Implications of lowering threshold of plasma troponin concentration in diagnosis of myocardial infarction: cohort study.
ABSTRACT: To assess the relation between troponin concentration, assay precision, and clinical outcomes in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Cohort study.Tertiary centre in Scotland.2092 consecutive patients admitted with suspected acute coronary syndrome were stratified with a sensitive troponin I assay into three groups (<0.012, 0.012-0.049, and ?0.050 µg/L) based on the 99th centile for troponin concentration (0.012 µg/L; coefficient of variation 20.8%) and the diagnostic threshold (0.050 µg/L; 7.2%).One year survival without events (recurrent myocardial infarction, death) in patients grouped by troponin concentration.Troponin I concentrations were <0.012 µg/L in 988 patients (47%), 0.012-0.049 µg/L in 352 patients (17%), and ?0.050 µg/L in 752 patients (36%). Adoption of the 99th centile would increase the number of people receiving a diagnosis of myocardial infarction from 752 to 1104: a relative increase of 47%. At one year, patients with troponin concentrations of 0.012-0.049 µg/L were more likely to be dead or readmitted with recurrent myocardial infarction than those with troponin concentrations <0.012 µg/L (13% v 3%, P<0.001; odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 7.9). Compared with troponin ?0.050 µg/L, patients with troponin 0.012-0.049 µg/L had a higher risk profile but were less likely to have a diagnosis of, or be investigated and treated for, acute coronary syndrome.Lowering the diagnostic threshold to the 99th centile and accepting greater assay imprecision would identify more patients with acute coronary syndrome at risk of recurrent myocardial infarction and death but would increase the diagnosis of myocardial infarction by 47%. It remains to be established whether reclassification of these patients and treatment for myocardial infarction would improve outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the optimal approach is uncertain. We compared the European Society of Cardiology rule-out pathway with a pathway that incorporates lower cardiac troponin concentrations to risk stratify patients. METHODS:Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1218) underwent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement at presentation and 3 and 6 or 12 hours. We compared the European Society of Cardiology pathway (<99th centile at presentation or at 3 hours if symptoms <6 hours) with a pathway developed in the High-STEACS study (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) population (<5 ng/L at presentation or change <3 ng/L and <99th centile at 3 hours). The primary outcome was a comparison of the negative predictive value of both pathways for index type 1 myocardial infarction or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. We evaluated the primary outcome in prespecified subgroups stratified by age, sex, time of symptom onset, and known ischemic heart disease. RESULTS:The primary outcome occurred in 15.7% (191 of 1218) patients. In those less than the 99th centile at presentation, the European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out myocardial infarction in 28.1% (342 of 1218) and 78.9% (961 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, respectively, missing 18 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 97.9%; 95% confidence interval, 96.9-98.7). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 40.7% (496 of 1218) and 74.2% (904 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, missing 2 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval, 99.0-99.9; P<0.001 for comparison). The negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathway was greater than the European Society of Cardiology pathway overall (P<0.001) and in all subgroups, including those presenting early or known to have ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS:Use of the High-STEACS pathway incorporating low high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations rules out myocardial infarction in more patients at presentation and misses 5-fold fewer index myocardial infarctions than guideline-approved pathways based exclusively on the 99th centile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing may improve the risk stratification and diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but concentrations can be challenging to interpret in patients with renal impairment, and the effectiveness of testing in this group is uncertain. METHODS:In a prospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I in those with and without renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60mL/min/1.73m2). The negative predictive value and sensitivity of troponin concentrations below the risk stratification threshold (5 ng/L) at presentation were reported for a primary outcome of index type 1 myocardial infarction, or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. The positive predictive value and specificity at the 99th centile diagnostic threshold (16 ng/L in women, 34 ng/L in men) was determined for index type 1 myocardial infarction. Subsequent type 1 myocardial infarction and cardiac death were reported at 1 year. RESULTS:Of 4726 patients identified, 904 (19%) had renal impairment. Troponin concentrations <5 ng/L at presentation identified 17% of patients with renal impairment as low risk for the primary outcome (negative predictive value, 98.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 96.0%-99.7%; sensitivity 98.9%; 95%CI, 97.5%-99.9%), in comparison with 56% without renal impairment (P<0.001) with similar performance (negative predictive value, 99.7%; 95% CI, 99.4%-99.9%; sensitivity 98.4%; 95% CI, 97.2%-99.4%). The positive predictive value and specificity at the 99th centile were lower in patients with renal impairment at 50.0% (95% CI, 45.2%-54.8%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 67.5%-74.2%), respectively, in comparison with 62.4% (95% CI, 58.8%-65.9%) and 92.1% (95% CI, 91.2%-93.0%) in those without. At 1 year, patients with troponin concentrations >99th centile and renal impairment were at greater risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death than those with normal renal function (24% versus 10%; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.54-3.11). CONCLUSIONS:In suspected acute coronary syndrome, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin identified fewer patients with renal impairment as low risk and more as high risk, but with lower specificity for type 1 myocardial infarction. Irrespective of diagnosis, patients with renal impairment and elevated cardiac troponin concentrations had a 2-fold greater risk of a major cardiac event than those with normal renal function, and should be considered for further investigation and treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays permit use of lower thresholds for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but whether this improves clinical outcomes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with a sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold would reduce subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS:In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial across ten secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the implementation of an hs-cTnI assay in consecutive patients who had been admitted to the hospitals' emergency departments with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented with suspected acute coronary syndrome and had paired cardiac troponin measurements from the standard care and trial assays. During a validation phase of 6-12 months, results from the hs-cTnI assay were concealed from the attending clinician, and a contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay was used to guide care. Hospitals were randomly allocated to early (n=5 hospitals) or late (n=5 hospitals) implementation, in which the high-sensitivity assay and sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold was introduced immediately after the 6-month validation phase or was deferred for a further 6 months. Patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay were defined as those with an increased hs-cTnI concentration in whom cTnI concentrations were below the diagnostic threshold on the contemporary assay. The primary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular causes at 1 year after initial presentation. Outcomes were compared in patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay before and after its implementation by use of an adjusted generalised linear mixed model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852123. FINDINGS:Between June 10, 2013, and March 3, 2016, we enrolled 48?282 consecutive patients (61 [SD 17] years, 47% women) of whom 10?360 (21%) patients had cTnI concentrations greater than those of the 99th centile of the normal range of values, who were identified by the contemporary assay or the high-sensitivity assay. The high-sensitivity assay reclassified 1771 (17%) of 10?360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction who were not identified by the contemporary assay. In those reclassified, subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 1 year occurred in 105 (15%) of 720 patients in the validation phase and 131 (12%) of 1051 patients in the implementation phase (adjusted odds ratio for implementation vs validation phase 1·10, 95% CI 0·75 to 1·61; p=0·620). INTERPRETATION:Use of a high-sensitivity assay prompted reclassification of 1771 (17%) of 10?360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction, but was not associated with a lower subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. Our findings question whether the diagnostic threshold for myocardial infarction should be based on the 99th centile derived from a normal reference population. FUNDING:The British Heart Foundation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the distribution, and specifically the true 99th centile, of high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) for a whole hospital population by applying the hs-cTnI assay currently used routinely at a large teaching hospital. DESIGN:Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING:University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom, between 29 June 2017 and 24 August 2017. PARTICIPANTS:20 000 consecutive inpatients and outpatients undergoing blood tests for any clinical reason. Hs-cTnI concentrations were measured in all study participants and nested for analysis except when the supervising doctor had requested hs-cTnI for clinical reasons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Distribution of hs-cTnI concentrations of all study participants and specifically the 99th centile. RESULTS:The 99th centile of hs-cTnI for the whole population was 296 ng/L compared with the manufacturer's quoted level of 40 ng/L (currently used clinically as the upper limit of normal; ULN). Hs-cTnI concentrations were greater than 40 ng/L in one in 20 (5.4%, n=1080) of the total population. After excluding participants diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction (n=122) and those in whom hs-cTnI was requested for clinical reasons (n=1707), the 99th centile was 189 ng/L for the remainder (n=18 171). The 99th centile was 563 ng/L for inpatients (n=4759) and 65 ng/L for outpatients (n=9280). Patients from the emergency department (n=3706) had a 99th centile of 215 ng/L, with 6.07% (n=225) greater than the recommended ULN. 39.02% (n=48) of all patients from the critical care units (n=123) and 14.16% (n=67) of all medical inpatients had an hs-cTnI concentration greater than the recommended ULN. CONCLUSIONS:Of 20 000 consecutive patients undergoing a blood test for any clinical reason at our hospital, one in 20 had an hs-cTnI greater than the recommended ULN. These data highlight the need for clinical staff to interpret hs-cTnI concentrations carefully, particularly when applying the recommended ULN to diagnose acute myocardial infarction, in order to avoid misdiagnosis in the absence of an appropriate clinical presentation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03047785.
Project description:To determine whether copeptin-us can rule out diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) without prolonged monitoring and serial blood sampling in patients with high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) below the 99th centile at presentation to the emergency department (ED) [corrected].Prospective, non-randomised, individual blinded diagnostic accuracy study.Two EDs of a rural region of France.Patients with chest pain suspected of NSTEMI with onset within the last 12 h were considered for enrollment.Serial clinical, electrographical and biochemical investigations were performed at admission and after 2, 4, 6 and 12 h. Hs-cTnI was measured using an assay with Dimension VISTA, Siemens [corrected]. Copeptin was measured by the BRAHMS copeptin-us assay on the KRYPTOR Compact Plus system. The follow-up period was 90 days.Copeptin, troponin, myoglobin and creatine kinase values. Clinical and paraclinical events. The final diagnosis was adjudicated blinded to copeptin result.During 12 months, 102 patients were analysed. Final diagnosis was NSTEMI for 7.8% (n=8), unstable angina for 3.9% (n=4), cardiac but non-coronary artery disease for 8.8% (n=9), non-cardiac chest pain for 52% (n=53) and unknown for 27.5% (n=28). There was no statistical difference for copeptin values between patients with NSTEMI and others (respectively 5.5 pmol/L IQR (3.1-7.9) and 6.5 pmol/L IQR (3.9-12.1), p=0.49). Only one patient with NSTEMI had a copeptin value above the cut-off of 95th centile at admission.In this study, copeptin does not add a diagnostic value at admission to ED for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and with hs-cTnI below the 99th centile [corrected].Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01334645.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Major disparities between women and men in the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome are well recognized. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific diagnostic thresholds for myocardial infarction in women and men with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS:Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial across 10 hospitals. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration >99th centile of 16 ng/l in women and 34 ng/l in men. The primary outcome was recurrent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. RESULTS:A total of 48,282 patients (47% women) were included. Use of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific thresholds increased myocardial injury in women by 42% and in men by 6%. Following implementation, women with myocardial injury remained less likely than men to undergo coronary revascularization (15% vs. 34%) and to receive dual antiplatelet (26% vs. 43%), statin (16% vs. 26%), or other preventive therapies (p < 0.001 for all). The primary outcome occurred in 18% (369 of 2,072) and 17% (488 of 2,919) of women with myocardial injury before and after implementation, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.33), compared with 18% (370 of 2,044) and 15% (513 of 3,325) of men (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS:Use of sex-specific thresholds identified 5 times more additional women than men with myocardial injury. Despite this increase, women received approximately one-half the number of treatments for coronary artery disease as men, and outcomes were not improved. (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]; NCT01852123).
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays can help to identify patients who are at low risk of myocardial infarction in the emergency department. We aimed to determine whether the addition of clinical risk scores would improve the safety of early rule-out pathways for myocardial infarction. METHODS:In 1935 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 rule-out pathways alone or in conjunction with low-risk TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) (0 or 1), GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) (?108), EDACS (Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score) (<16), or HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin) (?3) scores. The European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway uses a single diagnostic threshold (99th percentile), whereas the High-STEACS (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) pathway applies different thresholds to rule out (<5 ng/L) and rule in (>99th percentile) myocardial infarction. RESULTS:Myocardial infarction or cardiac death during the index presentation or at 30 days occurred in 14.3% of patients (276/1935). The European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out 70%, with 27 missed events giving a negative predictive value of 97.9% (95% CI, 97.1-98.6). The addition of a HEART score ?3 reduced the proportion ruled out by the European Society of Cardiology pathway to 25% but improved the negative predictive value to 99.7% (95% CI, 99.0-100; P<0.001). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 65%, with 3 missed events for a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 99.4-99.9). No risk score improved the negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathways, but all reduced the proportion ruled out (24% to 47%; P<0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS:Clinical risk scores significantly improved the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway, which relies on a single cardiac troponin threshold at the 99th percentile to rule in and rule out myocardial infarction. Where lower thresholds are used to rule out myocardial infarction, as applied in the High-STEACS pathway, risk scores halve the proportion of patients ruled out without improving safety. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01852123.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) after noncardiac surgery is associated with higher mortality, but the temporal relationship between early elevated troponin and the later development of noncardiac morbidity remains unclear. METHODS:Prospective observational study of patients aged ?45 yr undergoing major noncardiac surgery at four UK hospitals (two masked to hsTnT). The exposure of interest was early elevated troponin, as defined by hsTnT >99th centile (?15 ng L-1) within 24 h after surgery. The primary outcome was morbidity 72 h after surgery, defined by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS). Secondary outcomes were time to become morbidity-free and Clavien-Dindo ?grade 3 complications. RESULTS:Early elevated troponin (median 21 ng L-1 [16-32]) occurred in 992 of 4335 (22.9%) patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery (mean [standard deviation, sd] age, 65  yr; 2385 [54.9%] male). Noncardiac morbidity was more frequent in 494/992 (49.8%) patients with early elevated troponin compared with 1127/3343 (33.7%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (odds ratio [OR]=1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.25). Patients with early elevated troponin had a higher risk of proven/suspected infectious morbidity (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91) and critical care utilisation (OR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.73-2.43). Clavien-Dindo ?grade 3 complications occurred in 167/992 (16.8%) patients with early elevated troponin, compared with 319/3343 (9.5%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (OR=1.78; 95% CI, 1.48-2.14). Absence of early elevated troponin was associated with morbidity-free recovery (OR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.39-0.51). CONCLUSIONS:Early elevated troponin within 24 h of elective noncardiac surgery precedes the subsequent development of noncardiac organ dysfunction and may help stratify levels of postoperative care in real time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myocardial infarction is diagnosed when biomarkers of cardiac necrosis exceed the 99th centile, although guidelines advocate even lower concentrations for early rule-out. We examined how many myocytes and how much myocardium these concentrations represent. We also examined if dietary troponin can confound the rule-out algorithm. METHODS:Individual rat cardiac myocytes, rat myocardium, ovine myocardium, or human myocardium were spiked into 400-?L aliquots of human serum. Blood was drawn from a volunteer after ingestion of ovine myocardium. High-sensitivity assays were used to measure cardiac troponin T (cTnT; Roche, Elecsys), cTnI (Abbott, Architect), and cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyC; EMD Millipore, Erenna®). RESULTS:The cMyC assay could only detect the human protein. For each rat cardiac myocyte added to 400 ?L of human serum, cTnT and cTnI increased by 19.0 ng/L (95% CI, 16.8-21.2) and 18.9 ng/L (95% CI, 14.7-23.1), respectively. Under identical conditions cTnT, cTnI, and cMyC increased by 3.9 ng/L (95% CI, 3.6-4.3), 4.3 ng/L (95% CI, 3.8-4.7), and 41.0 ng/L (95% CI, 38.0-44.0) per ?g of human myocardium. There was no detectable change in cTnI or cTnT concentration after ingestion of sufficient ovine myocardium to increase cTnT and cTnI to approximately 1 × 108 times their lower limits of quantification. CONCLUSIONS:Based on pragmatic assumptions regarding cTn and cMyC release efficiency, circulating species, and volume of distribution, 99th centile concentrations may be exceeded by necrosis of 40 mg of myocardium. This volume is much too small to detect by noninvasive imaging.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Myocardial inflammation and injury occur during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We aimed to characterise these processes during routine CABG surgery to inform the diagnosis of type 5 myocardial infarction.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed 87 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective CABG surgery. Myocardial inflammation, injury and infarction were assessed using plasma inflammatory biomarkers, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) using both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO).<h4>Results</h4>Systemic humoral inflammatory biomarkers (myeloperoxidase, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and c-reactive protein) increased in the post-operative period with C-reactive protein concentrations plateauing by 48 h (median area under the curve (AUC) 7530 [interquartile range (IQR) 6088 to 9027] mg/L/48 h). USPIO-defined cellular myocardial inflammation ranged from normal to those associated with type 1 myocardial infarction (median 80.2 [IQR 67.4 to 104.8] /s). Plasma hs-cTnI concentrations rose by ?50-fold from baseline and exceeded 10-fold the upper limit of normal in all patients. Two distinct patterns of peak cTnI release were observed at 6 and 24 h. After CABG surgery, new LGE was seen in 20% (n?=?18) of patients although clinical peri-operative type 5 myocardial infarction was diagnosed in only 9% (n?=?8). LGE was associated with the delayed 24-h peak in hs-cTnI and its magnitude correlated with AUC plasma hs-cTnI concentrations (r?=?0.33, p?<?0.01) but not systemic inflammation, myocardial inflammation or bypass time.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients undergoing CABG surgery invariably have plasma hs-cTnI concentrations >10-fold the 99th centile upper limit of normal that is not attributable to inflammatory or ischemic injury alone. Peri-operative type 5 myocardial infarction is often unrecognised and is associated with a delayed 24-h peak in plasma hs-cTnI concentrations.