Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) reactions to antiglaucoma prostaglandins with or without BAK-preservative in rabbit acute toxicity study.
ABSTRACT: Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) is closely associated with ocular surface immunity. This study investigated the effects of antiglaucoma prostaglandin analogs with or without benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preservative on organized CALT using an acute toxic model. A total of 48 albino rabbits were used and seven groups of treatments were constituted. Solutions (50 µl) of PBS, 0.02%BAK, (0.02%BAK+)latanoprost, (0.015%BAK+)travoprost, (0.005%BAK+)bimatoprost, (BAK-free)travoprost preserved with the SofZia® system or (BAK-free)tafluprost were instilled 15 times at 5-min intervals in both eyes. CALT changes were analyzed using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), immunohistology in cryosections for detecting MUC-5AC+ mucocytes and CD45+ hematopoietic cells. Antiglaucoma eye drops stimulated inflammatory cell infiltration in the CALT, and seemed to be primarily related to the concentration of their BAK content. The CALT reaction after instillation of BAK-containing eye drops was characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration in the dome and intrafollicular layers and by cell circulation inside the lymph vessels. CD45 was strongly expressed in the CALT after instillation of all BAK-containing solutions at 4 h and decreased at 24 h. The number of MUC-5AC+ mucocytes around the CALT structure decreased dramatically after instillation of BAK-containing solutions. This study showed for the first time the in vivo aspect of rabbit CALT after toxic stimuli, confirming the concentration-dependent toxic effects of BAK. IVCM-CALT analysis could be a pertinent tool in the future for understanding the immunotoxicologic challenges in the ocular surface and would provide useful criteria for evaluating newly developed eye drops.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate (HA) eye drops for the treatment of diabetic ocular surface diseases in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Male 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice underwent induction of type 1 diabetes with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin, with normal mice as the control. Topical 0.3% HA, 0.1% HA, 0.4% polyethylene glycol eye drops, and normal saline were administered to diabetic mice with an intact or debrided corneal epithelium. Normal saline was applied in the controls. Corneal epithelial wound healing rate, corneal sensation, nerve fiber density, conjunctival goblet cell number, and MUC-5AC content were measured and compared.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with the controls, topical 0.3% HA use in diabetic mice showed significant improvements in the corneal epithelial wound healing rate (48 hours: 91.5% ± 4.8% vs. 79.8% ± 6.1%; P < 0.05), corneal sensitivity (4.1 ± 0.3 cm vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 cm; P < 0.05), nerve fiber density (12.9% ± 2.3% vs. 6.6% ± 2.4%; P < 0.05), conjunctival goblet cell number (31.0 ± 8.4/100 ?m vs. 19.6 ± 7.1/100 ?m; P < 0.05), and MUC-5AC content (12.5 ± 1.4 ng/mg vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 ng/mg protein; P < 0.05). The beneficial effects of 0.3% HA were better than those of 0.1% HA and 0.4% polyethylene glycol.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Topical 0.3% HA treatment promoted corneal epithelial regeneration, improved corneal sensation, and increased density of corneal nerve fibers and conjunctival goblet cells in mice with diabetic ocular surface diseases.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We investigated patient adherence and factors related to a newly introduced prostaglandin analog and timolol fixed-combination eye drops (PGTFC).<h4>Patients and methods</h4>The Glaucoma Research on Adherence to fixed-Combination Eye drops in Japan (GRACE) study group performed a nationwide prospective questionnaire survey. Participants in this study were patients with glaucoma who were scheduled to receive any type of PGTFC for the first time. The participants answered a questionnaire on the day of PGTFC introduction and again at a return visit 4-6 weeks after PGTFC introduction. The physicians in charge were asked to complete a separate questionnaire on the day of PGTFC introduction. One of two leaflets was randomly delivered to each participant before the description of the PGTFC. One leaflet explained how to correctly instill the eye drops, and the other explained the clinical meaning of intraocular pressure reduction in addition to explaining how to correctly instill the eye drops. Nonadherence was defined as forgetting to instill the eye drops one or more times during the week before the return visit.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 3,597 patients (age, 68.4±12.2 years) met the study protocol requirements. PGTFC introduction significantly reduced the number of antiglaucoma eye drops from 1.93±0.78 to 1.34±0.54 (<i>P</i><0.0001) and significantly improved adherence (<i>P</i><0.00001). Factors significantly associated with nonadherence at the return visit included a history of nonadherence as reported by either the patient or their physician before introduction, acceptable instillation times as reported by the patient, and burdensome eye drop instillation as reported by the patient. No significant difference was observed between the two leaflets in terms of their effects on adherence.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PGTFC significantly improved adherence and some of the factors that were significantly associated with adherence.<h4>Registration number</h4>UMIN000013696.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is used to preserve several topical, intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering glaucoma medications but can cause tolerability concerns that may lead to decreased adherence to treatment and ultimately diminish the effectiveness of IOP control. The study aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of BAK-free travoprost preserved with polyquaternium-1 in glaucoma patients switched from BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost. METHODS:This 12-week, open-label study was conducted in Europe between December 2011 and February 2013. We enrolled adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were receiving BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or bimatoprost 0.01% and, in the opinion of the investigator, would benefit from transition to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 because of tolerability concerns. Assessments included IOP, proportion of patients with IOP ?18 mmHg, ocular surface status, hyperemia, patient treatment preference, and adherence. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. RESULTS:Of the 202 patients screened, 187 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (mean age, 66.6 years; range, 19-90 years). The mean IOP significantly reduced from baseline (17.0 mmHg) to week 6 (mean change, -1.17 mmHg; P<0.001) and week 12 (-1.16 mmHg; P<0.001). At week 12, more patients achieved IOP ?18 mmHg (81.2% versus 73.3% at baseline), and ocular surface disease severity improved from baseline to week 12. Most patients preferred BAK-free travoprost (74.9%) versus their previous medication and were very confident in their adherence (84.1%). Reduced visual acuity and eye pruritus were the most common adverse events (2.5% each). CONCLUSION:BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 was efficacious and well tolerated and may be an advantageous prostaglandin analog option for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant to BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost.
Project description:Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK).This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ?18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study.All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n?=?191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n?=?173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P?<?0.001 for both). A greater percentage of patients achieved a target IOP of ?18 mmHg at week 6 (93.1 %; n?=?163/175) and week 12 (93.3 %; n?=?166/178) compared with baseline (89.5 %; n?=?171/191). There was a 10.5 % increase in the percentage of patients with "none/trace" amounts of hyperemia. Most patients preferred the study medication (81.5 %; n?=?141/173) and were confident that they would adhere to their preferred medication (90.8 %; n?=?157/173). No serious AEs were reported, and eye irritation (3.7 %; n?=?7/191) was the most common treatment-related AE.Transitioning from BAK-containing latanoprost 0.005 % to BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % preserved with PQ reduced IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.
Project description:To investigate the pathobiological behaviors of gastric mixed-type (MT) carcinomas and gastric carcinogenesis, the clinicopathological characteristics of MT carcinomas were analyzed and compared with intestinal-type (IT) and diffuse-type (DT) carcinomas. The expression of Ki-67, caspase-3, p53, fragile histine triad (FHIT), maspin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), vascular growth factor (VEGF), MUC-2, 4, 5AC and 6, CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-ser9 (P-GSK3beta-ser9) was examined on tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry. It was found that MT carcinomas exhibited large size, deep invasion, frequent local invasion, and lymph node metastasis in comparison with IT and DT carcinomas (p < 0.05). All the markers except MUC-5AC showed higher expression in IT than DT carcinomas (p < 0.05). The expression of maspin, EMMPRIN, VEGF, MUC-4, and membrane E-cadherin was stronger in MT intestinal than diffuse component (p < 0.05). Immunoreactivities to Ki-67, EMMPRIN, and VEGF were weaker in IT carcinoma than in the MT intestinal portion (p < 0.05), while the opposite was true for CD44, MUC-2, and MUC-6 (p < 0.05). The MT diffuse component displayed a higher expression of FHIT, VEGF, and P-GSK3beta-ser9 than DT carcinoma (p < 0.05). The accumulative survival rate of the IT carcinoma patients was higher than the other types (p < 0.05). The invasive depth, venous invasion, lymph node, peritoneal or liver metastasis, and Lauren's classification were independent prognostic factors for gastric carcinomas (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that MT carcinomas were also indicated to be more aggressive than IT and DT carcinomas. Significant differences were observed in the proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, mucin secretion, and cell adhesion between IT and DT carcinomas, whereas only a few of these characteristics showed differences between the MT intestinal and diffuse parts, thus suggesting that both the MT components might originate from the stem cells with similar genetic traits, but follow different histogenic pathways.
Project description:We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for the treatment of glaucoma patients.
Project description:Resistant starch (RS) is a constituent of dietary fibre that has beneficial effects on the intestine physiological function of animals. However, the roles of RS on shrimp intestine health is unknown. In this study, we investigated the the effects of dietary RS on the microbial composition, and digestive and immune-related indices in the intestine of Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp were fed with diets containing different levels of RS: 0?g/kg (Control), 10?g/kg (RS1), 30?g/kg (RS2) and 50?g/kg (RS3) for 56 days. The results showed that dietary RS improved the morphology of the intestine mucosa. RS also increased the activity of digestive enzymes (AMS, LPS, Tryp, and Pep) and immune enzymes (PO, T-AOC, T-NOS, and NO), and the expression levels of immune-related genes (proPO, ALF, Lys, HSP70, Trx, Muc-1, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, Muc-5B, and Muc-19). A microbiome analysis indicated that dietary RS increased the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents and altered the composition of the intestine microbial. Specifically, RS increased the abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased the abundance of Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, the beneficial bacteria (Lutimonas, Ruegeria, Shimia, Mesoflavibacter, and Mameliella) were enriched, which might be involved in degrading toxins and producing beneficial metabolites; while potential pathogens (Formosa and Pseudoalteromonas) were decreased in response to dietary RS. Our results revealed that dietary RS could improve the intestine health of L. vannamei, probably via modulating the intestine microbial composition and SCFAs contents, and enhancing the digestion and immunity of the shrimp.
Project description:Conjunctiva-associated tissue (CALT) is assumed to play a crucial role in the immune system of the ocular surface. Its function in several ocular surface diseases (OSD) is still not fully understood. This study investigates the function of CALT in mouse models of dry-eye disease and ocular allergy. Since antigen-presentation is the central similarity in the pathologies, this study focuses on antigen-presentation in CALT Morphology and the expression of CALT, which was investigated in mice after induction of dry-eye, ocular allergy, topical antigen-stimulation, and after local depletion of phagocytic cells. Antigen uptake was investigated after the application of fluorescent ovalbumin (OVA). OSD influences the appearance and morphology of CALT in a disease-dependent manner. Ocular allergy leads to an increase and dry-eye disease to a decrease in number and size of CALT. The development of CALT is dependent on the presence of APCs. Professional APCs are present in CALT, and soluble antigen is transported into the follicle. CALT appearance is disease-specific and indicative of differing functions. Although the specific involvement of CALT in OSD needs further study, the existence of functional APCS and antigen-uptake supports the hypothesis that CALT is an immunological key player at the ocular surface.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the effects of topical application of ophthalmic 5% povidone-iodine eye drops, which has been reported to cause apnea in spontaneously breathing children during general anesthesia. METHODS:The authors conducted a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study comparing the effect of balanced salt solution eye drops and povidone-iodine eye drops on respiration in spontaneously breathing children during general anesthesia with sevoflurane via a laryngeal mask airway. Fifty patients received balanced salt solution eye drops and 50 patients received 5% povidone-iodine eye drops. RESULTS:None of the control patients had a significant change in respiration. Thirty of the 50 (60%) povidone-iodine patients had a slowing of respiration within the first 6 breaths after eye drop instillation (P < .001). The median time of respiratory pause in those 30 patients was 18.5 seconds (range: 4.36 to 96.2 seconds). Among the povidone-iodine patients, children with a history of a prior tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and/or bilateral myringotomy had a 7.2 times greater chance of experiencing a change in respiration after instillation of the povidone-iodine eye drops. CONCLUSIONS:Topical application of 5% povidone-iodine eye drops causes a slowing and pause in spontaneous ventilation in a majority of children prior to strabismus surgery. This may represent activation of the diving reflex. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019;56(6):378-382.].
Project description:Purpose:Lipid-containing eye drops is increasingly popular in eye clinics to treat dry eye. Tear lipid layer thickness (LLT) changes after instillation of lipid eye drops have not been characterized. We aim to evaluate these changes of LLT using a noninvasive interferometry-based method. Methods:This prospective clinical study was conducted on staff and patients from Singapore National Eye Centre with ad hoc recruitment. Noninvasive tear break up time was measured using the Keratographer 5M. LLTs were measured using a tear interferometer machine before and at 1, 5, and 15 minutes after instillation of lipid-containing drops, either Cationorm unidose or Artelac Lipids. Fluorescein clearance (tear clearance rate) and Schirmer tests were conducted. The tear clearance rate of fluorescein dye was based on the visual examination of the color of a Schirmer strip after 5 minutes, compared against color standards. Results:This study included a total of 84 participants aged ?21 years. Many were female (92.8%) and Chinese (89.2%). A tear clearance rate of 1/16 was most common (35.7%), whereas 1/128 and 1/32 were uncommon (3.57% each). Schirmer results were 6.5 ± 8.1 mm, and noninvasive tear break up times were 8.12 ± 6.25 mm. Participants with baseline LLT <60 nm had greater changes in LLT after Cationorm instillation, compared with those with an LLT of >60 nm. LLT changes over 15 minutes were not associated with tear clearance rate. Similar results were obtained when using Artelac Lipids. Conclusions:Our results showed that participants' initial LLT affected their responsiveness to lipid-containing eye drops more than other factors. Translational Relevance:Doctors may choose to measure the baseline LLT of patients before deciding whether to prescribe lipid eye drops to patients.