ABSTRACT: In 2011, an unidentified disease in cattle was reported in Germany and the Netherlands. Clinical signs included fever, decreased milk production, and diarrhea. Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals. Surveillance was initiated to test malformed newborn animals in the affected region.
Project description:Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America.
Project description:In 2018, a large outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like illness in cattle in Rwanda and surrounding countries was reported. From this outbreak, sera samples from 157 cows and 28 goats suspected to be cases of RVF were tested to confirm or determine the etiology of the disease. Specifically, the hypothesis that orthobunyaviruses-Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), Batai virus (BATV), and Ngari virus (NRIV)-were co-circulating and contributed to RVF-like disease was tested. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RVFV RNA was detected in approximately 30% of acutely ill animals, but in all cases of hemorrhagic disease. Seven cows with experienced abortion had positive amplification and visualization by gel electrophoresis of all three segments of either BUNV or BATV, and three of these were suggested to be coinfected with BUNV and BATV. On sequencing, five of these seven cows were conclusively positive for BUNV. However, in several other animals, sequencing was successful for some but not all segments of targeted viruses BUNV and BATV. In addition, there was evidence of RVFV-orthobunyavirus coinfection, through RT-PCR/gel electrophoresis and subsequent Sanger sequencing. In no cases were we able to definitely identify the specific coinfecting viral species. This is the first time evidence for orthobunyavirus circulation has been molecularly confirmed in Rwanda. Furthermore, RT-PCR results suggest that BUNV and BATV may coinfect cattle and that RVFV-infected animals may be coinfected with other orthobunyaviruses. Finally, we confirm that BUNV and, perhaps, other orthobunyaviruses were co-circulating with RVFV and contributed to the burden of disease attributed to RVFV in Rwanda.
Project description:Lednice virus (LEDV) has been detected in Culex modestus mosquitoes in several European countries within the last six decades. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome segments confirm that LEDV belongs to the Turlock orthobunyavirus (Orthobunyavirus, Peribunyaviridae) species and is closely related to Umbre, Turlock, and Kedah viruses.
Project description:Group C orthobunyaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses found in both South and North America. Until very recently, and despite their status as important vector-borne human pathogens, no Group C whole genome sequences containing all three segments were available in public databases. Here we report a Group C orthobunyavirus, named El Huayo virus, isolated from a pool of Culex portesi mosquitoes captured near Iquitos, Peru. Although initial metagenomic analysis yielded only a handful of reads belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus, single contig assemblies were generated for L, M, and S segments totaling over 200,000 reads (~0.5% of sample). Given the moderately high viremia in hamsters (>107 plaque-forming units/ml) and the propensity for Cx. portesi to feed on rodents, it is possible that El Huayo virus is maintained in nature in a Culex portesi/rodent cycle. El Huayo virus was found to be most similar to Peruvian Caraparu virus isolates and constitutes a novel subclade within Group C.
Project description:During 2014-2017, we isolated a novel orthobunyavirus from broiler chickens with severe kidney lesions in the state of Kedah, Malaysia; we named the virus Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV). Affected chickens became listless and diarrheic before dying suddenly. Necropsies detected pale and swollen kidneys with signs of gout, enlarged and fragile livers, and pale hearts. Experimental infection of broiler chickens with KFKSV reproduced the disease and pathologic conditions observed in the field, fulfilling the Koch's postulates. Gene sequencing indicated high nucleotide identities between KFKSV isolates (99%) and moderate nucleotide identities with the orthobunyavirus Umbre virus in the large (78%), medium (77%), and small (86%) genomic segments. KFKSV may be pathogenic for other host species, including humans.
Project description:The genus Orthobunyavirus (family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales) comprises over 170 named mosquito- and midge-borne viruses, several of which cause severe disease in animals or humans. Their three-segmented genomes enable reassortment with related viruses, which may result in novel viruses with altered host or tissue tropism and virulence. One such reassortant, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in north-western Europe in 2011. Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus related to SBV that is associated with neurological disease in horses in southern Africa and recently caused an outbreak manifesting with neurological disease and birth defects among ruminants in Israel. The zoonotic potential of SHUV was recently underscored by its association with neurological disease in humans. We here report a reverse genetics system for SHUV and provide first evidence that the non-structural (NSs) protein of SHUV functions as an antagonist of host innate immune responses. We furthermore report the rescue of a reassortant containing the L and S segments of SBV and the M segment of SHUV. This novel reverse genetics system can now be used to study SHUV virulence and tropism, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive reassortment events.
Project description:The Orthobunyavirus genus of Bunyaviridae is a divergent group of medically important pathogens. Abbey Lake bunyavirus (Ab-BUNV) was newly isolated and identified in Xinjiang Province, northwestern China. The complete genome of Ab-BUNV was sequenced and is reported here, revealing that Ab-BUNV may represent a novel genotype in the genus Orthobunyavirus.
Project description:We describe an Oropouche orthobunyavirus infection in a women 28 years of age in Colombia. We confirmed the diagnosis by viral isolation, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and phylogenetic analysis of the small, medium, and large genomic segments. The virus is related to a strain isolated in Ecuador in 2016.
Project description:Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus that has caused widespread disease in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe. Like other orthobunyaviruses, SBV is characterized by a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome that encodes four structural and two non-structural proteins. This study showed that SBV has a wide in vitro host range, and that BHK-21 cells are a convenient host for both SBV propagation and assay by plaque titration. The SBV genome segments were cloned as cDNA and a three-plasmid rescue system was established to recover infectious virus. Recombinant virus behaved similarly in cell culture to authentic virus. The ORF for the non-structural NSs protein, encoded on the smallest genome segment, was disrupted by introduction of translation stop codons in the appropriate cDNA, and when this plasmid was used in reverse genetics, a recombinant virus that lacked NSs expression was recovered. This virus had reduced capacity to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis compared with the wild-type virus. In addition, the NSs-deleted virus induced interferon (IFN) in cells, indicating that, like other orthobunyaviruses, NSs functions as an IFN antagonist, most probably by globally inhibiting host-cell metabolism. The development of a robust reverse genetics system for SBV will facilitate investigation of its pathogenic mechanisms as well as the creation of attenuated strains that could be candidate vaccines.
Project description:Comprehensive comparative phylogenetic analyses were performed on 17 Gamboa serogroup viruses (GAMSVs) from distinct geographic regions in the Americas and other representative members of the genus Orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae), based on small (S), medium (M), and large (L) open reading frame full-length and partial sequences. Genome characterization showed that the GAMSVs divide into four clades or genotypes. The GAMSVs have a genetic organization similar to other orthobunyaviruses, except that they have a larger NSm protein than other orthobunyaviruses. A serosurvey for Gamboa virus antibodies was performed in plasma from birds, other wild animals, and humans living around the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam in Pará state, northern Brazil, a known focus of GAMSV activity. Newborn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were experimentally infected with a GAMSV, and the pathogenesis is described. Histopathological changes were primarily in the lungs and liver. Also, a review of the ecology of the GAMSVs in the Americas is included. In sum, this study presents the genomic and evolutionary characterization of the Gamboa group and the potential model of pathogenesis, which would be helpful for diagnostic purposes, epidemiology, and immunopathogenesis studies.