Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) recognizes distinct molecular features within hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) versus ankyrin repeat substrates.
ABSTRACT: Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH) catalyzes the β-hydroxylation of asparagine residues in HIF-α transcription factors as well as ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) proteins such as Notch and Gankyrin. Although FIH-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-α is well characterized, ARDs were only recently identified as substrates, and less is known about their recognition and hydroxylation by FIH. We investigated the molecular determinants of FIH substrate recognition, with a focus on differences between HIF and ARD substrates. We show that for ARD proteins, structural context is an important determinant of FIH-recognition, but analyses of chimeric substrate proteins indicate that the ankyrin fold alone is not sufficient to explain the distinct substrate properties of the ARDs compared with HIF. For both substrates the kinetic parameters of hydroxylation are influenced by the amino acids proximal to the target asparagine. Although FIH tolerates a variety of chemically disparate residues proximal to the asparagine, we demonstrate that certain combinations of amino acids are not permissive to hydroxylation. Finally, we characterize a conserved RLL motif in HIF and demonstrate that it mediates a high affinity interaction with FIH in the presence of cell lysate or macromolecular crowding agents. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of residues proximal to the asparagine in determining hydroxylation, and identify additional substrate-specific elements that contribute to distinct properties of HIF and ARD proteins as substrates for FIH. These distinct features are likely to influence FIH substrate choice in vivo and, therefore, have important consequences for HIF regulation.
Project description:Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyzes the ?-hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a modification that negatively regulates HIF transcriptional activity. FIH also catalyzes the hydroxylation of highly conserved Asn residues within the ubiquitous ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins. Hydroxylation has been shown to stabilize localized regions of the ARD fold in the case of a three-repeat consensus ankyrin protein, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated for the extensive naturally occurring ARDs. Here we report that the cytoskeletal ankyrin family are substrates for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylations. We show that the ARD of ankyrinR is multiply hydroxylated by FIH both in vitro and in endogenous proteins purified from human and mouse erythrocytes. Hydroxylation of the D34 region of ankyrinR ARD (ankyrin repeats 13-24) increases its conformational stability and leads to a reduction in its interaction with the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (CDB3), demonstrating the potential for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylation to modulate protein-protein interactions. Unexpectedly we found that aspartate residues in ankyrinR and ankyrinB are hydroxylated and that FIH-catalyzed aspartate hydroxylation also occurs in other naturally occurring AR sequences. The crystal structure of an FIH variant in complex with an Asp-substrate peptide together with NMR analyses of the hydroxylation product identifies the 3S regio- and stereoselectivity of the FIH-catalyzed Asp hydroxylation, revealing a previously unprecedented posttranslational modification.
Project description:Studies on hypoxia-sensitive pathways have revealed a series of Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases that regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation. The recognition of these unprecedented signaling processes has led to a search for other substrates of the HIF hydroxylases. Here we show that the human HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), also efficiently hydroxylates specific asparaginyl (Asn)-residues within proteins of the IkappaB family. After the identification of a series of ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins in a screen for proteins interacting with FIH, the ARDs of p105 (NFKB1) and IkappaBalpha were shown to be efficiently hydroxylated by FIH at specific Asn residues in the hairpin loops linking particular ankyrin repeats. The target Asn residue is highly conserved as part of the ankyrin consensus, and peptides derived from a diverse range of ARD-containing proteins supported FIH enzyme activity. These findings demonstrate that this type of protein hydroxylation is not restricted to HIF and strongly suggest that FIH-dependent ARD hydroxylation is a common occurrence, potentially providing an oxygen-sensitive signal to a diverse range of processes.
Project description:The asparaginyl hydroxylase, Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH), is a cellular dioxygenase. Originally identified as oxygen sensor in the cellular response to hypoxia, where FIH acts as a repressor of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor alpha (HIF-?) proteins through asparaginyl hydroxylation, FIH also hydroxylates many proteins that contain ankyrin repeat domains (ARDs). Given FIH's promiscuity and the unclear functional effects of ARD hydroxylation, the biological relevance of HIF-? and ARD hydroxylation remains uncertain. Here, we have employed evolutionary and enzymatic analyses of FIH, and both HIF-? and ARD-containing substrates, in a broad range of metazoa to better understand their conservation and functional importance. Utilising Tribolium castaneum and Acropora millepora, we provide evidence that FIH from both species are able to hydroxylate HIF-? proteins, supporting conservation of this function beyond vertebrates. We further demonstrate that T. castaneum and A. millepora FIH homologs can also hydroxylate specific ARD proteins. Significantly, FIH is also conserved in several species with inefficiently-targeted or absent HIF, supporting the hypothesis of important HIF-independent functions for FIH. Overall, these data show that while oxygen-dependent HIF-? hydroxylation by FIH is highly conserved in many species, HIF-independent roles for FIH have evolved in others.
Project description:Post-translational hydroxylation has been considered an unusual modification on intracellular proteins. However, following the recognition that oxygen-sensitive prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation are central to the regulation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), interest has centered on the possibility that these enzymes may have other substrates in the proteome. In support of this certain ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins, including members of the IkappaB and Notch families, have been identified as alternative substrates of the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). Although these findings imply a potentially broad range of substrates for FIH, the precise extent of this range has been difficult to determine because of the difficulty of capturing transient enzyme-substrate interactions. Here we describe the use of pharmacological "substrate trapping" together with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) technology to stabilize and identify potential FIH-substrate interactions by mass spectrometry. To pursue these potential FIH substrates we used conventional data-directed tandem MS together with alternating low/high collision energy tandem MS to assign and quantitate hydroxylation at target asparaginyl residues. Overall the work has defined 13 new FIH-dependent hydroxylation sites with a degenerate consensus corresponding to that of the ankyrin repeat and a range of ARD-containing proteins as actual and potential substrates for FIH. Several ARD-containing proteins were multiply hydroxylated, and detailed studies of one, Tankyrase-2, revealed eight sites that were differentially sensitive to FIH-catalyzed hydroxylation. These findings indicate that asparaginyl hydroxylation is likely to be widespread among the approximately 300 ARD-containing species in the human proteome.
Project description:The asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is central to the oxygen-sensing pathway that controls the activity of HIF. Factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) also catalyzes the hydroxylation of a large set of proteins that share a structural motif termed the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). In vitro studies have defined kinetic properties of FIH with respect to different substrates and have suggested FIH binds more tightly to certain ARD proteins than HIF and that ARD hydroxylation may have a lower K(m) value for oxygen than HIF hydroxylation. However, regulation of asparaginyl hydroxylation on ARD substrates has not been systematically studied in cells. To address these questions, we employed isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to monitor the accrual, inhibition, and decay of hydroxylation under defined conditions. Under the conditions examined, hydroxylation was not reversed but increased as the protein aged. The extent of hydroxylation on ARD proteins was increased by addition of ascorbate, whereas iron and 2-oxoglutarate supplementation had no significant effect. Despite preferential binding of FIH to ARD substrates in vitro, when expressed as fusion proteins in cells, hydroxylation was found to be more complete on HIF polypeptides compared with sites within the ARD. Furthermore, comparative studies of hydroxylation in graded hypoxia revealed ARD hydroxylation was suppressed in a site-specific manner and was as sensitive as HIF to hypoxic inhibition. These findings suggest that asparaginyl hydroxylation of HIF-1 and ARD proteins is regulated by oxygen over a similar range, potentially tuning the HIF transcriptional response through competition between the two types of substrate.
Project description:The activity of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by the post-translational, oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of its ?-subunit by members of the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD or EGLN)-family and by factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). PHD-dependent hydroxylation targets HIF? for rapid proteasomal degradation; FIH-catalysed asparaginyl-hydroxylation of the C-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIF? suppresses the CAD-dependent subset of the extensive transcriptional responses induced by HIF. FIH can also hydroxylate ankyrin-repeat domain (ARD) proteins, a large group of proteins which are functionally unrelated but share common structural features. Competition by ARD proteins for FIH is hypothesised to affect FIH activity towards HIF?; however the extent of this competition and its effect on the HIF-dependent hypoxic response are unknown.To analyse if and in which way the FIH/ARD protein interaction affects HIF-activity, we created a rate equation model. Our model predicts that an oxygen-regulated sequestration of FIH by ARD proteins significantly shapes the input/output characteristics of the HIF system. The FIH/ARD protein interaction is predicted to create an oxygen threshold for HIF? CAD-hydroxylation and to significantly sharpen the signal/response curves, which not only focuses HIF? CAD-hydroxylation into a defined range of oxygen tensions, but also makes the response ultrasensitive to varying oxygen tensions. Our model further suggests that the hydroxylation status of the ARD protein pool can encode the strength and the duration of a hypoxic episode, which may allow cells to memorise these features for a certain time period after reoxygenation.The FIH/ARD protein interaction has the potential to contribute to oxygen-range finding, can sensitise the response to changes in oxygen levels, and can provide a memory of the strength and the duration of a hypoxic episode. These emergent properties are predicted to significantly shape the characteristics of HIF activity in animal cells. We argue that the FIH/ARD interaction should be taken into account in studies of the effect of pharmacological inhibition of the HIF-hydroxylases and propose that the interaction of a signalling sensor with a large group of proteins might be a general mechanism for the regulation of signalling pathways.
Project description:HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) is an alphabeta transcription factor that modulates the hypoxic response in many animals. The cellular abundance and activity of HIF-alpha are regulated by its post-translational hydroxylation. The hydroxylation of HIF is catalysed by PHD (prolyl hydroxylase domain) enzymes and FIH (factorinhibiting HIF), all of which are 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases. FIH hydroxylates a conserved asparagine residue in HIF-alpha (Asn-803), which blocks the binding of HIF to the transcriptional co-activator p300, preventing transcription of hypoxia-regulated genes under normoxic conditions. In the present paper, we report studies on possible mechanisms for the regulation of FIH activity. Recently solved crystal structures of FIH indicate that it is homodimeric. Site-directed mutants of FIH at residues Leu-340 and Ile-344, designed to disrupt dimerization, were generated in order to examine the importance of the dimeric state in determining FIH activity. A single point mutant, L340R (Leu-340-->Arg), was shown to be predominantly monomeric and to have lost catalytic activity as measured by assays monitoring 2-oxoglutarate turnover and asparagine hydroxylation. In contrast, the I344R (Ile-344-->Arg) mutant was predominantly dimeric and catalytically active. The results imply that the homodimeric form of FIH is required for productive substrate binding. The structural data also revealed a hydrophobic interaction formed between FIH and a conserved leucine residue (Leu-795) on the HIF substrate, which is close to the dimer interface. A recent report has revealed that phosphorylation of Thr-796, which is adjacent to Leu-795, enhances the transcriptional response in hypoxia. Consistent with this, we show that phosphorylation of Thr-796 prevents the hydroxylation of Asn-803 by FIH.
Project description:The asparagine hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), confers oxygen-dependence upon the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a master regulator of the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. Studies investigating whether asparagine hydroxylation is a general regulatory oxygen-dependent modification have identified multiple non-HIF targets for FIH. However, the functional consequences of this outside of the HIF pathway remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the deubiquitinase ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (OTUB1) is a substrate for hydroxylation by FIH on N22. Mutation of N22 leads to a profound change in the interaction of OTUB1 with proteins important in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, in cultured cells, overexpression of N22A mutant OTUB1 impairs cellular metabolic processes when compared to wild type. Based on these data, we hypothesize that OTUB1 is a target for functional hydroxylation by FIH. Additionally, we propose that our results provide new insight into the regulation of cellular energy metabolism during hypoxic stress and the potential for targeting hydroxylases for therapeutic benefit.
Project description:This a model from the article:
Hypoxia-dependent sequestration of an oxygen sensor by a widespread structural motif can shape the hypoxic response - a predictive kinetic model
Bernhard Schmierer, Béla Novák1 and Christopher J Schofield
BMC Systems Biology2010, 4:139
The activity of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by the post-translational, oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of its α-subunit by members of the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD or EGLN)-family and by factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). PHD-dependent hydroxylation targets HIFα for rapid proteasomal degradation; FIH-catalysed asparaginyl-hydroxylation of the C-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIFα suppresses the CAD-dependent subset of the extensive transcriptional responses induced by HIF. FIH can also hydroxylate ankyrin-repeat domain (ARD) proteins, a large group of proteins which are functionally unrelated but share common structural features. Competition by ARD proteins for FIH is hypothesised to affect FIH activity towards HIFα; however the extent of this competition and its effect on the HIF-dependent hypoxic response are unknown.
To analyse if and in which way the FIH/ARD protein interaction affects HIF-activity, we created a rate equation model. Our model predicts that an oxygen-regulated sequestration of FIH by ARD proteins significantly shapes the input/output characteristics of the HIF system. The FIH/ARD protein interaction is predicted to create an oxygen threshold for HIFα CAD-hydroxylation and to significantly sharpen the signal/response curves, which not only focuses HIFα CAD-hydroxylation into a defined range of oxygen tensions, but also makes the response ultrasensitive to varying oxygen tensions. Our model further suggests that the hydroxylation status of the ARD protein pool can encode the strength and the duration of a hypoxic episode, which may allow cells to memorise these features for a certain time period after reoxygenation.
The FIH/ARD protein interaction has the potential to contribute to oxygen-range finding, can sensitise the response to changes in oxygen levels, and can provide a memory of the strength and the duration of a hypoxic episode. These emergent properties are predicted to significantly shape the characteristics of HIF activity in animal cells. We argue that the FIH/ARD interaction should be taken into account in studies of the effect of pharmacological inhibition of the HIF-hydroxylases and propose that the interaction of a signalling sensor with a large group of proteins might be a general mechanism for the regulation of signalling pathways.
There are there models described in the paper. 1) Skeleton Model 1 (SKM1) - HIFα CAD-hydroxylation in the absence of the FIH/AR-interaction. 2) Skeleton Model 2 (SKM2) - FIG sequestration by ARD proteins and oxygen-dependent FIH-release. 3) Full Model (Fusion of SKM1 and SKM2) - the effects of the FIH/ARD proteins interaction on HIFα CAD-hydroxylation.
This model corresponds to the "Full Model" described in the paper. The model reproduces figure 5 of the publication.
This model originates from BioModels Database: A Database of Annotated Published Models (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/). It is copyright (c) 2005-2011 The BioModels.net Team.
To cite BioModels Database, please use: Li C, Donizelli M, Rodriguez N, Dharuri H, Endler L, Chelliah V, Li L, He E, Henry A, Stefan MI, Snoep JL, Hucka M, Le Novère N, Laibe C (2010) BioModels Database: An enhanced, curated and annotated resource for published quantitative kinetic models. BMC Syst Biol., 4:92.
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases regulate hypoxia sensing in animals. In humans, they comprise three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3 or EGLN1-3) and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). FIH is an asparaginyl hydroxylase catalyzing post-translational modification of HIF-?, resulting in reduction of HIF-mediated transcription. Like the PHDs, FIH is proposed to have a hypoxia-sensing role in cells, enabling responses to changes in cellular O2 availability. PHD2, the most important human PHD isoform, is proposed to be biochemically/kinetically suited as a hypoxia sensor due to its relatively high sensitivity to changes in O2 concentration and slow reaction with O2. To ascertain whether these parameters are conserved among the HIF hydroxylases, we compared the reactions of FIH and PHD2 with O2. Consistent with previous reports, we found lower Km(app)(O2) values for FIH than for PHD2 with all HIF-derived substrates. Under pre-steady-state conditions, the O2-initiated FIH reaction is significantly faster than that of PHD2. We then investigated the kinetics with respect to O2 of the FIH reaction with ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) substrates. FIH has lower Km(app)(O2) values for the tested ARDs than HIF-? substrates, and pre-steady-state O2-initiated reactions were faster with ARDs than with HIF-? substrates. The results correlate with cellular studies showing that FIH is active at lower O2 concentrations than the PHDs and suggest that competition between HIF-? and ARDs for FIH is likely to be biologically relevant, particularly in hypoxic conditions. The overall results are consistent with the proposal that the kinetic properties of individual oxygenases reflect their biological capacity to act as hypoxia sensors.