most potent PARG inhibitor yet identified. When tested on HeLa cells exposed to the PAR polymerase (PARP)-1-activating compound 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 3-galloyl glucose weakly inhibited PAR degradation. Conversely, the more lipophilic, 3-galloyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene glucose, despite being inactive on the pure enzyme, efficiently prolonged the half-life of the polymers in intact HeLa cells. Also, PARG inhibitors, but not radical scavengers, reduced, in part, cell death caused by MNNG. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, our findings identify mono-galloyl glucose derivatives as potent PARG inhibitors, and emphasize the active function of this enzyme in cell death.