Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. METHODS: 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.
Project description:Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are >/=1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions).
Project description:Assisted gait with forearm crutches is frequently performed during the recovery of musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb. The amount of body weight applied to the crutch or crutches depends on the pathology and the treatment phase. The transition from assisted gait with two crutches to a single crutch is usually recommended when the subject is able to load the 50% of the body weight upon the affected member. An altered assisted gait will cause biomechanic alterations and, therefore, longer treatments and relapses. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of 10, 25 and 50% of body weight applied to a forearm crutch during a unilateral assisted gait in the spatial and temporal step parameters to determine the load that produces alterations in gait biomechanics and the load that does not.Eleven healthy subjects performed normal gait (NG) and assisted gait with a forearm crutch, in which the applied loads were: comfortable (C), 25 and 50% of their body weight. Vicon System was employed for gait recording. GCH System 2.0 and GCH Control Software 1.0 controlled the loads. The variables were: step length, step period, velocity, step width and step angle. Friedman test compared all the gait modalities: NG and the different loads. Wilcoxon signed-rank test analyzed ipsilateral and contralateral step parameters to the crutch globally and for each subject.Friedman test showed significant differences between NG, C, 25 and 50%, especially for step period and velocity. Wilcoxon test had significant differences only in 4 of the 20 general comparisons between ipsilateral and contralateral steps to the crutch. In the analysis by subjects, step length, step period and velocity showed 79/132, 110/132 and 58/66 significant differences, respectively.The increase in the load exerted over a forearm crutch produced an increase in the step period, accompanied by a reduction of step length and gait velocity. Step width and step angle were not modified. The unloading of 25 and 50% of body weight on a single crutch is incorrect from the biomechanical point of view. Two crutches should be employed when the body weight to unload exceeds 10%.
Project description:Academic success involves the ability to use cognitive skills in a school environment. Poor academic performance has been linked to disrupted sleep associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In parallel, poor sleep is associated with increased risk for obesity, and weight management problems have been linked to executive dysfunction, suggesting that interactions may be operational between SDB and obesity to adversely affect neurocognitive outcomes.To test whether mediator relationships exist between body weight, SDB, and cognition.Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from 351 children in a community-based cohort assessed with the core subtests of the Differential Abilities Scales after an overnight polysomnogram. Body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, and cognitive abilities were modeled as latent constructs.In a sample of predominantly white children 6 to 10 years of age, SDB amplified the adverse cognitive and weight outcomes by 0.55- to 0.46-fold, respectively. Weight amplified the risk by 0.39- to 0.40-fold for SDB and cognitive outcomes, respectively. Poor ability to perform complex mental processing functions increased the risk of adverse weight and SDB outcomes by 2.9- and 7.9-fold, respectively.Cognitive functioning in children is adversely affected by frequent health-related problems, such as obesity and SDB. Furthermore, poorer integrative mental processing may place a child at a bigger risk for adverse health outcomes.
Project description:Participants consisted of 496 children (mean age = 6 years; 9 months) recruited from 11 schools in Brisbane, Australia. Children were assessed on the addition and subtraction subtests of the Test of Basic Arithmetic and Number Skills (TOBANS), an adapted version of the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task to measure inhibition, numerosity discrimination using eight subtests varying ratio (2:3 or 5:6) and congruency, and non-verbal cognitive ability using an adapted version of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Information on children's demographics (gender, English as an additional language, and learning difficulty status) is also provided. All assessments were administered during the second year of formal schooling (i.e. Grade 1). Findings regarding the impact of inhibition on the relation between numerosity discrimination and arithmetic are reported elsewhere .
Project description:In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program.This will be a two group, parallel randomized controlled trial design, with single assessor blinding. Thirty healthy runners will be recruited to participate in a six weeks neuromuscular training program. Participants will be randomized into either a generic training group, or a biomechanically informed training group. Primary outcomes include self-determined running velocity with a 20 % body weight load, jump power, hopping leg stiffness, knee extensor and triceps-surae strength. Secondary outcomes include running kinetics and kinematics. Assessments will occur at baseline and post-training.To our knowledge, no training programs are available that specifically targets a runner's ability to carry load while running. This will provide sport scientists and coaches with a foundation to base their exercise prescription on.ANZCTR ( ACTRN12616000023459 ) (14 Jan 2016).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Despite a growing body of research supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents, few studies have investigated the role of the acquisition and use of CBT skills in accounting for symptom improvement. The present study examined the role of cognitive versus behavioral skills in predicting symptom improvement in depressed youth. Analyses considered different raters of patient skills (patient vs. therapist) as well as disaggregated between-patient versus within-patient effects. METHOD:Data were derived from a 12-week clinical trial of CBT for depressed adolescent females (N = 33; ages 13-18 years; 69.7% White). Both therapist-report and patient-report measures of CBT skills (skills of cognitive therapy) were acquired at 5 time points throughout therapy: Sessions 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were assessed at every session. RESULTS:Therapist and patient ratings of CBT skills showed small to moderate associations (rs = .20-.38). Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated that the majority of the variance in skills scores (61-90%) was attributable to within-patient variance from session to session, rather than due to between-patient differences. When disaggregating within-patient and between-patient effects, and consistent with a causal relationship, within-patient variability in both patient-rated (b = -2.55; p = .025) and therapist-rated (b = -2.41; p = .033) behavioral skills predicted subsequent symptom change. CONCLUSIONS:Analyses highlight the importance of the acquisition and use of behavioral skills in CBT for depressed adolescents. Findings also underscore the importance of disentangling within-patient from between-patient effects in future studies, an approach infrequently used in process-outcome research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Understanding why therapists deviate from a treatment manual is crucial to interpret the mixed findings on the adherence-outcome association. The current study aims to examine whether therapists' interpersonal behaviours and patients' active engagement predict treatment outcome and therapist adherence in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for depressive symptoms. In addition, the study explores rater's explanations for therapist nonadherence at sessions in which therapist adherence was low. Study participants were 61 patients with diabetes and depressive symptoms who were randomized to either CBT or MBCT. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Therapist adherence, therapist interpersonal skills (i.e., empathy, warmth, and involvement), patients' active engagement, and reasons for nonadherence were assessed by two independent raters (based on digital video recordings). Therapist adherence, therapists' interpersonal skills, and patients' active engagement did not predict posttreatment depressive symptom reduction. Patients' active engagement was positively associated with therapist adherence in CBT and in MBCT. This indicates that adherence may be hampered when patients are not actively engaged in treatment. Observed reasons for nonadherence mostly covered responses to patient's in-session behaviour. The variety of reasons for therapist nonadherence might explain why therapist adherence was not associated with outcomes of CBT and MBCT.
Project description:This article is a companion to a systematic review, entitled, Associations between cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge, self-efficacy, training history and willingness to perform CPR and CPR psychomotor skills: a systematic review (Riggs et al., 2019). The data tables described in this article summarise the impact that specific training interventions, number of times trained, and retention testing intervals have on laypeople's CPR psychomotor skills, as reported by peer-reviewed journal articles. The psychomotor skills included are: compression rate, compression depth, duration of interruptions to compressions, chest recoil, hand placement, proportion of adequate or 'correct' compressions, ventilation volume, compression-to-ventilation ratio, duty cycle and overall skills. The data tables described in this article are available as a supplementary file to this article.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify clinical predictors that could distinguish clients' level of engagement in inpatient rehabilitation following stroke. METHODS:This is a secondary analysis of pooled data from three randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of a behavioral intervention. The sample (n=208) consisted of clients with stroke who had cognitive deficits (Quick-EXIT?3) and were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities associated with a university medical center. Individuals with pre-morbid dementia, aphasia and mood disorders were excluded. The Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale was used to measure engagement. Clinical predictors were measured using the Functional Independence Measure, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, selected subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment. Simple logistic regression identified individual clinical predictors associated with engagement. Hierarchical logistic regression identified the strongest predictors of engagement. RESULTS:Impairments in executive functions [mean D-KEFS, odds ratio (OR)=4.062; 95% confidence interval (CI)=.866, 19.051], impairments in visuospatial skills (RBANS Visuospatial Index Score, OR=3.940; 95% CI=1.317, 11.785), impairments in mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, OR=2.059, 95% CI=.953, 4.449), and male gender (OR=2.474; 95% CI=1.145, 5.374) predicted levels of engagement in inpatient rehabilitation after controlling for study intervention group, baseline stroke severity, and baseline disability. CONCLUSIONS:Executive functions, visuospatial skills, mood, and gender distinguished individuals with high or low engagement in inpatient rehabilitation following stroke. Further studies should examine additional factors that may influence engagement (therapist-client relationship, treatment expectancy). (JINS, 2018, 24, 572-583).
Project description:Introduction:Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) is widely used for the point-of-care evaluation of basic cardiac pathology, and there is a need for efficient and consistent training in this modality. We designed a simulator-based FoCUS curriculum that integrates instructional scaffolding and deliberate practice to create a directed, self-regulated learning experience for novices. The goal of this strategy was to guide the novice's learning efforts more efficiently and moderate cognitive load while retaining the benefits of independent learning. Methods:The complex task of learning cardiac ultrasound is broken into discrete steps, with focused didactic information immediately followed by targeted simulator practice for each module. The practice complexity increases through successive modules, and learners ultimately apply their skills by completing unassisted simulator cases. Immediate visual and quantitative feedback is provided by the simulator whenever an ultrasound image was captured during practice. The entire curriculum is self-guided. Results:Sixteen nurse practitioners and resident physicians completed this FoCUS curriculum. In comparison to a previously validated, lecture-before-practice-style curriculum, the average time to completion decreased from 8.0 ± 2.5 hours to 4.7 ± 1.9 hours (p < .0001). There was no difference in posttraining cognitive or psychomotor outcomes between the curricula as measured by a simulator posttest. Discussion:A curriculum integrating scaffolding and deliberate practice provides a more efficient, but equally effective, means of teaching psychomotor and cognitive skills in FoCUS. These instructional design principles may translate to other operational learning tasks and allow novices to build skills and reach basic competency more rapidly.