POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) inhibits endothelial cell senescence through a p53 dependent pathway.
ABSTRACT: Vascular cell senescence, induced by the DNA damage response or inflammatory stress, contributes to age-associated vascular disease. Using complementary DNA microarray technology, we found that the level of POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) is downregulated during endothelial cell (EC) senescence. PATZ1 may have an important role as a transcriptional repressor in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation; however, the role of PATZ1 in EC senescence and vascular aging remains unidentified. Knockdown of PATZ1 in young cells accelerated premature EC senescence, which was confirmed by growth arrest, increased p53 protein level and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and repression of EC tube formation. In contrast, overexpression of PATZ1 in senescent cells reversed senescent phenotypes. Cellular senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown in young cells was rescued by knockdown of p53, but not by knockdown of p16(INK4a). PATZ1 knockdown increased ROS levels, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine abolished EC senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown. Notably, PATZ1 immunoreactivity was lower in ECs of atherosclerotic tissues than those of normal arteries in LDLR(-/-) mice, and immunoreactivity also decreased in ECs of old human arteries. These results suggest that PATZ1 may have an important role in the regulation of EC senescence through an ROS-mediated p53-dependent pathway and contribute to vascular diseases associated with aging.
Project description:Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all <i>P</i> < 0.05), respectively, in ECs obtained from antecubital veins of older sedentary (60?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 12) versus young sedentary (22?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 9) adults. These age-related differences were not present (all <i>P</i> > 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 (<i>r</i>?=?-0.49, <i>P</i> = 0.003), p21 (<i>r</i>?=?-0.38, <i>P</i> = 0.03), and p16 (<i>r</i>?=?-0.58, <i>P</i> = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both <i>P</i> < 0.05), respectively, in ECs sampled from brachial arteries of healthy older sedentary (63?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 18) versus young sedentary (25?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 9) adults; age-related changes in arterial EC p53 and p21 expression were not observed (<i>P</i> > 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59?±?1 yr, <i>n</i> = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age.<b>NEW & NOTEWORTHY</b> Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function.
Project description:Aggregated amyloid ? (A?) peptides in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are hypothesized to trigger several downstream pathologies, including cerebrovascular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that A? peptides can have antiangiogenic properties, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction in the early stages of the disease process. We have generated data showing that brain endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to toxic A?1-42 oligomers can readily enter a senescence phenotype. To determine the effect of A? oligomers on brain ECs, we treated early passaged human brain microvascular ECs and HUVECs with high MW A?1-42 oligomers (5 µM, for 72 h). For controls, we used no peptide treatment, 5 µM A?1-42 monomers, and 5 µM A?1-42 fibrils, respectively. Brain ECs treated with A?1-42 oligomers showed increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining and increased senescence-associated p21/p53 expression. Treatment with either A?1-42 monomer or A?1-42 fibrils did not induce senescence in this assay. We then measured vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) expression in the A?1-42 oligomer-treated ECs, and these cells showed significantly increased VEGFR-1 expression and decreased VEGFR-2 levels. Overexpression of VEGFR-1 in brain ECs readily induced senescence, suggesting a direct role of VEGFR-1 signaling events in this paradigm. More importantly, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR-1 expression in brain ECs was able to prevent up-regulation of p21 protein expression and significantly reduced induction of senescence following A?1-42 oligomer treatment. Our studies show that exposure to A?1-42 oligomers may impair vascular functions by altering VEGFR-1 expression and causing ECs to enter a senescent phenotype. Altered VEGFR expression has been documented in brains of AD patients and suggests that this pathway may play a role in AD disease pathogenesis. These studies suggest that modulating VEGFR-1 expression and signaling events could potentially prevent senescence and rejuvenate EC functions, and provides us with a novel target to pursue for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD.-Angom, R. S., Wang, Y., Wang, E., Pal, K., Bhattacharya, S., Watzlawik, J. O., Rosenberry, T. L., Das, P., Mukhopadhyay, D. VEGF receptor-1 modulates amyloid ? 1-42 oligomer-induced senescence in brain endothelial cells.
Project description:Despite the decline in their proliferative potential, senescent cells display a high metabolic activity. Senescent cells have been shown to acquire a more glycolytic state even in presence of high oxygen levels, in a way similar to cancer cells. The diversion of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, away from oxidative phosphorylation results in an altered bioenergetic state and may occur as a response to the enhanced oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. This metabolic shift leads to increased AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP ratios, to the subsequent AMPK activation, and ultimately to p53-mediated growth arrest. Mounting evidences suggest that metabolic reprogramming is critical to direct considerable amounts of energy toward specific activities related to the senescent state, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and the modulation of immune responses within senescent cell tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, despite the relative abundance of oxygen in the vascular compartment, healthy endothelial cells (ECs) produce most of their ATP content from the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactate. Their high glycolytic rate further increases during senescence. Alterations in EC metabolism have been identified in age-related diseases (ARDs) associated with a dysfunctional vasculature, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, higher production of reactive oxygen species deriving from a variety of enzymatic sources, including uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the electron transport chain, causes DNA damage and activates the NAD+-consuming enzymes polyADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1). These non-physiological mechanisms drive the impairment of the glycolytic flux and the diversion of glycolytic intermediates into many pathological pathways. Of note, accumulation of senescent ECs has been reported in the context of ARDs. Through their pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor, and prothrombotic activities, they negatively impact on vascular physiology, promoting both the onset and development of ARDs. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cellular senescence-related metabolic changes and their contribution to the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ARDs, with a particular focus on ECs. Moreover, current and potential interventions aimed at modulating EC metabolism, in order to prevent or delay ARD onset, will be discussed.
Project description:Vascular senescence is thought to play a crucial role in an ageing-associated decline of organ functions; however, whether vascular senescence is causally implicated in age-related disease remains unclear. Here we show that endothelial cell (EC) senescence induces metabolic disorders through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescence-messaging secretomes from senescent ECs induced a senescence-like state and reduced insulin receptor substrate-1 in adipocytes, which thereby impaired insulin signaling. We generated EC-specific progeroid mice that overexpressed the dominant negative form of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 under the control of the Tie2 promoter. EC-specific progeria impaired systemic metabolic health in mice in association with adipose tissue dysfunction even while consuming normal chow. Notably, shared circulation with EC-specific progeroid mice by parabiosis sufficiently transmitted the metabolic disorders into wild-type recipient mice. Our data provides direct evidence that EC senescence impairs systemic metabolic health, and thus establishes EC senescence as a bona fide risk for age-related metabolic disease.
Project description:Angiotensin II (AngII) has a crucial role in cardiovascular pathologies, including endothelial inflammation and premature vascular aging. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying aging-related endothelial inflammation induced by AngII remains elusive. Here, we have tested a hypothesis in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) that the removal of AngII-induced senescent cells, preservation of proteostasis, or inhibition of mitochondrial fission attenuates the pro-inflammatory EC phenotype. AngII stimulation in ECs resulted in cellular senescence assessed by senescence-associated ? galactosidase activity. The number of ? galactosidase-positive ECs induced by AngII was attenuated by treatment with a senolytic drug ABT737 or the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate. Monocyte adhesion assay revealed that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in ECs induced by AngII was alleviated by these treatments. AngII stimulation also increased mitochondrial fission in ECs, which was mitigated by mitochondrial division inhibitor-1. Pretreatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 attenuated AngII-induced senescence and monocyte adhesion in ECs. These findings suggest that mitochondrial fission and endoplasmic reticulum stress have causative roles in endothelial senescence-associated inflammatory phenotype induced by AngII exposure, thus providing potential therapeutic targets in age-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Endothelial senescence plays crucial roles in diabetic vascular complication. Recent evidence indicated that transient hyperglycaemia could potentiate persistent diabetic vascular complications, a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory." Although SIRT1 has been demonstrated to mediate high glucose-induced endothelial senescence, whether and how "metabolic memory" would affect endothelial senescence through SIRT1 signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 axis as well as the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) and metformin (MET), two potent SIRT1 activators, during the occurrence of "metabolic memory" of cellular senescence (senescent "memory"). Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in either normal glucose (NG)/high glucose (HG) media for 6 days, or 3 days of HG followed by 3 days of NG (HN), with or without RSV or MET treatment. It was shown that HN incubation triggered persistent downregulation of deacetylase SIRT1 and upregulation of acetyltransferase p300, leading to sustained hyperacetylation (at K382) and activation of p53, and subsequent p53/p21-mediated senescent "memory." In contrast, senescent "memory" was abrogated by overexpression of SIRT1 or knockdown of p300. Interestingly, we found that SIRT1 and p300 could regulate each other in response to HN stimulation, suggesting that a delicate balance between acetyltransferases and deacetylases may be particularly important for sustained acetylation and activation of non-histone proteins (such as p53), and eventually the occurrence of "metabolic memory." Furthermore, we found that RSV or MET treatment prevented senescent "memory" by modulating SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. Notably, early and continuous treatment of MET, but not RSV, was particularly important for preventing senescent "memory." In conclusion, short-term high glucose stimulation could induce sustained endothelial senescence via SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. RVS or MET treatment could enhance SIRT1-mediated signaling and thus protect against senescent "memory" independent of their glucose lowering mechanisms. Therefore, they may serve as promising therapeutic drugs against the development of "metabolic memory."
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To reveal whether B-myb is involved in preventing senescence of vascular endothelial cells, and if so, to identify possible mechanisms for it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57/BL6 male mice and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were used. Bleomycin was applied to induce stress-related premature senescence. B-myb knockdown was achieved using an siRNA technique and cell senescence was assessed using the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analysed using an ROS assay kit and cell proliferation was evaluated using KFluor488 EdU kit. Capillary tube network formation was determined by Matrigel assay. Expressions of mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS:B-myb expression significantly decreased, while p53 and p21 expressions increased in the aortas of aged mice. This expression pattern was also found in replicative senescent HAECs and senescent HAECs induced by bleomycin. B-myb knockdown resulted in upregulation of p22phox , ROS accumulation and cell senescence of HAECs. Downregulation of B-myb significantly inhibited cell proliferation and capillary tube network formation and activated the p53/p21 signalling pathway. Blocking ROS production or inhibiting p53 activation remarkably attenuated SA-?-gal activity and delayed cell senescence induced by B-myb-silencing. CONCLUSION:Downregulation of B-myb induced senescence by upregulation of p22phox and activation of the ROS/p53/p21 pathway, in our vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that B-myb may be a novel candidate for regulating cell senescence to protect against endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) have a finite lifespan when cultured in vitro and eventually enter an irreversible growth arrest state called "cellular senescence." It has been shown that sphingolipids may be involved in senescence; however, the molecular links involved are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling and functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a serum-borne bioactive sphingolipid, in ECs of different in vitro ages. We observed that S1P-regulated responses are significantly inhibited and the S1P(1-3) receptor subtypes are markedly increased in senescent ECs. Increased expression of S1P(1) and S1P(2) was also observed in the lesion regions of atherosclerotic endothelium, where senescent ECs have been identified in vivo. S1P-induced Akt and ERK1/2 activation were comparable between ECs of different in vitro ages; however, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) activity was significantly elevated and Rac activation was inhibited in senescent ECs. Rac activation and senescent-associated impairments were restored in senescent ECs by the expression of dominant-negative PTEN and by knocking down S1P(2) receptors. Furthermore, the senescent-associated impairments were induced in young ECs by the expression of S1P(2) to a level similar to that of in vitro senescence. These results indicate that the impairment of function in senescent ECs in culture is mediated by an increase in S1P signaling through S1P(2)-mediated activation of the lipid phosphatase PTEN.
Project description:Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the endothelial cell (EC)-enriched gene endoglin (ENG) cause the human disease hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia-1, characterized by vascular malformations promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). How ENG deficiency alters EC behaviour to trigger these anomalies is not understood. Mosaic ENG deletion in the postnatal mouse rendered Eng LOF ECs insensitive to flow-mediated venous to arterial migration. Eng LOF ECs retained within arterioles acquired venous characteristics and secondary ENG-independent proliferation resulting in arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Analysis following simultaneous Eng LOF and overexpression (OE) revealed that ENG OE ECs dominate tip-cell positions and home preferentially to arteries. ENG knockdown altered VEGFA-mediated VEGFR2 kinetics and promoted AKT signalling. Blockage of PI(3)K/AKT partly normalized flow-directed migration of ENG LOF ECs in vitro and reduced the severity of AVM in vivo. This demonstrates the requirement of ENG in flow-mediated migration and modulation of VEGFR2 signalling in vascular patterning.
Project description:Endothelial cells (ECs) that are differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used in establishing disease models for personalized drug discovery or developing patient-specific vascularized tissues or organoids. However, a number of technical challenges are often associated with iPSC-ECs in culture, including instability of the endothelial phenotype and limited cell proliferative capacity over time. Early senescence is believed to be the primary mechanism underlying these limitations. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase involved in the regulation of cell senescence, redox state, and inflammatory status. We hypothesize that overexpression of the SIRT1 gene in iPSC-ECs will maintain EC phenotype, function, and proliferative capacity by overcoming early cell senescence. SIRT1 gene was packaged into a lentiviral vector (LV-SIRT1) and transduced into iPSC-ECs at passage 4. Beginning with passage 5, iPSC-ECs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology, whereas iPSC-ECs overexpressing SIRT1 maintained EC cobblestone morphology. SIRT1 overexpressing iPSC-ECs also exhibited a higher percentage of canonical markers of endothelia (LV-SIRT1 61.8% CD31(+) vs. LV-empty 31.7% CD31(+), P?<?0.001; LV-SIRT1 46.3% CD144(+) vs. LV-empty 20.5% CD144(+), P?<?0.02), with a higher nitric oxide synthesis, lower ?-galactosidase production indicating decreased senescence (3.4% for LV-SIRT1 vs. 38.6% for LV-empty, P?<?0.001), enhanced angiogenesis, increased deacetylation activity, and higher proliferation rate. SIRT1 overexpressing iPSC-ECs continued to proliferate through passage 9 with high purity of EC-like characteristics, while iPSC-ECs without SIRT1 overexpression became senescent after passage 5. Taken together, SIRT1 overexpression in iPSC-ECs maintains EC phenotype, improves EC function, and extends cell lifespan, overcoming critical hurdles associated with the use of iPSC-ECs in translational research.