Association of IREB2 and CHRNA3 polymorphisms with airflow obstruction in severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
ABSTRACT: The development of COPD in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is likely to be influenced by modifier genes. Genome-wide association studies and integrative genomics approaches in COPD have demonstrated significant associations with SNPs in the chromosome 15q region that includes CHRNA3 (cholinergic nicotine receptor alpha3) and IREB2 (iron regulatory binding protein 2).We investigated whether SNPs in the chromosome 15q region would be modifiers for lung function and COPD in AAT deficiency.The current analysis included 378 PIZZ subjects in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study and a replication cohort of 458 subjects from the UK AAT Deficiency National Registry. Nine SNPs in LOC123688, CHRNA3 and IREB2 were selected for genotyping. FEV1 percent of predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were analyzed as quantitative phenotypes. Family-based association analysis was performed in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. In the replication set, general linear models were used for quantitative phenotypes and logistic regression models were used for the presence/absence of emphysema or COPD.Three SNPs (rs2568494 in IREB2, rs8034191 in LOC123688, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3) were associated with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted in the AAT Genetic Modifiers Study. Two SNPs (rs2568494 and rs1051730) were associated with the post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted and pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio; SNP-by-gender interactions were observed. In the UK National Registry dataset, rs2568494 was significantly associated with emphysema in the male subgroup; significant SNP-by-smoking interactions were observed.IREB2 and CHRNA3 are potential genetic modifiers of COPD phenotypes in individuals with severe AAT deficiency and may be sex-specific in their impact.
Project description:Pulmonary function decline is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among smokers. Post bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio are considered the standard assessment of airflow obstruction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 9919 current and former smokers in the COPDGene study (6659 non-Hispanic Whites [NHW] and 3260 African Americans [AA]) to identify associations with spirometric measures (post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). We also conducted meta-analysis of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC GWAS in the COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and GenKOLS cohorts (total n?=?13,532).Among NHW in the COPDGene cohort, both measures of pulmonary function were significantly associated with SNPs at the 15q25 locus [containing CHRNA3/5, AGPHD1, IREB2, CHRNB4] (lowest p-value?=?2.17?×?10(-11)), and FEV1/FVC was associated with a genomic region on chromosome 4 [upstream of HHIP] (lowest p-value?=?5.94?×?10(-10)); both regions have been previously associated with COPD. For the meta-analysis, in addition to confirming associations to the regions near CHRNA3/5 and HHIP, genome-wide significant associations were identified for FEV1 on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value?=?8.99?×?10(-9)), 9 [DBH] (p-value?=?9.69?×?10(-9)) and 19 [CYP2A6/7] (p-value?=?3.49?×?10(-8)) and for FEV1/FVC on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value?=?8.99?×?10(-9)), 4 [FAM13A] (p-value?=?3.88?×?10(-12)), 11 [MMP3/12] (p-value?=?3.29?×?10(-10)) and 14 [RIN3] (p-value?=?5.64?×?10(-9)).In a large genome-wide association study of lung function in smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations at several previously described loci with lung function or COPD. We additionally identified a novel genome-wide significant locus with FEV1 on chromosome 9 [DBH] in a meta-analysis of three study populations.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified loci at 15q25 (IREB2) and 4q22 (FAM13A), associated with lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our research was to determine the association of IREB2 and FAM13A SNPs with LC and severe/very severe COPD patients. We examined IREB2 variants (rs2568494, rs2656069, rs10851906, rs13180) and FAM13A (rs1903003, rs7671167, rs2869967) among 1.141 participants (468 LC, 149 COPD, 524 smoking controls). The frequency of the minor IREB2 rs2568494 AA genotype, was higher in LC vs controls (P = 0.0081, OR = 1.682). The FAM13A rs2869967 was associated with COPD (minor CC genotype: P = 0.0007, OR = 2.414). The rs1903003, rs7671167 FAM13A variants confer a protective effect on COPD (both P < 0.002, OR < 0.405). Haplotype-based tests identified an association of the IREB2 AAAT haplotype with LC (P = 0.0021, OR = 1.513) and FAM13A TTC with COPD (P = 0.0013, OR = 1.822). Cumulative genetic risk score analyses (CGRS), derived by adding risk alleles, revealed that the risk for COPD increased with the growing number of the FAM13A risk alleles. OR (95% CI) for carriers of ≥5 risk alleles reached 2.998 (1.8 to 4.97) compared to the controls. This study confirms that the IREB2 variants contribute to an increased risk of LC, whereas FAM13A predisposes to increased susceptibility to COPD.
Project description:It is reported that the iron-responsive element-binding protein 2 (IREB2) gene rs2568494 polymorphism might be associated with COPD risk. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to collect all eligible studies to review the association between IREB2 gene rs2568494 polymorphism and susceptibility to COPD.We carried out a comprehensive document search of electronic databases of PubMed, MEDLIN, Web of Science, and included 4 eligible studies that examined the association between IREB2 rs2568494 polymorphism and COPD susceptibility. We performed a meta-analysis of these studies based on IREB2 rs2568494 genotypes.After meta-analysis with fixed or random effects, no significant associations were found under the heterozygote model (GG/GA; OR=0.908, 95%CI: 0.790-1.043; P=0.172), homozygote model (GG/AA; OR=0.880, 95%CI: 0.497-1.557; P=0.661), dominant model (GG/AA+GA; OR=0.941, 95%CI: 0.748-1.182; P=0.599), or allelic model (G/A; OR=0.953, 95%CI: 0.770-1.179; P=0.655). However, we found a significant correlation under the recessive model (AA/GA+GG; OR=1.384, 95%CI: 1.092-1.755; P=0.007).The current results revealed that there was significant association between IREB2 gene rs2568494 polymorphism with susceptibility to COPD; the presence of allelic A might a genetic factor conferring susceptibility to COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genetic factors are known to contribute to COPD susceptibility and these factors are not fully understood. Conflicting results have been reported for many genetic studies of candidate genes based on their role in the disease. Genome-wide association studies in combination with expression profiling have identified a number of new candidates including IREB2. A meta-analysis has implicated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) as a contributor to disease susceptibility. METHODS: We have examined previously reported associations in both genes in a collection of 1017 white COPD patients and 912 non-diseased smoking controls. Genotype information was obtained for seven SNPs in the IREB2 gene, and for four SNPs in the TGFbeta1 gene. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between COPD cases and controls, and odds ratios were calculated. The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, smoking and centre, including interactions of age, sex and smoking with centre. RESULTS: Our data replicate the association of IREB2 SNPs in association with COPD for SNP rs2568494, rs2656069 and rs12593229 with respective adjusted p-values of 0.0018, 0.0039 and 0.0053. No significant associations were identified for TGFbeta1. CONCLUSIONS: These studies have therefore confirmed that the IREB2 locus is a contributor to COPD susceptibility and suggests a new pathway in COPD pathogenesis invoking iron homeostasis.
Project description:We examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or lung function with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes in a novel cohort of patients with severe to very severe COPD. We examined 315 cases of COPD and 330 Caucasian control smokers from Poland. We included three SNPs previously associated with COPD: rs7671167 (FAM13A), rs13180 (IREB2), and rs8034191 (CHRNA 3/5), and four SNPs associated with lung function in a genome-wide association study of general population samples: rs2070600 (AGER), rs11134242 (ADCY2), rs4316710 (THSD4), and rs17096090 (INTS12). We tested for associations with severe COPD and COPD-related phenotypes, including lung function, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Subjects with COPD were older (average age 62 versus 58 years, P < 0.01), with more pack-years of smoking (45 versus 33 pack-years, P < 0.01). CHRNA3/5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.4; P = 7.4 × 10(-7)), IREB2 (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9; P = 3.4 × 10(-3)), and ADCY2 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; P = 0.01) demonstrated significant associations with COPD. FAM13A (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-1.0; P = 0.11) approached statistical significance. FAM13A and ADCY2 also demonstrated a significant association with lung function. Thus, in severe to very severe COPD, we demonstrate a replication of association between two SNPs previously associated with COPD (CHRNA3/5 and IREB2), as well as an association with COPD of one locus initially associated with lung function (ADCY2).
Project description:Cigarette smoking is the major environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genome-wide association studies have provided compelling associations for three loci with COPD. In this study, we aimed to estimate direct, i.e., independent from smoking, and indirect effects of those loci on COPD development using mediation analysis. We included a total of 3,424 COPD cases and 1,872 unaffected controls with data on two smoking-related phenotypes: lifetime average smoking intensity and cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke (pack years). Our analysis revealed that effects of two linked variants (rs1051730 and rs8034191) in the AGPHD1/CHRNA3 cluster on COPD development are significantly, yet not entirely, mediated by the smoking-related phenotypes. Approximately 30% of the total effect of variants in the AGPHD1/CHRNA3 cluster on COPD development was mediated by pack years. Simultaneous analysis of modestly (r (2) = 0.21) linked markers in CHRNA3 and IREB2 revealed that an even larger (~42%) proportion of the total effect of the CHRNA3 locus on COPD was mediated by pack years after adjustment for an IREB2 single nucleotide polymorphism. This study confirms the existence of direct effects of the AGPHD1/CHRNA3, IREB2, FAM13A and HHIP loci on COPD development. While the association of the AGPHD1/CHRNA3 locus with COPD is significantly mediated by smoking-related phenotypes, IREB2 appears to affect COPD independently of smoking.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system affecting primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. This study was aimed at investigating the association of COPD with IREB2, CHRNA5, CHRNA3, FAM13A and hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) genes in a Tatar population from Russia.Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs13180, rs16969968, rs1051730, rs6495309, rs7671167, rs13118928) were genotyped by the real-time polymerase chain reaction in this study (511 COPD patients and 508 controls). Logistic regression was used to detect the association of SNPs and haplotypes of linked loci in different models. Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationship between SNPs and lung function parameters and pack-years.The rs13180 (IREB2), rs16969968 (CHRNA5) and rs1051730 (CHRNA3) were significantly associated with COPD in additive model [Padj =0.00001, odds ratio (OR)=0.64; Padj =0.0001, OR=1.41 and Padj =0.0001, OR=1.47]. The C-G haplotype by rs13180 and rs1051730 was a protective factor for COPD in our population (Padj =0.0005, OR=0.61). These results were confirmed only in smokers. The rs16969968 and rs1051730 were associated with decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec % predicted (Padj =0.005 and Padj =0.0019).Our study showed the association of rs13180, rs16969968 and rs1051730 with COPD and lung function in Tatar population from Russia. Further studies need to be done in other ethnic populations.
Project description:Background:Genome-wide association studies identified several genomic regions associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including the 4q22 and 15q25 regions. These regions contain the FAM13A and IREB2 genes, which have been associated with COPD but data are lacking for Chinese patients. The objective of the study was to identify new genetic variants in the FAM13A and IREB2 associated with COPD in Northwestern China. Methods:This was a case-control study performed in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region between January 2014 and December 2016. Patients were grouped as COPD and controls based on FEV1/FVC<70%. Seven tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FAM13A and IREB2 genes were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY platform. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between SNPs and COPD risk. Results:rs17014601 in FAM13A was significantly associated with COPD in the additive (odds ratio [OR]=1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.67, P=0.003), heterozygote (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.33-2.32, P=0.0001), and dominant (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.28-2.18, P=0.0001) models. Stratified analyses indicated that the risk was higher in never smokers. rs16969858 in IREB2 was significantly associated with COPD but in the univariate analysis only, and the multivariate analysis did not show any association. Conclusion:The results suggest that the new variant rs17014601 in the FAM13A gene was significantly associated with COPD risk in a Chinese rural population. Additional studies are required to confirm the role of this variant in COPD development and progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to identify genetic loci associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1, and develop a multi-gene predictive model for lung function in COPD. METHODS:Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1 was performed in 1645 non-Hispanic White European descent smokers. RESULTS:A functional rare variant in SERPINA1 (rs28929474: Glu342Lys) was significantly associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (p = 1.2 × 10- 8) and FEV1 (p = 2.1 × 10- 9). In addition, this variant was associated with COPD (OR = 2.3; p = 7.8 × 10- 4) and severity (OR = 4.1; p = 0.0036). Heterozygous subjects (CT genotype) had significantly lower lung function and higher percentage of COPD and more severe COPD than subjects with the CC genotype. 8.6% of the variance of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC can be explained by SNPs in 10 genes with age, sex, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P < 2.2 × 10- 16). CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to show genome-wide significant association of rs28929474 in SERPINA1 with lung function. Of clinical importance, heterozygotes of rs28929474 (4.7% of subjects) have significantly reduced pulmonary function, demonstrating a major impact in smokers. The multi-gene model is significantly associated with CT-based emphysema and clinical outcome measures of severity. Combining genetic information with demographic and environmental factors will further increase the predictive power for assessing reduced lung function and COPD severity.
Project description:The genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still largely unknown. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of limited size have identified several novel risk loci for COPD at CHRNA3/CHRNA5/IREB2, HHIP and FAM13A; additional loci may be identified through larger studies. We performed a GWAS using a total of 3499 cases and 1922 control subjects from four cohorts: the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE); the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT); Bergen, Norway (GenKOLS); and the COPDGene study. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms with additional markers imputed using 1000 Genomes data; results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified a new genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 19q13 (rs7937, OR = 0.74, P = 2.9 × 10(-9)). Genotyping this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and another nearby SNP in linkage disequilibrium (rs2604894) in 2859 subjects from the family-based International COPD Genetics Network study (ICGN) demonstrated supportive evidence for association for COPD (P = 0.28 and 0.11 for rs7937 and rs2604894), pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.08 and 0.04) and severe (GOLD 3&4) COPD (P = 0.09 and 0.017). This region includes RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA and CYP2A6, and has previously been identified in association with cigarette smoking behavior.