The p53 cofactor Strap exhibits an unexpected TPR motif and oligonucleotide-binding (OB)-fold structure.
ABSTRACT: Activation of p53 target genes for tumor suppression depends on the stress-specific regulation of transcriptional coactivator complexes. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is activated upon DNA damage by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Chk2 kinases and is a key regulator of the p53 response. In addition to antagonizing Mdm2, Strap facilitates the recruitment of p53 coactivators, including JMY and p300. Strap is a predicted TPR-repeat protein, but shows only limited sequence identity with any protein of known structure. To address this and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Strap activity we determined the crystal structure of the full-length protein at 2.05 Å resolution. The structure of Strap reveals an atypical six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein that also contains an unexpected oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain. This previously unseen domain organization provides an extended superhelical scaffold allowing for protein-protein as well as protein-DNA interaction. We show that both of the TPR and OB-fold domains localize to the chromatin of p53 target genes and exhibit intrinsic regulatory activity necessary for the Strap-dependent p53 response.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is a novel TPR motif OB-fold protein that contributes to p53 transcriptional activation. We show here that, in addition to its established transcriptional role, Strap is localised at mitochondria where one of its key interaction partners is ATP synthase. Significantly, the interaction between Strap and ATP synthase downregulates mitochondrial ATP production. Under glucose-limiting conditions, cancer cells are sensitised by mitochondrial Strap to apoptosis, which is rescued by supplementing cells with an extracellular source of ATP. Furthermore, Strap augments the apoptotic effects of mitochondrial p53. These findings define Strap as a dual regulator of cellular reprogramming: first as a nuclear transcription cofactor and second in the direct regulation of mitochondrial respiration.
Project description:The p53 cofactor Strap (stress responsive activator of p300) is directly targeted by the DNA damage signalling pathway where phosphorylation by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase facilitates nuclear accumulation. Here, we show that Strap regulation reflects the coordinated interplay between different DNA damage-activated protein kinases, ATM and Chk2 (Checkpoint kinase 2), where phosphorylation by each kinase provides a distinct functional consequence on the activity of Strap. ATM phosphorylation prompts nuclear accumulation, which we show occurs by impeding nuclear export, whereas Chk2 phosphorylation augments protein stability once Strap has attained a nuclear location. These results highlight the various functional roles undertaken by the DNA damage signalling kinases in Strap control and, more generally, shed light on the pathways that contribute to the regulation of the p53 response.
Project description:During autophagy, actin filament networks move and remodel cellular membranes to form autophagosomes that enclose and metabolize cytoplasmic contents. Two actin regulators, WHAMM and JMY, participate in autophagosome formation, but the signals linking autophagy to actin assembly are poorly understood. We show that, in nonstarved cells, cytoplasmic JMY colocalizes with STRAP, a regulator of JMY's nuclear functions, on nonmotile vesicles with no associated actin networks. Upon starvation, JMY shifts to motile, LC3-containing membranes that move on actin comet tails. LC3 enhances JMY's de novo actin nucleation activity via a cryptic actin-binding sequence near JMY's N terminus, and STRAP inhibits JMY's ability to nucleate actin and activate the Arp2/3 complex. Cytoplasmic STRAP negatively regulates autophagy. Finally, we use purified proteins to reconstitute LC3- and JMY-dependent actin network formation on membranes and inhibition of network formation by STRAP. We conclude that LC3 and STRAP regulate JMY's actin assembly activities in trans during autophagy.
Project description:Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that STRAP acetylation plays an important role in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. STRAP is acetylated at lysines 147, 148, and 156 by the acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that the acetylation is reversed by the deacetylase sirtuin7 (SIRT7). Hypo- or hyperacetylation mutations of STRAP at lysines 147, 148, and 156 (3KR or 3KQ) influence its activation and stabilization of p53. Moreover, following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, STRAP is mobilized from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and promotes STRAP acetylation. Our finding on the regulation of STRAP links p53 with SIRT7 influencing p53 activity and stability.
Project description:Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism of STRAP activity is not understood. In this study, we report that B-MYB is a new STRAP-interacting protein, and that an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and an area (amino acids 373-468) between the acidic and conserved regions of B-MYB mediate the B-MYB·STRAP interaction. Functionally, B-MYB enhances STRAP-mediated inhibition of TGF-? signaling pathways, such as apoptosis and growth inhibition, by modulating complex formation between the TGF-? receptor and SMAD3 or SMAD7. Furthermore, coexpression of B-MYB results in a dose-dependent increase in STRAP-mediated stimulation of p53-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via direct interaction. Confocal microscopy showed that B-MYB prevents the normal translocation of SMAD3 in response to TGF-?1 and stimulates p53 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that B-MYB acts as a positive regulator of STRAP.
Project description:The Stress-responsive activator of p300 (Strap) is a transcription cofactor that has an important role in the control of DNA damage response through its ability to regulate p53 activity. Here, we report that Strap is inducible by heat shock and stimulates the transcription of heat-shock genes. A chromatin-associated complex involving heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), Strap and the p300 coactivator assembles on the heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) promoter, and Strap augments HSF1 binding and chromatin acetylation in Hsp genes, most probably through the p300 histone acetyltransferase. Cells depleted of Strap do not survive under heat-shock conditions. These results indicate that Strap is an essential cofactor that acts at the level of chromatin control to regulate heat-shock-responsive transcription.
Project description:Tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains bind specific peptide ligands and are thought to mediate protein-protein interactions in a variety of biological systems. Here we compare peptide ligand-binding by several different TPR domains. We present specific examples that demonstrate that TPR domains typically undergo little or no structural rearrangement upon ligand binding. Our data suggest that, contrary to a recent proposal, coupled folding and binding is not the common mechanism of ligand recognition by TPR domains.
Project description:Rectal cancer treatment still fails with local and distant relapses of the disease. It is hypothesized that radiotherapy could stimulate cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of X-radiation on collagen type I strap formation potential, i.e. matrix remodeling associated with mesenchymal cell migration, and behaviors of SW480, SW620, HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- colon cancer cells. We determined a radiation-induced increase in collagen type I strap formation and migration potentials of SW480 and HCT116 p53+/+. Further studies with HCT116 p53+/+, indicated that after X-radiation strap forming cells have an increased motility. More, we detected a decrease in adhesion potential and mature integrin ?1 expression, but no change in non-muscle myosin II expression for HCT116 p53+/+ after X-radiation. Integrin ?1 neutralization resulted in a decreased cell adhesion and collagen type I strap formation in both sham and X-radiated conditions. Our study indicates collagen type I strap formation as a potential mechanism of colon cancer cells with increased migration potential after X-radiation, and suggests that other molecules than integrin ?1 and non-muscle myosin II are responsible for the radiation-induced collagen type I strap formation potential of colon cancer cells. This work encourages further molecular investigation of radiation-induced migration to improve rectal cancer treatment outcome.
Project description:The nuclear pore complex (NPC) consists of a conserved set of ~30 different proteins, termed nucleoporins, and serves as a gateway for the exchange of materials between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Tpr (translocated promoter region) is a component of NPC that presumably localizes at intranuclear filaments. Here, we show that Tpr knockdown caused a severe reduction in the number of nuclear pores. Furthermore, our electron microscopy studies indicated a significant reduction in the number of inner nuclear filaments. In addition, Tpr siRNA treatment impaired cell growth and proliferation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. In Tpr-depleted cells, the levels of p53 and p21 proteins were enhanced. Surprisingly, Tpr depletion increased p53 nuclear accumulation and facilitated autophagy. Our study demonstrates for the first time that Tpr plays a role in autophagy through controlling HSP70 and HSF1 mRNA export, p53 trafficking with karyopherin CRM1, and potentially through direct transcriptional regulation of autophagy factors.
Project description:Visualization of residue positions in protein alignments and mapping onto suitable structural models is an important first step in the interpretation of mutations or polymorphisms in terms of protein function, interaction, and thermodynamic stability. Selecting and highlighting large numbers of residue positions in a protein structure can be time-consuming and tedious with currently available software. Previously, a series of tasks and analyses had to be performed one-by-one to map mutations onto 3D protein structures; STRAP-NT is an extension of STRAP that automates these tasks so that users can quickly and conveniently map mutations onto 3D protein structures. When the structure of the protein of interest is not yet available, a related protein can frequently be found in the structure databases. In this case the alignment of both proteins becomes the crucial part of the analysis. Therefore we embedded these program modules into the Java-based multiple sequence alignment program STRAP-NT. STRAP-NT can simultaneously map an arbitrary number of mutations denoted using either the nucleotide or amino acid sequence. When the designations of the mutations refer to genomic sites, STRAP-NT translates them into the corresponding amino acid positions, taking intron-exon boundaries into account. STRAP-NT tightly integrates a number of current protein structure viewers (currently PYMOL, RASMOL, JMOL, and VMD) with which mutations and polymorphisms can be directly displayed on the 3D protein structure model. STRAP-NT is available at the PDB site and at http://www.charite.de/bioinf/strap/ or http://strapjava.de.