Peripheral effects of FAAH deficiency on fuel and energy homeostasis: role of dysregulated lysine acetylation.
ABSTRACT: FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), primarily expressed in the liver, hydrolyzes the endocannabinoids fatty acid ethanolamides (FAA). Human FAAH gene mutations are associated with increased body weight and obesity. In our present study, using targeted metabolite and lipid profiling, and new global acetylome profiling methodologies, we examined the role of the liver on fuel and energy homeostasis in whole body FAAH(-/-) mice.FAAH(-/-) mice exhibit altered energy homeostasis demonstrated by decreased oxygen consumption (Indirect calorimetry). FAAH(-/-) mice are hyperinsulinemic and have adipose, skeletal and hepatic insulin resistance as indicated by stable isotope phenotyping (SIPHEN). Fed state skeletal muscle and liver triglyceride levels was increased 2-3 fold, while glycogen was decreased 42% and 57% respectively. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was decreased 22% in FAAH(-/-) mice. Dysregulated hepatic FAAH(-/-) lysine acetylation was consistent with their metabolite profiling. Fasted to fed increases in hepatic FAAH(-/-) acetyl-CoA (85%, p<0.01) corresponded to similar increases in citrate levels (45%). Altered FAAH(-/-) mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) acetylation, which can affect the malate aspartate shuttle, was consistent with our observation of a 25% decrease in fed malate and aspartate levels. Decreased fasted but not fed dihydroxyacetone-P and glycerol-3-P levels in FAAH(-/-) mice was consistent with a compensating contribution from decreased acetylation of fed FAAH(-/-) aldolase B. Fed FAAH(-/-) alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acetylation was also decreased.Whole body FAAH deletion contributes to a pre-diabetic phenotype by mechanisms resulting in impairment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. FAAH(-/-) mice had altered hepatic lysine acetylation, the pattern sharing similarities with acetylation changes reported with chronic alcohol treatment. Dysregulated hepatic lysine acetylation seen with impaired FAA hydrolysis could support the liver's role in fostering the pre-diabetic state, and may reflect part of the mechanism underlying the hepatic effects of endocannabinoids in alcoholic liver disease mouse models.
Project description:Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, fatty acyl-CoAs, fatty acid ethyl esters, sphingolipids, ceramides, and endocannabinoids, in plasma and liver samples from control and alcohol-fed mice. The interpretation of lipidomic data was augmented by gene expression analyses for important metabolic enzymes in the lipid pathways studied. Alcohol feeding was associated with i) increased hepatic free fatty acid levels and decreased fatty acyl-CoA levels associated with decreased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acyl-CoA synthesis, respectively; ii) increased hepatic ceramide levels associated with higher levels of the precursor molecules sphingosine and sphinganine; and iii) increased hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide associated with decreased expression of its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. The unique combination of lipidomic and gene expression analyses allows for a better mechanistic understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Project description:Overnutrition, such as a high-fat (HF) diet, is a feature followed by some in developed nations that leads to obesity and fatty liver disease. In rats, when fed a fat-high diet, some develop obesity (obesity prone, OP) while others display an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. The present study investigated the differences between OP and OR rats on their activation of hepatic cellular senescence pathways on a HF diet. Male OP and OR rats were fed a HF diet containing 45% kcal from fat for 13 wk, and livers were collected for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. OP rats were 41% heavier than OR rats, despite consuming the same amount of food. Triacylglycerol levels were increased significantly in both plasma and liver of OP rats. Gene analysis demonstrated a significant increase of both the amount and the transcription rates of p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) mRNA in OP rats. The increased p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1) also caused a significant decrease in the level of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In OP rats, the increase of p16(INK4a) was associated with the higher acetylation levels of histone H4 at the p16(INK4a) promoter and coding region and lower methylation level of histone H3 lysine-27 in the p16(INK4a) coding region. The increase of p21(Cip1) was associated with increased acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 and decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine-27 at the p21(Cip1) promoter. In the p21(Cip1) coding region, dimethylation of histone H3 lysine-4 was significantly higher (P <0.05) in livers of OP rats compared with OR rats.
Project description:Weaning significantly alters hepatic aromatic amino acid (AAA) metabolism and physiological functions. However, less is known about the regulating mechanism of hepatic AAA metabolism after weaning. A total of 200 21-day-old piglets (Duroc × Landrace) were assigned randomly to the control group and the weaning group. In this study, weaning significantly decreased the concentration of phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine in piglet livers (p < 0.05). Additionally, through the detection of liver AAA metabolites and metabolic enzyme activity, it was observed that hepatic tryptophan catabolism was enhanced, while that of phenylalanine was weakened (p < 0.05). Intriguingly, acetyl-proteome profiling of liver from weaned piglets showed that weaning exacerbated the acetylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and the deacetylation of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Analysis of PAH and TDO acetylation in Chang liver cells showed that acetylation decreased the PAH activity, while deacetylation increased the TDO activity (p < 0.05). Furthermore, metabolites of AAAs and the acetylation statuses of PAH and TDO in primary hepatocytes from weaned piglets were consistent with the results in vivo. These findings indicated that weaning altered the PAH and TDO activity by affecting the acetylation state of the enzyme in piglets'' livers. Lysine acetylation may be a potential regulatory mechanism for AAA metabolism in response to weaning.
Project description:Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated metabolism, induce specific changes in these acyl modifications. These data suggest that protein acylation, beyond protein acetylation, contributes to the overall metabolic regulatory network and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.
Project description:High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased activity of the endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system that promotes the hepatic expression of lipogenic genes, including stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Mice deficient in CB1R or SCD1 remain lean and insulin-sensitive on an HFD, suggesting a functional link between the two systems. The HFD-induced increase in the hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide [i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA)] has been attributed to reduced activity of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here we show that HFD-induced increased hepatic AEA levels and decreased FAAH activity are absent in SCD1(-/-) mice, and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) products of SCD1, palmitoleic and oleic acid, inhibit FAAH activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. HFD markedly increases hepatic SCD1 activity in WT mice as well as in CB1R(-/-) mice with transgenic reexpression of CB1R in hepatocytes, but not in global CB1R(-/-) mice. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with the SCD1 inhibitor A939572 prevents the diet-induced reduction of hepatic FAAH activity, normalizes hepatic AEA levels, and improves insulin sensitivity. SCD1(-/-) mice on an HFD remain insulin-sensitive, but develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in response to chronic treatment with the FAAH inhibitor URB597. An HFD rich in MUFA or feeding mice pure oleic acid fail to inhibit hepatic FAAH activity. We conclude that MUFAs generated via SCD1 activity, but not diet-derived MUFAs, function as endogenous FAAH inhibitors mediating the HFD-induced increase in hepatic AEA, which then activates hepatic CB1R to induce insulin resistance.
Project description:Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) potentiates endocannabinoid activity and is hypothesized to have therapeutic potential for mood and anxiety disorders and pain. The clinical profile of JNJ-42165279, an oral selective FAAH inhibitor, was assessed by investigating the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and binding to FAAH in the brain of healthy human volunteers. Concentrations of JNJ-42165279 (plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine) and fatty acid amides (FAA; plasma, CSF), and FAAH activity in leukocytes was determined in a phase I multiple ascending dose study. A positron emission tomography study with the FAAH tracer [11 C]MK3168 was conducted to determine brain FAAH occupancy after single and multiple doses of JNJ-42165279. JNJ-42165279 administration resulted in an increase in plasma and CSF FAA. Significant blocking of brain FAAH binding of [11 C]MK3168 was observed after pretreatment with JNJ-42165279. JNJ-42165279 produces potent central and peripheral FAAH inhibition. Saturation of brain FAAH occupancy occurred with doses ?10 mg of JNJ-42165279. No safety concerns were identified.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the urea cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and glycogen metabolism was found to be acetylated in human liver tissue. The concentration of metabolic fuels, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, influenced the acetylation status of metabolic enzymes. Acetylation activated enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in fatty acid oxidation and malate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle, inhibited argininosuccinate lyase in the urea cycle, and destabilized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in gluconeogenesis. Our study reveals that acetylation plays a major role in metabolic regulation.
Project description:Acetylation has recently emerged as an important mechanism for controlling a broad array of proteins mediating cellular adaptation to metabolic fuels. Acetylation is governed, in part, by SIRTs (sirtuins), class III NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in liver during fasting and aging. However, the role of acetylation or SIRTs in pathogenic hepatic fuel metabolism under nutrient excess is unknown. In the present study, we isolated acetylated proteins from total liver proteome and observed 193 preferentially acetylated proteins in mice fed on an HFD (high-fat diet) compared with controls, including 11 proteins not previously identified in acetylation studies. Exposure to the HFD led to hyperacetylation of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, methionine metabolism, liver injury and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress response. Livers of mice fed on the HFD had reduced SIRT3 activity, a 3-fold decrease in hepatic NAD(+) levels and increased mitochondrial protein oxidation. In contrast, neither SIRT1 nor histone acetyltransferase activities were altered, implicating SIRT3 as a dominant factor contributing to the observed phenotype. In Sirt3?(/)? mice, exposure to the HFD further increased the acetylation status of liver proteins and reduced the activity of respiratory complexes III and IV. This is the first study to identify acetylation patterns in liver proteins of HFD-fed mice. Our results suggest that SIRT3 is an integral regulator of mitochondrial function and its depletion results in hyperacetylation of critical mitochondrial proteins that protect against hepatic lipotoxicity under conditions of nutrient excess.
Project description:In kidney-cortex slices from rats fed on 2.0 mg of ochratoxin A/kg per day for 2 days, gluconeogenesis from pyruvate is decreased by 26%, and renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity is lowered by about 55%. Gluconeogenesis from 10 mM-lactate or 20 mM-malate or -glutamine is also significantly decreased. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is unchanged or increased, and hexokinase activity in kidney and liver remains unaffected. We conclude that ochratoxin A in vivo is an inhibitor of renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, which is responsible, at least in part, for the block in renal gluconeogenesis.
Project description:Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH.