Short chain dehydrogenase/reductase rdhe2 is a novel retinol dehydrogenase essential for frog embryonic development.
ABSTRACT: The enzymes responsible for the rate-limiting step in retinoic acid biosynthesis, the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde, during embryogenesis and in adulthood have not been fully defined. Here, we report that a novel member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, frog sdr16c5, acts as a highly active retinol dehydrogenase (rdhe2) that promotes retinoic acid biosynthesis when expressed in mammalian cells. In vivo assays of rdhe2 function show that overexpression of rdhe2 in frog embryos leads to posteriorization and induction of defects resembling those caused by retinoic acid toxicity. Conversely, antisense morpholino-mediated knockdown of endogenous rdhe2 results in phenotypes consistent with retinoic acid deficiency, such as defects in anterior neural tube closure, microcephaly with small eye formation, disruption of somitogenesis, and curved body axis with bent tail. Higher doses of morpholino induce embryonic lethality. Analyses of retinoic acid levels using either endogenous retinoic acid-sensitive gene hoxd4 or retinoic acid reporter cell line both show that the levels of retinoic acid are significantly decreased in rdhe2 morphants. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that Xenopus rdhe2 functions as a retinol dehydrogenase essential for frog embryonic development in vivo. Importantly, the retinol oxidizing activity of frog rdhe2 is conserved in its mouse homologs, suggesting that rdhe2-related enzymes may represent the previously unrecognized physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to retinoic acid biosynthesis in higher vertebrates.
Project description:All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with specific physiological conditions.
Project description:Retinol dehydrogenases catalyze the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, a bioactive lipid molecule that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes by binding to nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors. Several enzymes exhibit retinol dehydrogenase activities in vitro; however, their physiological relevance for retinoic acid biosynthesis in vivo remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that two murine epidermal retinol dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C member 5 (SDR16C5) and SDR16C6, contribute to retinoic acid biosynthesis in living cells and are also essential for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde in vivo Mice with targeted knockout of the more catalytically active SDR16C6 enzyme have no obvious phenotype, possibly due to functional redundancy, because Sdr16c5 and Sdr16c6 exhibit an overlapping expression pattern during later developmental stages and in adulthood. Mice that lack both enzymes are viable and fertile but display accelerated hair growth after shaving and also enlarged meibomian glands, consistent with a nearly 80% reduction in the retinol dehydrogenase activities of skin membrane fractions from the Sdr16c5/Sdr16c6 double-knockout mice. The up-regulation of hair-follicle stem cell genes is consistent with reduced retinoic acid signaling in the skin of the double-knockout mice. These results indicate that the retinol dehydrogenase activities of murine SDR16C5 and SDR16C6 enzymes are not critical for survival but are responsible for most of the retinol dehydrogenase activity in skin, essential for the regulation of the hair-follicle cycle, and required for the maintenance of both sebaceous and meibomian glands.
Project description:The retinoic acid-inducible dehydrogenase reductase 3 (DHRS3) is thought to function as a retinaldehyde reductase that controls the levels of all-trans-retinaldehyde, the immediate precursor for bioactive all-trans-retinoic acid. However, the weak catalytic activity of DHRS3 and the lack of changes in retinaldehyde conversion to retinol and retinoic acid in the cells overexpressing DHRS3 undermine its role as a physiologically important all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. This study demonstrates that DHRS3 requires the presence of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) to display its full catalytic activity. The RDH10-activated DHRS3 acts as a robust high affinity all-trans-retinaldehyde-specific reductase that effectively converts retinaldehyde back to retinol, decreasing the rate of retinoic acid biosynthesis. In turn, the retinol dehydrogenase activity of RDH10 is reciprocally activated by DHRS3. At E13.5, DHRS3-null embryos have ?4-fold lower levels of retinol and retinyl esters, but only slightly elevated levels of retinoic acid. The membrane-associated retinaldehyde reductase and retinol dehydrogenase activities are decreased by ?4- and ?2-fold, respectively, in Dhrs3(-/-) embryos, and Dhrs3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit reduced metabolism of both retinaldehyde and retinol. Neither RDH10 nor DHRS3 has to be itself catalytically active to activate each other. The transcripts encoding DHRS3 and RDH10 are co-localized at least in some tissues during development. The mutually activating interaction between the two related proteins may represent a highly sensitive and conserved mechanism for precise control over the rate of retinoic acid biosynthesis.
Project description:Vertebrate enzymes that belong to the 16C family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR16C) were shown to play an essential role in the control of retinoic acid (RA) levels during development. To trace the evolution of enzymatic function of SDR16C family, and to examine the origins of the pathway for RA biosynthesis from vitamin A, we identified putative SDR16C enzymes through the extensive search of available genome sequencing data in a subset of species representing major metazoan phyla. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that enzymes from protostome, non-chordate deuterostome and invertebrate chordate species are found in three clades of SDR16C family containing retinoid active enzymes, which are retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10), retinol dehydrogenases E2 (RDHE2) and RDHE2-similar, and dehydrogenase reductase (SDR family) member 3 (DHRS3). For the initial functional analysis, we cloned RDH10- and RDHE2-related enzymes from the early developmental stages of a non-chordate deuterostome, green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, and an invertebrate chordate, sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. In situ hybridization revealed that these proteins are expressed in a pattern relevant to development, while assays performed on proteins expressed in mammalian cell culture showed that they possess retinol-oxidizing activity as their vertebrate homologs. The existence of invertebrate homologs of DHRS3 was inferred from the analysis of phylogeny and cofactor-binding residues characteristic of preference for NADP(H). The presence of invertebrate homologs in the DHRS3 group of SDR16C is interesting in light of the complex mutually activating interaction, which we have recently described for human RDH10 and DHRS3 enzymes. Further functional analysis of these homologs will establish whether this interaction evolved to control retinoid homeostasis only in vertebrates, or is also conserved in pre-vertebrates.
Project description:The pleiotropic effects of retinoids are mediated by two families of nuclear receptors: RAR (retinoic acid receptors) and RXR (retinoid X receptors). 9-cis-Retinoic acid is a specific ligand for RXR receptors, whereas either 9-cis- or all-trans-retinoic acid activates the RAR receptor family. The existence of RXRs suggests a new role for isomerization in the biology of retinoic acid. We report here the identification of an aldehyde dehydrogenase in the rat kidney that catalysed the oxidation of 9-cis- and all-trans-retinal to corresponding retinoic acids with high efficiency, 9-cis-retinal being 2-fold more active than all-trans-retinal. Based on several criteria, such as amino acid sequence, pH optimum, and inhibition by chloral hydrate, this enzyme was found to be a novel isoenzyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase. 9-cis-Retinol, the precursor for the biosynthesis of 9-cis-retinal was identified in the rat kidney. The occurrence of endogenous 9-cis-retinol and the existence of specific dehydrogenase which participates in the catalysis of 9-cis-retinal suggest that all-trans-retinoi(d) isomerization to 9-cis-retinoi(d) occurs at the retinol level, analogous to all-trans-retinol isomerization to 11-cis-retinol in the visual cycle.
Project description:Human retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) was implicated in the oxidation of all-trans-retinol for biosynthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid, however, initial assays suggested that RDH10 prefers NADP(+) as a cofactor, undermining its role as an oxidative enzyme. Here, we present evidence that RDH10 is, in fact, a strictly NAD(+)-dependent enzyme with multisubstrate specificity that recognizes cis-retinols as well as all-trans-retinol as substrates. RDH10 has a relatively high apparent K(m) value for NAD(+) (~100 microm) but the lowest apparent K(m) value for all-trans-retinol (~0.035 microm) among all NAD(+)-dependent retinoid oxidoreductases. Due to its high affinity for all-trans-retinol, RDH10 exhibits a greater rate of retinol oxidation in the presence of cellular retinol-binding protein type I (CRBPI) than human microsomal RoDH4, but like RoDH4, RDH10 does not recognize retinol bound to CRBPI as a substrate. Consistent with its preference for NAD(+), RDH10 functions exclusively in the oxidative direction in the cells, increasing the levels of retinaldehyde and retinoic acid. Targeted small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous RDH10 or RoDH4 expression in human cells results in a significant decrease in retinoic acid production from retinol, identifying both human enzymes as physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases. The dual cis/trans substrate specificity suggests a dual physiological role for RDH10: in the biosynthesis of 11-cis-retinaldehyde for vision as well as the biosynthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid for differentiation and development.
Project description:The intracellular concentration of retinoic acid is determined by two sequential oxidation reactions that convert retinol to retinoic acid. We recently demonstrated that retinoic acid synthesis is significantly impaired in glomeruli of HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26), a murine model of HIV-associated nephropathy. This impaired retinoic acid synthesis correlates with reduced renal expression of retinol dehydrogenase 9, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of retinoic acid synthesis by converting retinol to retinal. Because retinoic acid has renal protective effects and can induce podocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that restoration of retinoic acid synthesis could slow the progression of renal disease. Herein, we demonstrate that overexpression of retinol dehydrogenase 9 in cultured podocytes induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers. Furthermore, we confirm that podocyte-specific overexpression of retinol dehydrogenase 9 in mice with established kidney disease due to either HIV-associated nephropathy or adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreases proteinuria, attenuates kidney injury, and restores podocyte differentiation markers. Our data suggest that restoration of retinoic acid synthesis could be a new approach to treat kidney disease.
Project description:The ligand-controlled retinoic acid (RA) receptors and retinoid X receptors are important for several physiological processes, including normal embryonic development, but little is known about how their ligands, all-trans and 9-cis RA, are generated. Here we report the identification of a stereo-specific 9-cis retinol dehydrogenase, which is abundantly expressed in embryonic tissues known to be targets in the retinoid signaling pathway. The membrane-bound enzyme is a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, able to oxidize 9-cis retinol into 9-cis retinaldehyde, an intermediate in 9-cis RA biosynthesis. Analysis by nonradioactive in situ hybridization in mouse embryos shows that expression of the enzyme is temporally and spatially well controlled during embryogenesis with prominent expression in parts of the developing central nervous system, sensory organs, somites and myotomes, and several tissues of endodermal origin. The identification of this enzyme reveals a pathway in RA biosynthesis, where 9-cis retinol is generated for subsequent oxidation to 9-cis RA.
Project description:Locally applied retinol is metabolized to retinoic acid in mouse epidermis in vivo. To characterize the oxidation system we investigated the ability of soluble extracts of hairless-mouse epidermis to convert retinol and retinal into retinoic acid. The extracts oxidized retinol to retinoic acid in two steps catalysed by two NAD+-dependent enzymes that were resolved on h.p.l.c. The first enzyme catalyses the reversible oxidation of retinol to retinal and is an alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme. The second enzyme oxidizes retinal to retinoic acid. Retinol oxidation by epidermal extracts was inhibited by the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and by the polyene citral. The toxicity and relatively low potency at inhibiting the epidermal alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme curtailed the use of 4-methylpyrazole in vivo. However, citral significantly inhibited retinoic acid formation from retinol in the epidermis in vivo. The ability to inhibit the oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid in mouse epidermis provides a potential method to resolve the roles of retinol and retinoic acid in epithelial function.
Project description:Retinoic acid biosynthesis in vertebrates occurs in two consecutive steps: the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde followed by the oxidation of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Enzymes of the MDR (medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase), SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) and AKR (aldo-keto reductase) superfamilies have been reported to catalyse the conversion between retinol and retinaldehyde. Estimation of the relative contribution of enzymes of each type was difficult since kinetics were performed with different methodologies, but SDRs would supposedly play a major role because of their low K(m) values, and because they were found to be active with retinol bound to CRBPI (cellular retinol binding protein type I). In the present study we employed detergent-free assays and HPLC-based methodology to characterize side-by-side the retinoid-converting activities of human MDR [ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) 1B2 and ADH4), SDR (RoDH (retinol dehydrogenase)-4 and RDH11] and AKR (AKR1B1 and AKR1B10) enzymes. Our results demonstrate that none of the enzymes, including the SDR members, are active with CRBPI-bound retinoids, which questions the previously suggested role of CRBPI as a retinol supplier in the retinoic acid synthesis pathway. The members of all three superfamilies exhibit similar and low K(m) values for retinoids (0.12-1.1 microM), whilst they strongly differ in their kcat values, which range from 0.35 min(-1) for AKR1B1 to 302 min(-1) for ADH4. ADHs appear to be more effective retinol dehydrogenases than SDRs because of their higher kcat values, whereas RDH11 and AKR1B10 are efficient retinaldehyde reductases. Cell culture studies support a role for RoDH-4 as a retinol dehydrogenase and for AKR1B1 as a retinaldehyde reductase in vivo.