Inhibition of glycolytic enzymes mediated by pharmacologically activated p53: targeting Warburg effect to fight cancer.
ABSTRACT: Unique sensitivity of tumor cells to the inhibition of glycolysis is a good target for anticancer therapy. Here, we demonstrate that the pharmacologically activated tumor suppressor p53 mediates the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that p53 binds to the promoters of metabolic genes and represses their expression, including glucose transporters SLC2A12 (GLUT12) and SLC2A1 (GLUT1). Furthermore, p53-mediated repression of transcription factors c-Myc and HIF1α, key drivers of ATP-generating pathways in tumors, contributed to ATP production block. Inhibition of c-Myc by p53 mediated the ablation of several glycolytic genes in normoxia, whereas in hypoxia down-regulation of HIF1α contributed to this effect. We identified Sp1 as a transcription cofactor cooperating with p53 in the ablation of metabolic genes. Using different approaches, we demonstrated that glycolysis block contributes to the robust induction of apoptosis by p53 in cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that tumor-specific reinstatement of p53 function targets the "Achilles heel" of cancer cells (i.e. their dependence on glycolysis), which could contribute to the tumor-selective killing of cancer cells by pharmacologically activated p53.
Project description:Glucose transport into cells is the first limiting step for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In mammals, it is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) (encoded by SLC2A* genes), with a constitutive role (GLUT1), or insulin-sensitive transporters (GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12). Compared to mammals, the chicken shows high levels of glycemia and relative insensitivity to exogenous insulin. To date, only GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 have been described in chicken skeletal muscles but not fully characterized, whereas GLUT4 was reported as lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the expression of the SLC2A1, SLC2A8, and SLC2A12 genes, encoding GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 proteins respectively, during ontogenesis and how the respective expression of these three genes is affected by the muscle type and the nutritional or insulin status of the bird (fed, fasted, or insulin immunoneutralized). SLC2A1 was mostly expressed in the glycolytic pectoralis major (PM) muscle during embryogenesis and 5 d posthatching while SLC2A8 was mainly expressed at hatching. SLC2A12 expression increased regularly from 12 d in ovo up to 5 d posthatching. In the mixed-type sartorius muscle, the expression of SLC2A1 and SLC2A8 remained unchanged, whereas that of SLC2A12 was gradually increased during early muscle development. The expression of SLC2A1 and SLC2A8 was greater in oxidative and oxidoglycolytic muscles than in glycolytic muscles. The expression of SLC2A12 differed considerably between muscles but not necessarily in relation to muscle contractile or metabolic type. The expression of SLC2A1, SLC2A8, and SLC2A12 was reduced by fasting and insulin immunoneutralization in the PM muscle, while in the leg muscles only SLC2A12 was impaired by insulin immunoneutralization. Our findings clearly indicate differential regulation of the expression of three major GLUTs in skeletal muscles, with some type-related features. They provide new insights to improve the understanding of the fine regulation of glucose utilization in chicken muscles.
Project description:The bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) was first identified as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and has critical roles in cancer development and progression. However, the regulatory roles and mechanisms of BRD7 in cancer metabolism are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BRD7 was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and was identified as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. Meanwhile, BRD7 could suppress cell proliferation, initiate cell apoptosis and reduce aerobic glycolysis, suggesting that BRD7 plays a tumor suppressive roles in breast cancer. Mechanistically, BRD7 could negatively regulate a critical glycolytic enzyme LDHA through directly interaction with its upstream transcription factor, HIF1α, facilitating degradation of HIF1α mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, restoring the expression of LDHA in breast cancer cells could reverse the effect of BRD7 on aerobic glycolysis, cell proliferation, and tumor formation, as well as the expression of cell cycle and apopotosis related molecules such as cyclin D1, CDK4, P21, and c-PARP both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that BRD7 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and represses the glycolysis and tumor progression through inactivation of HIF1α/LDHA transcription axis.
Project description:Despite altered metabolism being an accepted hallmark of cancer, it is still not completely understood which signaling pathways regulate these processes. Given the central role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer, we hypothesized that AR could promote prostate cancer cell growth in part through increasing glucose uptake via the expression of distinct glucose transporters. Here, we determined that AR directly increased the expression of SLC2A12, the gene that encodes the glucose transporter GLUT12. In support of these findings, gene signatures of AR activity correlated with SLC2A12 expression in multiple clinical cohorts. Functionally, GLUT12 was required for maximal androgen-mediated glucose uptake and cell growth in LNCaP and VCaP cells. Knockdown of GLUT12 also decreased the growth of C4-2, 22Rv1 and AR-negative PC-3 cells. This latter observation corresponded with a significant reduction in glucose uptake, indicating that additional signaling mechanisms could augment GLUT12 function in an AR-independent manner. Interestingly, GLUT12 trafficking to the plasma membrane was modulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2)-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a pathway we previously demonstrated to be a downstream effector of AR. Inhibition of CaMKK2-AMPK signaling decreased GLUT12 translocation to the plasma membrane by inhibiting the phosphorylation of TBC1D4, a known regulator of glucose transport. Further, AR increased TBC1D4 expression. Correspondingly, expression of TBC1D4 correlated with AR activity in prostate cancer patient samples. Taken together, these data demonstrate that prostate cancer cells can increase the functional levels of GLUT12 through multiple mechanisms to promote glucose uptake and subsequent cell growth.
Project description:In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the deadliest paediatric solid tumours due to its rapid proliferative characteristics. Amplified copies of MYCN are considered the most important marker for the prediction of tumour relapse and progression in NB, but they were only detected in 20-30% of NB patients, indicating there might be other oncogenes in the development of NB. The far upstream element binding protein 1 (FUBP1) was first identified as a transcriptional regulator of the proto-oncogene MYC. However, the expression and role of FUBP1 in NB have not been documented. METHODS:FUBP1 expression was analysed from GEO database and verified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting (WB) in NB tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8, Colony formation assay, EDU, TUNEL staining and flow cytometric analysis. Several glycolytic metabolites production was confirmed by ELISA and oxygen consuming rate (OCR). Luciferase assay, WB, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) were used to explore the mechanisms of the effect of FUBP1 on NB. RESULTS:FUBP1 mRNA levels were increased along with the increase in International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages. High expression of FUBP1 with low N-Myc expression accounted for 44.6% of NB patient samples (n = 65). In addition, FUBP1 protein levels were remarkably increased with NB malignancy in the NB tissue microarray (NB: n = 65; ganglioneuroblastoma: n = 31; ganglioneuroma: n = 27). Furthermore, FUBP1 expression was negatively correlated with patient survival rate but positively correlated with ki67 content. In vitro experiments showed that FUBP1 promotes NB cell proliferation and inhibits cell apoptosis via enhancing glycolysis and ATP production. Mechanistically, FUBP1 inhibited the degradation of HIF1α via downregulation of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), the E3 ligase for HIF1α, resulting in upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase isoform B (LDHB) expression to enhance glycolysis. Overexpressed or silenced N-Myc could not regulate FUBP1 or LDHB levels. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that elevated FUBP1 promotes NB glycolysis and growth by targeting HIF1α rather than N-Myc, suggesting that FUBP1 is a novel and powerful oncogene in the development of NB independent of N-Myc and may have potential in the diagnosis and treatment of NB.
Project description:As a phenotypically plastic cellular population, macrophages change their physiology in response to environmental signals. Emerging evidence suggests that macrophages are capable of tightly coordinating their metabolic programs to adjust their immunological and bioenergetic functional properties, as needed. Upon mitogenic stimulation, quiescent macrophages enter the cell cycle, increasing their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activity to meet the demands of cell growth. Proinflammatory stimulation, however, suppresses cell proliferation, while maintaining a heightened metabolic activity imposed by the production of bactericidal factors. Here, we report that the mitogenic stimulus, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), engages a myelocytomatosis viral oncogen (Myc)-dependent transcriptional program that is responsible for cell cycle entry and the up-regulation of glucose and glutamine catabolism in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). However, the proinflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), suppresses Myc expression and cell proliferation and engages a hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α)-dependent transcriptional program that is responsible for heightened glycolysis. The acute deletion of Myc or HIF1α selectively impaired the CSF-1- or LPS-driven metabolic activities in BMDM, respectively. Finally, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) or genetic deletion of HIF1α suppressed LPS-induced inflammation in vivo. Our studies indicate that a switch from a Myc-dependent to a HIF1α-dependent transcriptional program may regulate the robust bioenergetic support for an inflammatory response, while sparing Myc-dependent proliferation.
Project description:Although aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) is a hallmark of cancer, key questions, including when, how, and why cancer cells become highly glycolytic, remain less clear. For a largely unknown regulatory mechanism, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is exclusively expressed in embryonic, proliferating, and tumor cells, and plays an essential role in tumor metabolism and growth. Because the receptor tyrosine kinase/PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (RTK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling cascade is a frequently altered pathway in cancer, we explored its potential role in cancer metabolism. We identified mTOR as a central activator of the Warburg effect by inducing PKM2 and other glycolytic enzymes under normoxic conditions. PKM2 level was augmented in mouse kidney tumors due to deficiency of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 and consequent mTOR activation, and was reduced in human cancer cells by mTOR suppression. mTOR up-regulation of PKM2 expression was through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?)-mediated transcription activation, and c-Myc-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs)-dependent regulation of PKM2 gene splicing. Disruption of PKM2 suppressed oncogenic mTOR-mediated tumorigenesis. Unlike normal cells, mTOR hyperactive cells were more sensitive to inhibition of mTOR or glycolysis. Dual suppression of mTOR and glycolysis synergistically blunted the proliferation and tumor development of mTOR hyperactive cells. Even though aerobic glycolysis is not required for breach of senescence for immortalization and transformation, the frequently deregulated mTOR signaling during multistep oncogenic processes could contribute to the development of the Warburg effect in many cancers. Components of the mTOR/HIF1?/Myc-hnRNPs/PKM2 glycolysis signaling network could be targeted for the treatment of cancer caused by an aberrant RTK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Project description:p53 plays important roles in regulating the metabolic reprogramming of cancer, such as aerobic glycolysis. Oroxylin A is a natural active flavonoid with strong anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo.wt-p53 (MCF-7 and HCT116 cells) cancer cells and p53-null H1299 cancer cells were used. The glucose uptake and lactate production were analyzed using Lactic Acid production Detection kit and the Amplex Red Glucose Assay Kit. Then, the protein levels and RNA levels of p53, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and p53-targeted glycolytic enzymes were quantified using Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Immunoprecipitation were performed to assess the binding between p53, MDM2, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), and the deacetylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Reporter assays were performed to assess the transcriptional activity of PTEN. In vivo, effects of oroxylin A was investigated in nude mice xenograft tumor-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells.Here, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms that oroxylin A regulated p53 level and glycolytic metabolism in wt-p53 cancer cells, and found that oroxylin A inhibited glycolysis through upregulating p53 level. Oroxylin A did not directly affect the transcription of wt-p53, but suppressed the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53 via downregulating MDM2 transcription in wt-p53 cancer cells. In further studies, we found that oroxylin A induced a reduction in MDM2 transcription by promoting the lipid phosphatase activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog, which was upregulated via sirtuin3-mediated deacetylation. In vivo, oroxylin A inhibited the tumor growth of nude mice-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells. The expression of MDM2 protein in tumor tissue was downregulated by oroxylin A as well.These results provide a p53-independent mechanism of MDM2 transcription and reveal the potential of oroxylin A on glycolytic regulation in both wt-p53 and mut-p53 cancer cells. The studies have important implications for the investigation on anticancer effects of oroxylin A, and provide the academic basis for the clinical trial of oroxylin A in cancer patients.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive and lack targeted therapies. Understanding how nutrients are used in TNBCs may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Myc drives glucose metabolism in TNBC cells but does so by a previously unappreciated mechanism that involves direct repression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). TXNIP is a potent negative regulator of glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, and glycolytic gene expression; thus its repression by c-Myc provides an alternate route to c-Myc-driven glucose metabolism. c-Myc reduces TXNIP gene expression by binding to an E-box-containing region in the TXNIP promoter, possibly competing with the related transcription factor MondoA. TXNIP suppression increases glucose uptake and drives a dependence on glycolysis. Ectopic TXNIP expression decreases glucose uptake, reduces cell proliferation, and increases apoptosis. Supporting the biological significance of the reciprocal relationship between c-Myc and TXNIP, a Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature correlates with decreased overall survival and decreased metastasis-free survival in breast cancer. The correlation between the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature and poor clinical outcome is evident only in TNBC, not in other breast cancer subclasses. Mutation of TP53, which is a defining molecular feature of TNBC, enhances the correlation between the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature and death from breast cancer. Because Myc drives nutrient utilization and TXNIP restricts glucose availability, we propose that the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature coordinates nutrient utilization with nutrient availability. Further, our data suggest that loss of the p53 tumor suppressor cooperates with Mychigh/TXNIPlow-driven metabolic dysregulation to drive the aggressive clinical behavior of TNBC.